Fusilier is a name given to various kinds of soldiers; its meaning depends on the historical context. While fusilier is derived from the 17th-century French word fusil – meaning a type of flintlock musket – the term has been used in contrasting ways in different countries and at different times, including soldiers guarding artillery, various elite units, ordinary line infantry and other uses.
Derivation of the word
The word fusil, which was the name of the type of musket carried by a fusilier, is itself derived from the Old French and Latin foisil , meaning a piece of flint.
Flintlock small arms were first used militarily during the early 17th century. Flintlocks, at the time, were more reliable and safer to use than matchlock muskets, which required a match to be lit near the breech before the weapon could be triggered. By contrast, flintlocks were fired using a piece of flint. By the time of the English Civil War (1642–1652), one flintlock musket, the snaphance, was in common use in Britain.
The term fusiliers was first used officially by the French Army in 1670, when four fusiliers were distributed among each company of infantry. The following year the Fusiliers du Roi ("King's Fusiliers"), the first regiment composed primarily of soldiers with flintlocks, was formed by Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban.
Guarding and escorting artillery pieces was the first task assigned to the Fusiliers du Roi: flintlocks were especially useful around field artillery, as they were less likely than matchlocks to accidentally ignite open barrels of gunpowder, required at the time to load cannons. At the time, artillery units also required guards to maintain discipline amongst civilian draymen. Hence the term fusilier became strongly associated with the role of guarding artillery in Britain and the English-speaking world, especially after the formation of the first official "Fusilier" units, during the 1680s. As late as the Seven Years' War of 1756-63, the Austrian Army maintained an Artillery Fusilier Regiment for the exclusive roles of providing support for field batteries on the battlefield and of protecting the artillery when on the march and in camp.
During the 18th century, as flintlocks became the main weapon used by infantry, the term fusilier gradually ceased to have this meaning and was applied to various units.
Fusiliers by country
The Belgian Navy used to have a regiment of marine infantry composed of marine fusiliers in charge of the protection of the naval bases. However this unit was disbanded in the 1990s reforms.
Adopting a number of practices from the Portuguese military in the 19th century, the Brazilian Army uses the term fuzileiros (fusiliers) to designate the regular line infantry, as opposed to the grenadiers (granadeiros) and the light infantry (caçadores and atiradores). In addition, the Brazilian Marine Corps is called Fuzileiros Navais (Naval Fusiliers).
There are five fusilier regiments patterned on the British tradition forming part of the Canadian Militia, and later the Canadian Army. The Royal 22e Régiment, although not fusiliers, wears fusilier ceremonial uniform with scarlet plumes because of its alliance with the Royal Welch Fusiliers.
The five Canadian fusilier regiments are:
- The Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada (which wears Highland uniform, but with white fusilier hackles on balmoral bonnets)
- Les Fusiliers du St-Laurent, white plume
- Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal, white plume
- The Princess Louise Fusiliers (which wear a grey hackle as a token of their alliance with the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, now part of the Royal Irish Regiment)
- Les Fusiliers de Sherbrooke, white plume
The Canadian Grenadier Guards were known as 1st Regiment "Prince of Wales' Fusiliers" before 1911.
By the mid-18th century, the French Army used the term fusiliers to designate ordinary line infantry, as opposed to specialist or élite infantry, such as grenadiers, voltigeurs, carabiniers or chasseurs.
The French Army no longer uses the term fusiliers, although a number of its infantry regiments descend from fusilier regiments.
The term fusiliers is still used in the navy and air force. They are protection forces of riflemen assuring security and policing on land bases and installations as well as on ships. The commandos are selected from their ranks. The commandos are special forces units. They are:
- French Navy: Force maritime des fusiliers marins et commandos (FORFUSCO)
- French Air Force: Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air
Prussia made early use of the title "fusilier" for various types of infantry. In 1705, the Foot Guards (Leibgarde zu Fuss) were designated as Fusilier Guards. By 1837, low-quality infantry raised from garrison companies also were named fusiliers. These latter units were dressed in blue with low mitre caps. Between 1740 and 1743 on Frederick the Great raised 14 separate Fusilier Regiments (numbers 33-40, 41-43 and 45-48). Except for the mitre caps, these new regiments were identical in appearance, training and role to the existing line infantry (musketeers).
Subsequently, Prussia and several other German states used the designation Fusilier to denote a type of light infantry, dressed in green, that acted as skirmishers. In the Prussian Army, they had been formed in 1787 as independent battalions, with many of the officers having had experience in the American Revolutionary War. The Prussian reforms of 1808 absorbed the fusiliers as the third battalion of each line infantry regiment. Now wearing the same Prussian blue uniforms as standard musketeers, they were distinguished by black leather belts, and a slightly different arrangement of cartridge pouch.
In the Prussian Army of 1870, Infantry Regiments 33 to 40 plus Regiments 73 (Hanover), 80 (Hesse-Kassel or Hesse-Cassel) and 86 (Schleswig-Holstein) were all designated as fusiliers, as was the Guard Fusilier Regiment. In addition, the third battalions of all guard, grenadier and line infantry regiments retained the designation 'Fusilier Battalion'. They were armed with a slightly shorter version of the Dreyse rifle (Füsiliergewehr), that took a sword bayonet (Füsilier-Seitengewehr) rather than the standard socket bayonet. Although still theoretically skirmishers, in practice they differed little from their compatriots, as all Prussian infantry fought in a style that formed a dense 'firing' or 'skirmish' line.
By the 1880s, the title was honorific and, while implying 'specialist' or 'elite', did not have any tactical significance. In a sense, all infantry were becoming fusiliers, as weapons, tactics and equipment took on the fusilier characteristics - that is: skirmish line, shorter rifles, sword bayonets and black leather equipment. Nonetheless these titular units remained in existence until the end of the German Imperial Army in 1918, as follows:
- Guard Fusilier Regiment
- Fusilier Regiment Count Roon (East Prussian) No.33
- Fusilier Regiment Queen Victoria of Sweden (Pomeranian) No.34
- Fusilier Regiment Prince Henry of Prussia (Brandenburg) No.35
- Fusilier Regiment General Field Marshal Count Blumenthal (Magdeburg) No.36
- Fusilier Regiment von Steinmetz (West Prussian) No.37
- Fusilier Regiment Field Marshal Count Moltke (Silesian) No.38
- Lower Rhineland Fusilier Regiment No.39
- Fusilier Regiment Prince Charles Anton of Hohenzollern No.40
- Fusilier Regiment Field Marshal Prince Albert of Prussia (Hanoverian) No.73
- Fusilier Regiment von Gerdsdorff (Electoral Hessian) No.80
- Fusilier Reqiment Queen (Schleswig-Holstein) No.86
- Grand-Ducal Mecklenburg Fusilier Regiment No.90
- Fusilier Regiment Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria King of Hungary (4th Royal) Württemberg) No.122
In addition, there was the following regiment:
This was a special case, as it was also classed as 'Schützen' (Sharpshooter): this designation originally signified a type of 'Jäger' (Rifleman), and thus the regiment wore the Jäger-style dark green uniform.
The various Fusilier regiments and battalions in the German Imperial Army of 1914 did not have any single distinctions of dress or equipment to distinguish them as fusiliers. Individual regiments did, however, have special features worn with the dark blue full dress. Some of these features were maintained on the field grey dress of the trenches right up to 1918. As examples in full dress, the Guard Fusiliers had nickel buttons and yellow shoulder straps, and the 80th Fusiliers special braiding on collars and cuffs (deriving from their origin as the Elector of Hesse's Guards). When a regiment was permitted the distinction of a horse-hair plume on the pickelhaube, for fusiliers it was always black. This included the third (Fusilier) Battalion of those regiments normally distinguished by a white horse-hair plume.
In World War II, the elite German Division Großdeutschland contained a regiment titled Panzerfüsiliere ('Armoured Fusiliers'), to maintain the old German traditions. This was again titular, as in organisation, appearance and tactical use they were essentially Panzergrenadiere. The modern German Army has no fusiliers.
On 1 January 1969, the Mexican Army created the Parachute Fusilier Brigade (Brigada de Fusileros Paracaidistas) with two infantry battalions and a training battalion. The brigade's role is that of a strategic reserve, based in Mexico City.
From the 18th to the 19th centuries, the term fuzileiros (fusiliers) was used, in the Portuguese Army, to designate the regular line infantry, as opposed to the grenadiers (granadeiros) and the light infantry (caçadores and atiradores). The Portuguese Army discontinued the use of the term in the 1860s
The term fuzileiros marinheiros (fusilier sailors) has been used in the Portuguese Navy, since the late 18th century, to designate the naval infantry. The Portuguese Marine Corps is called Fuzileiros Navais (Naval Fusiliers).
Line infantry soldiers of the lowest rank in the Swiss Army have historically been designated as fusiliers. Because the modern Swiss infantry soldier is trained in a much broader variety of tasks than his historical counterpart, and because of some negative connotations attached to the term "Füsiliere", modern infantry battalions of the Swiss army have been renamed "Infanteriebataillone" or "Inf Bat". The individual soldiers are officially called "Infanteristen", not "Füsiliere" but colloquially they are still referred to as "Füsiliere" or "Füsle". This meaning is retained in the name of the 1938 Swiss film Fusilier Wipf.
The original fusiliers in the British Army were The 7th Foot, Royal Regiment of Fuzileers raised in 1685. This subsequently became The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment). The original purpose of this unit was to act as escort to artillery guns, as well as keeping discipline amongst the civilian drivers. Both Scots (21st Foot) and Welsh (23rd Foot) regiments also became fusiliers in the period up to and including 1702 and all three regiments were distinguished by the wearing of a slightly shorter version of the Mitred Cap worn by Grenadier companies of all other infantry regiments. A number of additional infantry regiments were subsequently designated as fusiliers during the 19th century, but this was simply a historic distinction without any relationship to special weapons or roles.
In 1865, a distinctive head-dress was authorised for British Army fusilier regiments. Originally a sealskin cap for other ranks, this was replaced by a black raccoon skin cap of nine inches in height, according to the 1874 Dress Regulations. However, Fusilier officers wore a taller bearskin like their counterparts in the Foot Guards The badge for each regiment was placed at the front of the bear or raccoon skin headdress, and consisted of a stylized flaming grenade, with different emblems placed on the ball of the grenade.
Attached to the various types of fusilier headdress, including the modern beret, is the hackle. This is a short cut feather plume, the colour or colours of which varied according to the regiment. Initially, the only regiment authorised to wear a plume or hackle were the 5th of Foot (Northumberland Fusiliers). The regiment had originally worn a white feather distinction, authorised in 1824 to commemorate the victory of St Lucia in 1778 when men of the Fifth Regiment were supposed to have taken white feathers from the hats of fallen French soldiers. When, in 1829, a white plume was ordered for all line infantry regiments, to preserve the Fifth (Northumberland) Regiment's emblem, they were authorised to wear a white plume with a red tip, allegedly to indicate a distinction won in battle. The Fifth were designated Fusiliers in 1836.
Following the Second Boer War, plumes were added to the headgear of all fusilier regiments in recognition of their service in South Africa.
The following fusilier regiments existed prior to the outbreak of World War I:
|Regiment||Pre-1881 title||Year of designation as fusiliers||Badge (on flaming grenade)||Plume or hackle|
|Northumberland Fusiliers||5th (Northumberland Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot||1836||Within a circlet inscribed Quo Fata Vocant St George and the Dragon||Red over white (1829)|
|Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment)||7th (Royal Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot||On raising in 1685||The Garter surmounted by a crown; within the Garter a rose; below the Garter the White Horse of Hanover||White (1901)|
|Lancashire Fusiliers||20th (East Devonshire) Regiment of Foot||1881||The sphinx superscribed Egypt within a laurel wreath||Primrose yellow (1901). The 20th Foot wore yellow facings until 1881.|
|Royal Scots Fusiliers||21st (Royal Scots Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot||Between 1686 and 1691 (exact date unknown)||The royal arms||White (1902)|
|Royal Welsh Fusiliers||23rd (Royal Welch Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot||1702||The Prince of Wales's plumes, coronet and motto (Ich Dien)||White|
|Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers||27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot
108th (Madras Infantry) Regiment of Foot
|1881||The Castle of Inniskilling||Grey (1903). The colour commemorated the original uniform of the "Grey Inniskillings" of 1689.|
|Royal Irish Fusiliers (Princess Victoria's)||87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot
89th (Princess Victoria's) Regiment of Foot
|1827 (87th Foot)||A French Imperial Eagle upon a plinth inscribed "8" within a laurel wreath||Emerald green|
|Royal Munster Fusiliers||101st (Royal Bengal Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot
104th (Bengal Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot
|1846 (101st as 1st Bengal European Fusiliers)
1850 (104th as 2nd Bengal European Fusiliers)
|The arms of the Province of Munster within a laurel wreath bearing 10 battle honours. A scroll at the base inscribed Royal Munster.||White over green|
|Royal Dublin Fusiliers||102nd (Royal Madras Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot
103rd (Royal Bombay Fusilers) Regiment of Foot
|1843: 102nd as 1st Madras (European) Fusiliers
1844: 103rd as 1st Bombay (European) Fusiliers
|The arms of the City of Dublin within a wreath of shamrock, at the base an elephant on a tablet inscribed Mysore and a tiger on a tablet inscribed Plassey, all over a scroll inscribed Spectamur Agendo.||Blue over green|
The nine regiments of fusiliers that existed in 1914 have since been reduced to one by a series of disbandments and mergers:
- In 1920, the Royal Welsh Fusiliers was renamed as the "Royal Welch Fusiliers".
- Due to the creation of the Irish Free State, the Royal Munster Fusilers and Royal Dublin Fusiliers were disbanded on 31 July 1922.
- In 1935, the Northumberland Fusiliers was awarded the title "Royal".
- Under the Defence Review of 1957, the number of infantry regiments was reduced. The Royal Scots Fusiliers was amalgamated with the Highland Light Infantry on 20 January 1959 to form the Royal Highland Fusiliers. The new regiment wore the white hackle of the RSF, with a flaming grenade badge bearing the monogram of the HLI.
- Under the same review, the three English fusilier regiments were grouped as the Fusilier Brigade in 1958. While retaining their individual identities, a single cap badge was adopted. This was flaming grenade bearing St George and the Dragon within a laurel wreath the whole ensigned by a crown. This combined elements of the badges of the three regiments, who continued to be distinguished by their coloured hackles: red over white for the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, white for the Royal Fusiliers and primrose yellow for the Lancashire Fusiliers.
- Also in 1958 the North Irish Brigade was formed, consisting of the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, the Royal Irish Fusiliers and the Royal Ulster Rifles. All regiments adopted a harp and crown badge on the caubeen, worn with a hackle: grey for the Inniskillings, green for the Royal Irish Fusiliers and black for the Rifles.
- On 1 May 1963, the Royal Warwickshire Regiment was redesignated as the Royal Warwickshire Fusiliers and joined the Fusilier Brigade. An old gold and blue hackle was adopted.
- On 23 April 1968, (St George's Day) the four regiments of the Fusilier Brigade were amalgamated to form The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. The RRF is now the only English fusilier regiment and wear the red over white hackle of the 5th Foot with the badge adopted in 1958 for the Fusilier Brigade.
- On 1 July 1968, the three regiments of the North Irish Brigade were amalgamated to form the Royal Irish Rangers and ceased to be a fusilier regiment. The green hackle of the Royal Irish Fusiliers continued in use. Following a further merger in 1992, the lineage is now continued by the Royal Irish Regiment.
- On 1 March 2006, (St David's Day), the Royal Welch Fusiliers was amalgamated with the Royal Regiment of Wales to form the Royal Welsh. The white hackle of the RWF is worn with the cap badge of the RRW. Elements of the regimental band wear fusilier full dress.
- On 28 March 2006, the Scottish infantry regiments were merged into the Royal Regiment of Scotland. The individual battalions of the regiment retain the titles of the predecessor units, and The Royal Highland Fusiliers, 2nd Battalion The Royal Regiment of Scotland continues to wear the white hackle of the Royal Scots Fusiliers.
In addition, the Scots Guards were known as the Scots Fusilier Guards from 1831 to 1877.
References and notes
- Godefroy, Frédéric, Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle (1881)(foisil)
- Cathal J. Nolan, 2008, Wars of the Age of Louis XIV, 1650–1715, Westport, Conn.; Greenwood Press, p168.
- Barnes, R M (1972). A History of the Regiments and Uniforms of the British Army. Sphere Books. p. 28.
- Braithwaite, J. Uniforms of the Seven Years' War Austria. p. 24. ISBN 0-904555-01-1.
- Richard Knotel, page 121 Uniforms of the World, ISBN 0-684-16304-7
- Albert Seaton, pp. 9 and 24, Frederick the Great's Army, ISBN 0-85045-151-5
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved 2012-07-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link),.
- Kipling, Arthur L; King, Hugh L (2006). Head-Dress Badges of the British Army. Volume One: Up to End of the Great War. Uckfield: Naval and Military Press. pp. 243–252. ISBN 1-84342-512-2.
- p. 143 Carman, W. Y. British Military Uniforms from Contemporary Pictures: Henry VII to the Present Day Arco, 1968
- Carman, W.C. A Dictionary of Military Uniform. p. 108. ISBN 0-684-15130-8.
- As described in the Dress Regulations of 1900 and 1934.
- "Naval and Military Intelligence". The Times. 2 November 1901. p. 13.
The application for permission to wear a primrose yellow hackle in the busby is being submitted to his Majesty for approval.
- "Naval and Military Intelligence". The Times. 2 June 1901. p. 7.
The King has approved of the Royal Fusiliers adding a white plume to their headdress (full uniform), to be worn on the right side
- The Royal Highland Fusiliers (Princess Margaret's Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment): A Soldier's History. Glasgow: Royal Highland Fusiliers. 1979. pp. 7, 58.
- Outline History of the Royal Irish Rangers (27th (Inniskilling), 83rd and 87th) 2nd Edition. Armagh: Royal Irish Rangers. 1979. p. 37.
- Romer, Cecil Francis; Mainwaring, Arthur Edward (1908). The Second Battalion Royal Dublin Fusiliers in the South African War. London: A L Humphreys. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
This distinction was granted in 1902, when by Army Order 57 it was directed that the Royal Dublin Fusiliers should wear a blue and green hackle in their busbies: that for the officers to be blue and green, eight inches long, and that for the non-commissioned officers and men a similar but shorter one, in recognition of their services during the war in South Africa. In explanation of the colours of the hackle it may be stated that blue is the distinguishing colour of the 1st Battalion ('Blue Caps'), and green that of the 2nd Battalion ('Old Toughs').
- Army Order 56/1920
- "Regimental Band of the Royal Welsh". Regimental Band of the Royal Welsh. 2009. Archived from the original on 6 October 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fusilier". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 369.
- Hoffschröer, Peter (1984). Prussian Light Infantry 1792–1815 (Men-at-Arms Series #149). illustrated by Bryan Fosten. Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-85045-540-5.