The Fusiliers Marins ("Naval Fusiliers") are specialized French naval infantry trained for combat in land and coastal regions. The Fusiliers Marins are also in charge of providing protection for naval vessels and French Navy key sites on land.
The Fusiliers Marins are tasked with :
- participating in land operations from the sea;
- participating in special operations (Commandos Marine);
- the protection of sensitive sites of the Navy (Naval bases, French Naval Aviation, transmission stations etc.);
- reinforcement of protection duties provided by Naval forces (maintaining order on board ship and the protection of naval vessels against attack).
The Fusiliers Marins should not be confused with the Troupes de Marine of the modern French Army. The latter corps has undergone several changes in role from marine infantry to colonial troops (Troupes coloniales) to overseas forces. It has however remained as an essentially military force while the Fusiliers Marins have throughout their history been an integral part of the French Navy.
History of the French Fusiliers Marins
Ancestors, Compagnies Franches de la Marine
In 1627 Cardinal Richelieu undertook the creation of a Naval Regiment, intended to provide soldiers for service on naval ships. Their roles were to include combat on both land or sea, under the orders of the officers of the ship. These sea-going soldiers formed part of the ship's company and helped with its sailing. The basic units were the Compagnies Franches de la Marine: separate detachments of about 70 men, each commanded by a royal lieutenant des vaisseaux, supported by two ensigns. The marine companies served in the French colonies of the period and particularly in Nouvelle-France. These formations existed under differing titles until 1825 when they were dissolved by a royal ordinance decreeing that landing parties (compagnies de débarquement) be made up of sailors. The Régiments de la Marine were subsequently succeeded by the Troupes de la marine, which later became the colonial troops (Troupes Coloniales) of the French Army, specifically raised for overseas service.
Creation of a specialized corps in 1856
These companies lacked specialized personnel trained for combat on land.
An Imperial decree dated June 5, 1856, created the Fusiliers Marins, whose formation and training were undertaken by a battalion stationed at Lorient. This specialized corps was put under the command of the captains and sergeants-at-arms of the various naval vessels of the Fleet was the direct ancestor of the modern Fusiliers Marins.
Since that date, the Fusiliers Marins have participated the following conflicts:
- The military colonial campaigns of the end of the 19th century,
- The expeditions in China, Cochinchina, Tonkin and Madagascar,
- The European conflicts in 1870, 1914-1918 and 1939-1945.
During the Franco-Prussian War 1870, following the disaster of Sedan, several brigades of Fusiliers Marins and naval artillerymen were engaged in combat at Bapaume and subsequently participated in the defense of Paris, notably at the Bourget and at L'Haÿ-les-Roses. This force formed part of the Government armée versaillaise employed in the suppression of the Paris Commune in 1871.
A detachment of fusiliers marins defended the French Legation (diplomatic mission) in Peking during the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. Amongst their officers was enseigne de vaisseau Paul Henry and Pierre Alexis Ronarc'h, who in 1914 would serve as Counter-Admiral and Commandant of the Brigade de Fusiliers Marins BFM attached to the 32nd Army Corps. The Brigade de Fusiliers Marins distinguished themselves at Dixmude, on the Yser, at Longewaede, Hailles and Laffaux during the early stages of World War I.
The Fusiliers Marins have also participated to the campaigns of Free France. They formed first a battalion then the 1er Régiment de Fusiliers Marins 1e RFM at the corps of the 1st Free French Division (1er DFL) and the 1er Bataillon de Fusiliers Marins Commandos (1er BFMC) who served in 10 (Inter-Allied) Commando. The 177 Commandos Kieffer whom disembarked on June 6 in Normandy, were Fusiliers Marins issued in principal by Free France. Other Fusiliers Marins, issued in principal from the Army of Vichy (French: Armée de Vichy), formed the Régiment Blindé de Fusiliers-Marins (RBFM) which illustrated capability with the 2nd Armored Division. Adding to the list of accessories, on April 30, 1945, the Fusiliers Marins Dupin of Saint-Cyr contributed to the liberation of île d’Oléron. Disembarked at 0620 at Gatseau, the troop progressed slowly in the forest facing a stern resistance.
In 1945, the Marine Brigade of the Extreme Orient (BMEO) was created with the RBFM and the 1er RFM. Based on the request of general Leclerc, the Marine Brigade formed river brigades in 1945-1946. They became the Dinassaut which operated in Tonkin and Cochinchina from 1947 to 1954. In 1956, with the cadres of operations in Algeria, was formed a Demi-Brigade of Fusiliers Marins (DBFM) in charge of protecting the borders between Algeria and Morocco until 1962. This demi-brigade was placed under the command of CV Ponchardier. A flag was conferred upon him.
Contrary to the French Fusiliers Marins which are a specialty of the French Navy, the United States Marine Corps is an independent corps with exclusive own Marine Aviation, Marine Tank, Marine Artillery with respective naval ships attached to the United States Navy. The same applies to the Royal Marines of the Royal Navy.
Fusiliers marins decorated after the Battle of the Yser.
The Naval Fusiliers wear a dark blue beret in their combat dress uniforms, pulled right with their own distinctive badge worn over the left eye or temple. Along with the Naval Commandos, they are unique among French forces in wearing the beret this way. When wearing regular dress uniforms, the sailor cap is used by junior ratings and the peaked cap by senior petty officers and officers.
- Famas G2 assault rifle
- Valtro PM5 M2 shotgun
- Alsetex "Cougar" 56mm grenade launcher
- X26 Taser weapon
- AT4CS Anti-Tank Weapon
- Zodiac Hurricane 630 IO EDOP
- Zodiac Futura Mark II
- Zodiac Futura Mark III
- Light tactical vehicle Land Rover Defender 90 Td5
Notable fusilier marins
- Admiral Philippe de Gaulle, the son of the general Charles de Gaulle
- Lieutenant Commander Henri de Pimodan, famous resistant died in deportation
- Lieutenant Commander Robert Detroyat, first commandant of the legendary 1st battalion of Fusilier marins, died during operation Exporter in Syria (1941)
- Quarter-master Theo "Dudu" Dumas, a popular figure who appears in the film un taxi pour Tobrouk played by Lino Ventura
- Quarter-master Constant Duclos, the first French soldier to execute a parachute jump on November 17, 1915
- Lieutenant Georges Hébert, a pioneering French physical educator, theorist and instructor
- Sub-Lieutenant Paul Henry, fusilier marin officer died defending the legation quarter of Peking (1900)
- Lieutenant Pierre Guillaume, a famous fusilier officer of the French Indochina war, inspired the character of the "Drummer Crab", the hero of the French movie Le Crabe-tambour
- Actor Jean Gabin made his military service in the Fusiliers marins in 1924
- Commandos Marine
- List of active French Navy ships
- List of ships of the line of France
- List of submarines of France
- List of Escorteurs of the French Navy
- Sailors of the Imperial Guard
- M. Alexander, France and the Algerian War, 1954-1962: Strategy, Operations and Diplomacy, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-7146-8264-0 or ISBN 978-0-7146-8264-8.
- René Bail., DBFM, demi-brigade des fusiliers marins, Rennes : Marines, 2007, ISBN 2-915379-57-2 or ISBN 978-2-915379-57-0.
- Edward L Bimberg, Tricolor over the Sahara the desert battles of the Free French, 1940-1942, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002, ISBN 0-313-01097-8 or ISBN 978-0-313-01097-2.
- Fleury Georges, Les fusiliers marins de la France libre, Grasset, 1980, ISBN 2-246-09659-6 or 978-2-246-09659-7.
- Major general USMC Paul J.Kennedy, Dinassaut Operations in Indochina: 1946-1954, 2001.
- Contre-Amiral Robert Kilian, Les Fusiliers marins en Indochine : La Brigade marine du corps expéditionnaire d'Extrême-Orient, septembre 1945-mars 1947, Berger-Levrault, 1948.
- Charles W. Koburger, The French Navy in Indochina: Riverine and Coastal Forces, 1945-54, Praeger, 1991, ISBN 0-275-93833-6 or ISBN 978-0-275-93833-8.
- Amiral La Roncière-Le Noury, La marine au siège de Paris, Plon, 1872.
- Georges Le Bail, La Brigade des Jean le Gouin; Histoire documentaire et anecdotique des Fusiliers marins, Paris, 1917.
- Adolphe Auguste Marie Lepotier, Les fusiliers marins, Editions France, 1962.
- L’évolution des opérations amphibies, La Revue maritime, n° 198, avril 1963, p. 424.
- Raymond Maggiar, Les fusiliers marins dans la division Leclerc, du débarquement en Normandie, en passant par Paris et Strasbourg jusqu'à Berchtesgaden, Paris : Albin Michel, 1947.
- Raymond Maggiar, Les fusiliers marins de Leclerc: une route difficile vers de Gaulle, Editions France-Empire, 1984, ISBN 2-7048-0341-2 or ISBN 978-2-7048-0341-5.
- Jean Pinguet, Trois Etapes de la Brigade des Fusiliers Marins - La Marne, Gand, Dixmude, 1918.
- Marcel Vigneras, Rearming the French, Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army, US, 1957.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fusiliers marins.|
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- Ecole des fusiliers marins et Commandos Marine / Lorient