Fussa is approximately in the geographic center of Tokyo Metropolis, on the Musashino Terrace, bordered by the floodplains of the Tama River. The area along the river is home to many parks and almost 300 Sakura or cherry blossom trees, recreational facilities and bicycle paths.
The entire district was transferred to the control of Tokyo Metropolis on April 1, 1893, and the Ōme Railway joined Fussa to Tachikawa the following year. Fussa was elevated to town status in 1940, and an airfield for the Imperial Japanese Army was built, and became the central aircraft testing facility for the Army in 1942. During World War II, the area was only lightly bombed (once in 1945 with four casualties), and the military facilities were seized mostly intact by the American military after the war. In the post-war era, Fussa expanded rapidly through the construction of subsidized housing districts, and was elevated to city status on April 1, 1970 .
Fussa, along with its neighboring cities Iruma and Tachikawa, contains a strong military presence. A large portion of the city's economy focuses on the bases and servicing those who live there. Of note is eastern Fussa's "Bar Row" district, a historic though seedy collection of karaoke bars, shot bars, and massage parlors. The Bar Row area has been a fixture of Fussa nightlife catering to US military personnel since the 1950s. The city also serves as a bedroom community for central Tokyo and a regional commercial center.