Gülbahar Hatun (wife of Mehmed II)

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Gülbahar Hatun
کل بھار خاتون
Valide-i macide
Fatihetü'l-maeyâmin ve'l hayrat [1]
Gülbahar Hatun tomb.jpg
The interior appearance of the tomb in Gülbahar's mausoleum at the Fatih Mosque, Istanbul.
Valide Hatun of the Ottoman Empire
Tenure3 May 1481 – 1492
PredecessorEmine Hatun
SuccessorHafsa Sultan
(as Valide Sultan)
Bornc. 1432
Diedc. 1492 (aged 59–60)
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
SpouseMehmed II
IssueGevherhan Hatun
Bayezid II[2][3]
ReligionSunni Islam , previously Greek Orthodoxy

Gülbahar Hatun (c. 1432 – 1492) was the consort of Sultan Mehmed II, and mother[2][4] of Sultan Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire and the grandmother of Selim I.[1]


She married Sultan Mehmed II in 1446 at Manisa.[5]


The Ottoman inscription (vakfiye) describes her as Hātun binti Abdullah (Daughter of Abdullah), which means that her father was possibly a convert to Islam. Gülbahar Hatun was Albanian.[6][7]


She was mother of "Gevher-Han Sultan", who married the son of Aq Qoyunlu Sultan Uzun Hasan, "Şâh-Zâde Uğurlu Damad Muhammed Mirza Paşa"[5] in 1474, and the mother of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II.[2][8]

There are sorces that claim that Bayezid was the son of Mükrime Hatun.[9][10] But, this is strange, because it would make Ayse Hatun, Bayezid II's first cousin. Also, the marriage of Mükrime Hatun took place two years after Bayezid was born[11] and the whole arrangement was not to Mehmed's liking.[12] While, Emine Gülbahar Hatun, is accepted as the real mother of Bayezid II.[13][14][15][16][17][18]

Per custom, Gülbahar got the highest position as Valde Hatun in the imperial family after the sultan himself when her son, Bayezid II, ascended the throne in 1481 until her death in 1492. During her son's reign, she and the rest of the Imperial Family resided at the Old Palace (saray-ı atik) and were visited by the Sultan who on each visit used to pay his respect to his mother. In one case, Gülbahar complained of her son's rare visits and in a letter to her son wrote:

"My fortune, I miss you. Even if you don't miss me, I miss you ... Come and let me see you. My dear lord, if you are going on campaign soon, come once or twice at least so that I may see your fortune-favored face before you go. It's been forty days since I last saw you. My sultan, please forgive my boldness. Who else do I have beside you ... ?"[2]

In popular culture[edit]

In 2012 film, Fetih 1453, Gülbahar was portrayed by Şahika Koldemir.

Gülbahar's mausoleum at the Fatih Mosque, Istanbul.

Further reading[edit]

  • Peirce, Leslie P., The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-508677-5 (paperback).


  1. ^ a b Necdet Sakaoğlu (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak publications. pp. 110–112. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6. (The name of the real biological mother of Bayezid II is given as Meliketû'l-Melikât Gül-Bahar Valide Hâtun).
  2. ^ a b c d Peirce, Leslie (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0-19-508677-5.
  3. ^ Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları (Ottoman History with Illustrations, Nesil Publications), 15th Ed., 2009, page 129, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2
  4. ^ Diyanet İslâm Ansiklopedisi, p.234-238, vol: 5, 1992
  5. ^ a b The Imperial House of Osman - 3
  6. ^ Edmonds, Anna. Turkey's religious sites. Damko. p. 1997. ISBN 975-8227-00-9.
  7. ^ Babinger, Franz (1992). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Princeton University Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-691-01078-1.
  8. ^ Necdet Sakaoğlu (2007). Famous Ottoman women. Avea. p. 69. The graves of Gül-Bahars are very well khown. First one - Gülbahar Hatun I is in Fatih Mosque in Istanbul and the second one - Gülbahar Hatun II is in Gül-Bahar Hatun Mosque in Trabzon. Only the grave of Aisha Hatun, who was the Fourth wife of Bayezid II and the daughter of Alaüddevle Bozkurt Bey, the eleventh ruler of the Dulkadirids centered around Elbistan in Kahramanmaraş, is unknown. We do not have any documents about Aisha Hatun." He supports the theory of "Aisha Gulbahar". Another reason for this confusion is that Bayezid's mother was also Gulbahar.
  9. ^ Bahadıroğlu, Yavuz (2009) Ottoman History with Illustrations - Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Publications, 15th Ed., p. 129, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2. (www.nesilyayinlari.com)
  10. ^ Necdet Sakaoğlu (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak publications. pp. 113–117. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6..
  11. ^ Wedding portrait, Nauplion.net
  12. ^ Babinger 1992, p. 57-8.
  13. ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=LtzXAAAAMAAJ&q=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&dq=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=MwvrU8jYE4XqyQPPnYGgBg&ved=0CCkQ6AEwBg
  14. ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=L6-VRgVzRcUC&pg=PA52&dq=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=MwvrU8jYE4XqyQPPnYGgBg&ved=0CBAQ6AEwAQ
  15. ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=JXh6vjXt_4IC&pg=PA32&dq=bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=KnXrU7_CFuX4yQPYlYGwBA&ved=0CBwQuwUwAw
  16. ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=L6-VRgVzRcUC&pg=PA365&dq=bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=KnXrU7_CFuX4yQPYlYGwBA&ved=0CBAQ6AEwAQ
  17. ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=w4RpAAAAMAAJ&q=Gulbahar+Hatun+bayezid+ii+mother&dq=Gulbahar+Hatun+bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=enbrU-PJNqT4yQOqoIGADg&ved=0CCEQ6AEwBA
  18. ^ "Sultan II. Bayezid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
Ottoman royalty
Preceded by
Emine Hatun
Valide Hatun
1481 – 1492
Succeeded by
Hafsa Sultan
as Valide Sultan