Günther Josten

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Günther Josten
Günther Josten.jpg
Günther Josten
Born (1921-11-07)7 November 1921
Rhynern in Hamm
Died 7 July 2004(2004-07-07) (aged 82)
Aurich
Allegiance  Nazi Germany (to 1945)
 West Germany
Service/branch Balkenkreuz (Iron Cross) Luftwaffe
Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force
Years of service 1940–45, 1956–81
Rank
Unit

EJGr Ost, JG 51


JG 73, JG 71
Allied Air Forces Central Europe
Commands held 3./JG 51, IV./JG 51, JG 71
Battles/wars
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves
Other work Joiner, wood industry

Günther Josten (7 November 1921 – 7 July 2004) was a German Luftwaffe military aviator during World War II, a fighter ace credited with 178 enemy aircraft shot down in 420 combat missions, all of which claimed over the Eastern Front. Following World War II, he served in the newly established West Germany's Air Force in the Bundeswehr.

Josten volunteered for military service in the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany following outbreak of World War II. He was admitted in 1940 and following flight training, he was posted to the 1st group of Jagdgeschwader 51 "Mölders" (JG 51—51st Fighter Wing) operating on the Eastern Front. He claimed his first aerial victory in February 1943 and after 84 aerial victories, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross in February 1944. In July 1944, he was appointed squadron leader of the 3rd squadron of JG 51 and on 20 July, Josten claimed his 100th victory in aerial combat. After he claimed his 161st aerial victory he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves on 28 March 1945. On 12 April 1945, he was appointed group commander of the 4th group of JG 51.

On 5 May 1945, Josten was interned by the British occupational authorities. Following his release, he worked in private industry. Following the rearmament of the Federal Republic of Germany, Josten joined the Air Force of the Bundeswehr in 1956. In 1962, he was appointed wing commander of Jagdgeschwader 71 "Richthofen" (JG 71—71st Fighter Wing). From 1967 to 1970, he was made deputy commander of NATO's System Operations Center in Brockzetel, in Aurich. In October 1970, he was transferred to the Allied Air Forces Central Europe at the Ramstein Air Base. There he led the staff of the aerial defenses. His last service position before he retired in 1981 was deputy commander of the 4th Air Division. Josten, who logged 3,250 flight hours, of which 1,580 during World War II, died in 2004.

Early life and career[edit]

Josten was born on 7 November 1921 in Rhynern, today a borough of Hamm, in the Province of Westphalia during the time of the Weimar Republic.[1] He was the second son, following his older brother Reinhard, of Johannes Josten and his wife Gertraud.[Note 1] His father was the Protestant pastor of Kölleda in Thuringia. In October 1935, the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (Ministry of Aviation) decided to build an airfield at Kölleda which influenced him and his brother to become an aviator. Josten attended the boarding school Schulpforta. The school was made into a National Political Institutes of Education (Nationalpolitische Erziehungsanstalt—Napola), a secondary school founded under the recently established Nazi state, on 16 August 1935. The goal of the Napola schools was to raise a new generation for the political, military and administrative leadership of the Third Reich. On 25 May 1938, Josten made his first rubber powered flight on a DFS 35 glider aircraft with the National Socialist Flyers Corps of Naumburg.[3]

Schulpforta main building, 2014

World War II in Europe began on Friday, 1 September 1939, when German forces invaded Poland. Following the start of hostilities, Josten immediately volunteered for military service in the Luftwaffe. The Wehrmacht took its time to accept and process his application. In January 1940, he was ordered to the Fliegerausbildungsstelle (Aviator Training Facility) in Weimar-Nohra and on 11 April, he was posted to Fliegerausbildungs-Regiment 61 (61st Aviators Training Regiment) in Oschatz. At first he feared to become an air gunner but his desire to become a pilot was granted and he was posted to the Luftwaffen-Flugzeugführerschule A/B 4 (flight school for the pilot license) at Prague-Gbell.[4][Note 2] On 31 August 1940, he was granted leave to return to Schulpforta for his Abitur (diploma) examination which began 19 September. He received news that he had passed his Abitur, a precondition to become an officer, on 23 September and returned to Prague on 2 October.[5] On 18 October 1940, after 63 takeoffs and landings, Josten made his first solo flight on a Focke-Wulf Fw 44 "Stieglitz".[6] On 31 July 1941, Josten received his A/B pilot license and was promoted to Unteroffizier (staff sergeant), the only student of his class to receive this promotion.[7] During flight training, he was trained to fly the Focke-Wulf Fw 44, Fw 56 and Fw 58, the Bücker Bü 131, the Klemm Kl 35, the Junkers W 34, the Gotha Go 145, the Arado Ar 65 and Ar 96, the Heinkel He 70, the Letov Š-328, the Avia B-534, and the North American NA-57.[8]

On 1 August 1941, Josten was transferred to the Jagdfliegervorschule 1 (Pre Fighter Pilot School) in Kamenz under the command of Hauptmann (Captain) Hans-Günther von Kornatzki. He was then transferred to the Jagdgruppe Drontheim, based at the Fliegerhorst Grove in Denmark on 1 November 1941.[7] There, on 9 January 1942, he flew the Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter aircraft for the first time.[9] On 7 July 1942, he was posted to the Ergänzungs-Jagdgruppe Ost (EJGr Ost—Supplementary Fighter Group, East), a specialized training unit for new fighter pilots destined for the Eastern Front.

World War II[edit]

At the end of August 1942, Josten was sent to the Eastern Front and assigned to the 1. Staffel (1st squadron) of Jagdgeschwader 51 "Mölders" (JG 51—51st Fighter Wing), named after the first fighter pilot to claim 100 aerial victories in combat, Oberst (Colonel) Werner Mölders.[Note 3] On 23 February 1943, he claimed his first aerial victory, a Ilyushin Il-2 ground-attack aircraft shot down on a combat air patrol near Zhizdra.[10] On 9 March 1943, Josten's Staffel is equipped with the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 A-4 at the airbase Schatalowka, present-day Shatalovo air base, 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Smolensk.[11] On 3 April 1943, Josten received the Iron Cross 2nd Class (Eisernes Kreuz zweiter Klasse) from his commanding officer.[12] The official documented presentation date for this award is 4 April.[13]

On 15 April 1943, Josten was granted home leave. During this vacation, he visits Dresden where he meets with Alice Schmidt, née Wehrsen, for the first time. She is 21 years old, a young war widow, mother of a two-year-old son, Jürgen, and former friend of his brother Reinhard.[14] The two fall in love and marry on 13 June 1944.[15]

On 10 July 1943 he scored multiple times for his claims 8 to 10. Three days later on 13 July he shot down 5 Il-2 Sturmoviks for victories 12 to 16. All in all he claimed 19 victories in July and 30 in August. After a successful September with 26 victories he was transferred to the Luftkriegsschule 4 at Fürstenfeldbruck. He returned to his Staffel on 3 February 1944. Two days later he claimed two Bostons and was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) as Oberfeldwebel. He was also promoted to Leutnant (second lieutenant) on account of this achievement, backdated to 1 January 1944.

He claimed his 90th victory on 2 May 1944. On 18 September 1944 he took command of 3. Staffel of JG 51 as Staffelkapitän. On 20 July 1944, Josten was credited with his 100th aerial victory. He was the 85th Luftwaffe pilot to achieve the century mark.[16]

On 18 September 1944, three bombardment groups of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) flew to Warsaw on a daylight support mission during the Warsaw Uprising (1 August – 2 October 1944). The force was made up of Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers from 95th, 100th and 390th Bombardment Group, all from the 13th Bombardment Wing, escorted by 73 long range North American P-51 Mustang fighter aircraft. From this bomber force, Josten was credited with the destruction of the B-17 "Til we meet again", piloted by Lieutenant Francis Akins. The attack killed all but two members of the crew, who managed to bail out, including Akins.[17]

By October 26 his score had reached 139 claims. His 150th kill was claimed on 17 February 1945. Following his 161st victory, Josten was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub) on 28 March 1945, the 810th member of the Wehrmacht to be so honored.[18] Josten never received an official presentation of the Oak Leaves themselves nor did he receive the award documentation. Josten was first informed of the fact that he had been so honored by the commanding general of Luftwaffenkommando Ostpreußen (Airforce Command East Prussia), Generalmajor (Major General) Klaus Uebe, on 2 April 1945. On 4 April 1945, Reichsmarschall (Marshal of the Reich) Hermann Göring, the Commander-in-Chief of the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (Air Force High Command), sent Josten a telegram and congratulated him for his achievements and the presentation of the Oak Leaves.[19]

Group commander[edit]

Fw 190 D-13/R11, Champlin Fighter Museum, Phoenix, Arizona (c.1995)

Josten was appointed Gruppenkommandeur (group commander) of IV. Gruppe of JG 51 on 12 April 1945. That day, Hauptmann (Captain) Günther Schack, the Gruppenkomandeur of I. Gruppe, was seriously injured in combat. In consequence, Josten briefly took charge of I. Gruppe, delaying his command of VI. Gruppe until 18 April. On 22 April, IV. Gruppe was moved to an airfield at Schmoldow. That day, just prior to the relocation Josten claimed two Il-2 shot down south of Stettin.[20] On 23 April, the commanding general of Luftwaffenkommando Nordost (Air Force Command North East), General der Flieger (General of the Aviators) Martin Fiebig, visited the unit at Schmoldow. Fiebig held a speech, demanding that every German soldier should fight to the end and asked for volunteers to make Kamikaze suicide attacks against the Soviet Oder crossings. The idea was to fly Junkers Ju 88 bombers, loaded with high explosives, into the Oder bridges, none of the pilots from VI. Gruppe volunteered for these missions.[21][22]

Flying the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 D-9 on 25 April 1945, Josten claimed nine aerial victories, his most successful day as a fighter pilot. On the first mission, leading a flight of three, he was credited with the destruction of one Yak-3 and three Il-2. On the second mission, he and his wingman, Oberfeldwebel Alfred Rauch, together shot down nine aircraft, five by Josten and four by Rauch. On this mission they first encountered 50 Bostons and 30 Airacobra. From this force, Josten shot down one Airacobra and two Bostons. The two then ran into a flight of 20 Il-2 and 30 Yak-3, of which Josten claimed two Il-2 destroyed. Josten claimed his last and 178th aerial victory over a Yak-3 on 26 April 1945.[22] On 6 May 1945, he was taken prisoner by British forces of the RAF Second Tactical Air Force in Flensburg. Legally, according to the international law, Josten and his comrades were not prisoners of war but were interned.[23]

Shortly after the end of the war the British wanted to evaluate the performance of the German Fw 190 D-13/R11 (Werknummer 836017—factory number). At Flensburg, the British Disarmament Wing wanted to compare the fighter's performance gainst a Hawker Tempest. On 25 June 1945, Josten and Heinz Lange flew the Fw 190 D-13 in mock combat against a Tempest piloted by a British pilot. The mock dogfight was conducted at an altitude of 10,000 feet (3,000 meters) with only enough fuel for the flight and no ammunition. The machines proved evenly matched.[24]

Later life[edit]

Josten was released as a prisoner of war on 31 October 1945 by the No. 2 Squadron RAF at the Kiel-Holtenau airfield.[25] He then became a joiner and worked at a furniture factory. In May 1949, he was hired by the Holzindustriebedarf GmbH, an industrial wood supplies company, in Cologne. After six months, he was put in charge of technical and commercial operations. End 1950, he was offered a general manager position with a plywood supplier in Koblenz and changed jobs to this company on 1 April 1951.[26] His wife Alice gave birth to their mutual son, Meinhard Gero, on 2 July 1946.[27] He and Alice were divorced on 15 November 1955.[26] Later that year, he was invited to a New Year party in Stolberg (Harz), then in East Germany, by his former school friend Hans Tetzner, Chief Physician of the local hospital. At the party he met Ursula, a pediatrician from Erfurt. The two later married and had two sons, born in 1959 and 1961.[28]

On 4 April 1956, Josten rejoined the military service in the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) in the Bundeswehr. He attended a number of training courses with the 7351st and 7330th Flying Training Wing of the United States Air Force (USAF) and the Canadian 427 Special Operations Aviation Squadron and was promoted to Hauptmann on 22 November 1956. He then served with the Waffenschule 10 (10th Weapon School) in Oldenburg and later as a Staffelkapitän in Jagdgeschwader 73 (JG 73—73rd Fighter Wing). During these assignments, he was promoted to Major (major) on 6 March 1959.[18]

F-104 of JG 71

On 30 May 1962, Josten succeeded Erich Hartmann as Geschwaderkommodore (wing commander) of Jagdgeschwader 71 "Richthofen" (JG 71—71st Fighter Wing), named after the World War I fighter ace Manfred von Richthofen. It was under his command that JG 71 reequipped the Canadair Sabre with the U.S.-made Lockheed F-104 Starfighter. There, he was promoted to Oberstleutnant (lieutenant colonel) on 3 June 1962 and to Oberst on 14 June 1965.[18]

Josten, who had retired from active service on 31 March 1981, was a member of the Gemeinschaft der Jagdflieger (Association of German Armed Forces Airmen).[29] He died on 7 July 2004 in Aurich, Lower Saxony.[30]

Aerial victory credits[edit]

Josten was credited with 178 aerial victories claimed in 420 combat missions, all of which were on the Eastern Front.[31] He further claimed 25 unconfirmed victories and was never shot down in combat.[18]

  This and the – (dash) indicates unwitnessed aerial victory claims for which Josten did not receive credit.
  This and the ♠ (Ace of spades) indicates those aerial victories which made Josten an "ace-in-a-day", a term which designates a fighter pilot who has shot down five or more airplanes in a single day.

Chronicle of aerial victories[32]
Victory Date Time Location Type Victory Date Time Location Type
– 1. Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 51 –
1 23 February 1943 ~6:30 near Zhizdra Il-2 50 30 August 1943 17:30 southwest Nikitino La-5
2 22 March 1943 8:10 near Kromy (63 372) Il-2 51 31 August 1943 15:28 northeast Beresovka Pe-2
28 May 1943 ~11:20 east Oryol La-5 52 31 August 1943 15:29 west Straina Pe-2
3 8 June 1943 19:13 at Sloboda Ukraine (54 863) Il-2 53 31 August 1943 18:00 northwest Jelnia Il-2
4 10 June 1943 19:16 airfield Bryansk (44 593) Il-2
unknown unknown unknown unknown
5 10 June 1943 19:21 airfield Bryansk (44 484) Il-2
unknown unknown unknown Pe-2?
6 10 June 1943 19:25 airfield Bryansk (44 462) Il-2
unknown unknown unknown Pe-2?
7 10 July 1943 7:24 vicinity Fatezh (63 577) MiG-3
unknown unknown unknown Pe-2?
8 10 July 1943 11:25 railway Oryol (63 587) Il-2
unknown unknown unknown unknown
9 10 July 1943 11:30 railway Oryol (53 664) Pe-2 54 4 September 1943 10:14 east Tsowkino Il-2
10 12 July 1943 5:46 Novosil (63 233) Il-2 55 4 September 1943 10:16 near Tsadi Il-2
11♠ 13 July 1943 7:00 south Mtsensk (64 881) Il-2 56 4 September 1943 17:13 south Leonovo Il-2
12♠ 13 July 1943 7:03 south Mtsensk (64 886) Il-2 57 4 September 1943 17:14 north Kazanka Pe-2
13♠ 13 July 1943 13:45 vicinity Novosil (63 244) Il-2 58 5 September 1943 15:28 near Berezkino MiG-3
14♠ 13 July 1943 13:50 vicinity Novosil (63 219) Il-2 59♠ 7 September 1943 8:28 near Ssamnilovo Yak-7
15♠ 13 July 1943 14:05 vicinity Novosil (63 244) Il-2 60♠ 7 September 1943 11:28 near Buda Il-2
13 July 1943 ~14:00 near Oryol Il-2 61♠ 7 September 1943 11:30 44 135 Yak-1
16 17 July 1943 10:42 railway Oryol (63 532) Il-2 62♠ 7 September 1943 11:34 west Kosmalschewa Il-2
17 19 July 1943 11:32 Kursk salient (64 845) Yak-1 63♠ 7 September 1943 16:10 north Baganova Il-2
18 22 July 1943 18:20 airfield Sloboda (64 749) Il-2 64♠ 7 September 1943 16:10 railway station Filipovo Il-2
19 25 July 1943 12:34 southwest Kromy (53 616) Il-2 65♠ 7 September 1943 16:11 east Mokroye Il-2
20 25 July 1943 12:50 1 km (0.62 mi) north Kromy (53 422) Il-2 66 10 September 1943 16:43 east Golyshevka Yak-1
21 25 July 1943 12:55 1 km (0.62 mi) north Kromy (53 426) Il-2 67 10 September 1943 16:46 Kupava Yak-1
22 28 July 1943 10:30 southwest Bolchow (54 649) Il-2 68 10 September 1943 16:50 southwest Vorlovo Yak-1
23 28 July 1943 10:30 southwest Bolchow (54 681) Il-2 69 10 September 1943 17:10 south Ljudinovo Il-2
24 31 July 1943 8:58 vicinity Oryol (54 679) Il-2 70 14 September 1943 16:30 near Schatalowka La-5
25 31 July 1943 9:03 vicinity Oryol (54 675) LaGG-3 71♠ 15 September 1943 9:45 Brykovo Pe-2
26 2 August 1943 8:42 southeast Kromy La-5 72♠ 15 September 1943 9:53 Plotki Il-2
27 2 August 1943 8:45 southwest Kromy Il-2 73♠ 15 September 1943 9:56 Chantsovo Il-2
2 August 1943 unknown near Kromy La-5? 74♠ 15 September 1943 12:05 Norje-Byki La-5
2 August 1943 unknown near Kromy La-5? 75♠ 15 September 1943 12:50 Tishevo La-5
28 2 August 1943 9:25 southsouthwest Kromy Il-2 76♠ 15 September 1943 13:10 Sharipino Il-2
29 3 August 1943 15:10 53 414 Il-2 77♠ 15 September 1943 13:12 Galinska Il-2
30 3 August 1943 15:20 53 425 La-5 78♠ 15 September 1943 13:15 Bolynskaia Yak-7
31 5 August 1943 4:37 near Karatschew (55 176) Pe-2 79 17 September 1943 10:50 Rusinezky Pe-2
32 7 August 1943 5:32 53 227 Airacobra 80 17 September 1943 11:20 5 km (3.1 mi) southwest Jelnia Yak-9
33 7 August 1943 8:17 54 843 MiG-3 81 17 September 1943 13:50 Jselo La-5
34 13 August 1943 5:50 near Ochtyrka La-5 82 20 September 1943 16:30 1 km (0.62 mi) south Stugatovo La-5
35 13 August 1943 18:36 near Olschany Hurricane 83 5 February 1944 9:00 near Paryčy (93 362) Boston
36 13 August 1943 18:37 near Olschany Hurricane 84 5 February 1944 9:02 near Paryčy (93 366) Boston
37 14 August 1943 6:00 vicinity Kharkiv-Poltawa (51 847) Il-2 85 26 March 1944 12:40 04 556 Pe-2
38 14 August 1943 6:26 east Krysino (51 847) Il-2 86 26 March 1944 12:50 04 725 Pe-2
39 14 August 1943 18:17 northeast Merepa Il-2 87 5 April 1944 9:25 42 818 Yak-7
40 14 August 1943 18:20 north Podolychov Il-2 88 5 April 1944 9:35 42 689 Yak-7
41 19 August 1943 15:48 east Achtykrka (41 696) MiG-3 89 27 April 1944 11:23 42 885 MiG-3
42 21 August 1943 14:10 northwest Kharkiv (61 777) Il-2 90 30 April 1944 14:00 42 872 La-5
43 21 August 1943 14:38 west Kharkiv Il-2 91 22 June 1944 10:25 15 587 Pe-2
44 21 August 1943 14:38 west Kharkiv Il-2 92 23 June 1944 6:10 05 1993 Yak-9
45 21 August 1943 14:40 north Lyubotin Il-2 93 23 June 1944 6:40 forced landing near Gorki (05 695) Yak-9
46 23 August 1943 6:45 vicinity Olschany MiG-3 94 25 June 1944 12:13 05 448 Yak-9
47 23 August 1943 12:45 east Italovka LaGG-3 95 25 June 1944 17:30 05 442 Yak-9
48 23 August 1943 16:40 northeast Deselyudovka Pe-2 96 26 June 1944 11:47 96 467 Airacobra
49 23 August 1943 16:43 south Losjevo Pe-2 97 unknown unknown unknown unknown
23 August 1943 afternoon near Kharkiv MiG-3
– 3. Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 51 –
98 14 July 1944 11:20 44 846 Yak-9 133 20 October 1944 12:37 25 399 Il-2
99 19 July 1944 15:20 32 691 Il-2 134 20 October 1944 12:40 25 474 Il-2
100[Note 4] 19 July 1944 15:40 42 744 Il-2 135 20 October 1944 12:43 25 532 Il-2
101 20 July 1944 14:40 31 827 Il-2 136 22 October 1944 13:40 25 397 Pe-2
102 12 August 1944 13:02 12 337 Airacobra 137 25 October 1944 14:55 13 328 Yak-9
103 16 August 1944 8:50 southeast Łomża (24 792) Il-2 138 26 October 1944 10:53 03 633 Yak-9
104 16 August 1944 8:55 southeast Łomża (24 796) Il-2 139 26 October 1944 11:03 13 377 Yak-9
105 18 August 1944 16:32 13 543 Yak-1 140 16 January 1945 unknown southeast Liepāja Il-2
106 20 August 1944 12:40 northeast Warsaw (13 561) Il-2 141 16 January 1945 unknown southeast Liepāja Yak-9
107 20 August 1944 13:10 northeast Warsaw (13 529) Yak-9 142 17 January 1945 unknown southwest Ciechanów Airacobra
108 20 August 1944 16:25 northeast Warsaw (13 562) Yak-9 143 11 February 1945 afternoon southeast Mamonovo La-5
109 21 August 1944 13:22 13 395 Yak-7
11 February 1945 afternoon southeast Mamonovo Il-2
110 22 August 1944 8:30 23 125 Yak-7 144 11 February 1945 afternoon southeast Mamonovo Il-2
111 22 August 1944 8:35 23 127 Yak-7 145♠ 16 February 1945 unknown northwest Grudziądz Il-2
112 28 August 1944 10:32 13 245 La-5 146♠ 16 February 1945 unknown northwest Grudziądz Il-2
113 28 August 1944 13:42 13 362 Yak-9 147♠ 16 February 1945 unknown northwest Grudziądz Il-2
114 1 September 1944 14:12 13 527 Yak-7 148♠ 16 February 1945 unknown northwest Grudziądz Il-2
115 1 September 1944 14:20 13 527 Yak-7 149♠ 16 February 1945 unknown northwest Grudziądz Il-2
116 2 September 1944 8:22 13 527 Yak-7
17 February 1945 unknown vicinity Braniewo Il-2
117 3 September 1944 16:00 unknown Yak-7 150 17 February 1945 unknown vicinity Braniewo Il-2
118 4 September 1944 15:58 13 211 Yak-7 151 19 February 1945 unknown northwest Nowe Il-2
119 5 September 1944 15:55 13 345 Yak-7 152 19 February 1945 unknown northwest Nowe Il-2
120 5 September 1944 16:17 13 348 Il-2
20 February 1945 unknown east Gdańsk Boston
121 6 September 1944 8:13 13 381 Yak-7
20 February 1945 unknown east Gdańsk Boston
122 12 September 1944 9:21 13 719 Airacobra
20 February 1945 unknown east Gdańsk Airacobra
123 18 September 1944 12:45 03 661 B-17 G
20 February 1945 unknown east Gdańsk Airacobra
124 9 October 1944 14:31 26 769 Yak-9 153 5 March 1945 unknown near Tczew Il-2
125 9 October 1944 14:46 26 526 MiG-3 154 9 March 1945 ~12:00 Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz Boston
126 9 October 1944 16:04 26 849 Yak-9 155 9 March 1945 afternoon near Tczew La-5
127 10 October 1944 14:54 26 728 Yak-9 156 9 March 1945 afternoon Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz Il-2
128 16 October 1944 10:20 25 496 Il-2
15 March 1945 unknown vicinity Gdańsk La-5
129 16 October 1944 10:40 25 435 La-5 158 18 March 1945 afternoon vicinity Mamonovo Yak-3
130 18 October 1944 9:45 25 613 Yak-9 159 19 March 1945 ~12:00 Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz Boston
131 18 October 1944 13:15 25 292 Yak-9 160 19 March 1945 afternoon vicinity Gdańsk Il-2
132 18 October 1944 15:53 25 431 Yak-9
– III. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 51 –
161 22 March 1945 unknown vicinity Baltiysk unknown 162 22 March 1945 unknown vicinity Baltiysk unknown
– 3. Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 51 –
163 3 April 1945 unknown Gdańsk Il-2 165 7 April 1945 before noon unknown Il-2
164 7 April 1945 before noon unknown Il-2
– VI. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 51 –
166 19 April 1945 afternoon near Strausberg Il-2 173♠ 25 April 1945 unknown unknown Airacobra
167 22 April 1945 afternoon south Stettin Il-2 174♠ 25 April 1945 unknown unknown Boston
168 22 April 1945 afternoon south Stettin Il-2 175♠ 25 April 1945 unknown unknown Boston
169♠ 25 April 1945 before noon unknown Yak-3 176♠ 25 April 1945 unknown unknown Il-2
170♠ 25 April 1945 before noon unknown Il-2 177♠ 25 April 1945 unknown unknown Il-2
171♠ 25 April 1945 before noon unknown Il-2 178 26 April 1945 unknown unknown Yak-3
172♠ 25 April 1945 before noon unknown Il-2

Awards[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Reinhard later also served in Jagdgeschwader 51 and was killed in a flight accident returning from a mission on 21 April 1942.[2]
  2. ^ Flight training in the Luftwaffe progressed through the levels A1, A2 and B1, B2, referred to as A/B flight training. A training included theoretical and practical training in aerobatics, navigation, long-distance flights and dead-stick landings. The B courses included high-altitude flights, instrument flights, night landings and training to handle the aircraft in difficult situations.
  3. ^ For an explanation of Luftwaffe unit designations see Organization of the Luftwaffe during World War II.
  4. ^ According to Obermaier, Josten was credited with his 100th aerial victory on 20 July 1944.[33] Braatz and Göpel on page 225 quote Josten's diary and state that the 100th aerial victory was claimed on 20 July 1944.[34] However, on page 319, they contradict this statement by claiming the 100th aerial victory occurred on 19 July 1944.[35]
  5. ^ According to Obermaier on 31 August 1943.[37]
  6. ^ According to Scherzer and Von Seemen as pilot in the 1./Jagdgeschwader 51 "Mölders"[40][41]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Stockert 2011, p. 23.
  2. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 92.
  3. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 13.
  4. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 16.
  5. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, pp. 22–23.
  6. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 25.
  7. ^ a b Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 69.
  8. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 322–323.
  9. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 86.
  10. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 153.
  11. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 154.
  12. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 160.
  13. ^ a b c Thomas 1997, p. 333.
  14. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, pp. 162–163.
  15. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 221.
  16. ^ Obermaier 1989, p. 243.
  17. ^ Walker 2011, p. 248.
  18. ^ a b c d Stockert 2011, p. 24.
  19. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 249.
  20. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 253.
  21. ^ Aders & Held 1993, pp. 181–182.
  22. ^ a b Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 254.
  23. ^ Aders & Held 1993, p. 183.
  24. ^ Crandal 2000, p. 17.
  25. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 261.
  26. ^ a b Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 266.
  27. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 263.
  28. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, pp. 266, 268.
  29. ^ "Namhafte Persönlichkeiten". Gemeinschaft der Flieger deutscher Streitkräfte e.V. (in German). Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  30. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 301.
  31. ^ Spick 1996, p. 228..
  32. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, pp. 315–322.
  33. ^ Obermaier 1989, pp. 75, 243.
  34. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 225.
  35. ^ Braatz & Göpel 2011, p. 319.
  36. ^ Patzwall 2008, p. 111.
  37. ^ Obermaier 1989, p. 75.
  38. ^ Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 213.
  39. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 246.
  40. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 424.
  41. ^ Von Seemen 1976, p. 182.
  42. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 101.
  43. ^ Von Seemen 1976, p. 58.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Aders, Gebhard; Held, Werner (1993). Jagdgeschwader 51 'Mölders' Eine Chronik – Berichte – Erlebnisse – Dokumente [Fighter Wing 51 'Mölders' A Chronicle - Reports - Experiences - Documents] (in German). Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 978-3-613-01045-1. 
  • Crandall, Jerry (2000). Yellow 10 The story of the ultra-rare Fw 190 D-13. Hamilton, MT: Eagle Edition. ISBN 978-0-9660706-3-7. 
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Josten, Günther (2011). Braatz, Kurt; Göpel, Wilhelm, eds. Gefechtsbericht — Kriegstagebücher 1939–1945. Kommodore in der Starfighter-Krise [Battle Report — War Diaries 1939–1945. Commodore in the Starfighter Crisis] (in German). Moosburg, Germany: NeunundzwanzigSechs. ISBN 978-3-9811615-7-1. 
  • Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 – 1945 [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Luftwaffe Fighter Force 1939 – 1945] (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 978-3-87341-065-7. 
  • Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8. 
  • Patzwall, Klaus D. (2008). Der Ehrenpokal für besondere Leistung im Luftkrieg [The Honor Goblet for Outstanding Achievement in the Air War] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-08-3. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Spick, Mike (1996). Luftwaffe Fighter Aces. New York: Ivy Books. ISBN 978-0-8041-1696-1. 
  • Stockert, Peter (2011). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 9 [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 9] (in German). Bad Friedrichshall, Germany: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. OCLC 76072662. 
  • Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 1: A–K] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6. 
  • Von Seemen, Gerhard (1976). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 : die Ritterkreuzträger sämtlicher Wehrmachtteile, Brillanten-, Schwerter- und Eichenlaubträger in der Reihenfolge der Verleihung : Anhang mit Verleihungsbestimmungen und weiteren Angaben [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 : The Knight's Cross Bearers of All the Armed Services, Diamonds, Swords and Oak Leaves Bearers in the Order of Presentation: Appendix with Further Information and Presentation Requirements] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7909-0051-4. 
  • Walker, Jonathan (2011). Poland Alone: Britain, SOE and the Collapse of the Polish Resistance 1944. Stroud: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-6943-0. 
Military offices
Preceded by
Oberstleutnant Erich Hartmann
Commander of Jagdgeschwader 71 "Richthofen"
30 May 1962 – 1 April 1967
Succeeded by
Oberst Horst Dieter Kallerhoff