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Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON)
Fiber Optical Cable.jpg
StatusIn force
Year started2003
Latest version(07/10)
July 2010
OrganizationITU-T, ITU-T Study Group 15
Related standards10G-PON, NG-PON2
LicenseFreely available

G.984,[1] commonly known as GPON (Gigabit-capable passive optical network), is a standard for passive optical networks (PON) published by the ITU-T. It is commonly used to implement the last kilometre of fibre-to-the-premises (FTTP) services.[2][3]

GPON puts requirements on the optical medium and the hardware used to access it, and defines the manner in which ethernet frames are converted to an optical signal, as well as the parameters of that signal. The bandwidth of the single connection between the OLT (optical line termination) and the ONTs (optical network terminals) is 2.4 Gb/s down, 1.2 Gb/s up, or rarely symmetric 2.4 Gb/s,[1] shared between up to 128 ONTs using a time-division multiple access (TDMA) protocol, which the standard defines.[4] GPON specifies protocols for error correction (Reed–Solomon) and encryption (AES), and defines a protocol for line control (OMCI) which includes authentication.

Though implementations of GPON share a lot of common features, many features were left undefined, thus in practice, there is little compatibility between the various implementations.[5] Specifically, the exact kind of fibre cable and connectors to use is undefined.[6]

The standards[edit]

The first version of GPON was ratified in 2003.[1] Since then, it has been expanded upon and revised several times. Work on the standard continues. As of July 2018, G.984.5 is currently being revised.[7] The most recent version comprises seven parts:

  • G.984.1 : General characteristics, 2008, with amendment 1 (2009) and 2 (2012)[1]
  • G.984.2 : Physical Media Dependent (PMD) layer specification, 2003, with amendment 1 (2006) and 2 (2008)[6]
  • G.984.3 : Transmission convergence layer specification, 2008, with amendments 1 (2009), 2 (2009), 3 (2012) and erratum 1 (2010)[4]
  • G.984.4 : ONT management and control interface (OMCI) specification, 2008, with amendments 1 (2009), 2 (2009), 3 (2010), erratum 1 (2009), corrigendum 1 (2010), and an implementer's guide (2009)[8]
  • G.984.5 : Enhancement Band, 2014, Coexistence with future WDM PON technology on the same medium[7]
  • G.984.6 : Reach extension (2008), with amendments 1 (2009) and 2 (2012)[9]
  • G.984.7 : Long reach (2010)[10]

The GPON OMCI recommendation G.984.4 draws on G.983.2, which defines the BPON management model. However, G.984.4 removed all references to ATM. G.988 is a stand-alone OMCI recommendation and supersedes G.984.4 except for GPON specifics that are not defined in G.988. Future work on the PON management model is expected to appear only in the GPON space.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d "G.984.1 : Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): General characteristics". ITU-T. 2003–2012.
  2. ^ "Review of Bell Fibe Internet". DSL Reports. 2018-04-12.
  3. ^ Bode, Karl (2008-03-13). "AT&T, Verizon Get Their GPON On". DSL Reports.
  4. ^ a b "G.984.3 : Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Transmission convergence layer specification". ITU-T. 2004–2012.
  5. ^ "GPON, ONT, and other FTTH questions". DSL Reports. 2015-12-30.
  6. ^ a b "G.984.2 : Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Physical Media Dependent (PMD) layer specification". ITU-T. 2003–2008.
  7. ^ a b "G.984.5 : Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Enhancement Band". ITU-T. 2007–2018.
  8. ^ "G.984.4 : Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): ONT management and control interface (OMCI) specification". ITU-T. 2004–2010.
  9. ^ "G.984.6 : Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Reach extension". ITU-T. 2008–2012.
  10. ^ "G.984.7 : Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Long reach". ITU-T. July 2010.