G. D. H. Cole
G. D. H. Cole
George Douglas Howard Cole
25 September 1889
|Died||14 January 1959 (aged 69)|
|Alma mater||Balliol College, Oxford|
|School or tradition||Guild socialism|
George Douglas Howard Cole (25 September 1889 – 14 January 1959) was an English political theorist, economist, and historian. As a libertarian socialist, he theorised guild socialism. He belonged to the Fabian Society and was an advocate for the co-operative movement.
First World War
As a conscientious objector during the First World War, Cole's involvement in the campaign against conscription introduced him to a co-worker, Margaret Postgate, whom he married in 1918. The couple both worked for the Fabian Society for the next six years before moving to Oxford, where Cole started writing for The Manchester Guardian.
In 1915, Cole became an unpaid research officer at the Amalgamated Society of Engineers. He advised the union on how to respond to wartime legislation including the Munitions Act. This role enabled him to escape conscription on the grounds that he was conducting work of national importance.
In 1925, he became reader in economics at University College, Oxford.
In 1929, he was appointed to the National Economic Advisory Council when it was set up by the second Labour government. In 1944, Cole became the first Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory at Oxford. He was succeeded in the chair by Isaiah Berlin in 1957.
Cole was initially a pacifist, but he abandoned this position around 1938, stating: "Hitler cured me of pacifism". During the 1930s, Cole sought to construct a British popular front against fascism. He identified the extent of the military threat before many of his colleagues had abandoned their pacifism. Cole lent strong support to the republican cause in Spain.
In 1941, Cole was appointed sub-warden of Nuffield College, Oxford. He was central to the establishment of the Nuffield College Social Reconstruction Survey which collected a large amount of demographic, economic and social data. This information was used to advocate for an extensive programme of social reform.
Cole became interested in Fabianism while studying at Balliol College, Oxford. He joined the Fabian Society's executive under the sponsorship of Sidney Webb. Cole became a principal proponent of guild socialist ideas, a libertarian socialist alternative to Marxian political economy. These ideas he put forward in The New Age before and during the First World War and also in the pages of The New Statesman, the weekly founded by the Beatrice Webb and George Bernard Shaw.
I became a Socialist because, as soon as the case for a society of equals, set free from the twin evils of riches and poverty, mastership and subjection, was put to me, I knew that to be the only kind of society that could be consistent with human decency and fellowship and that in no other society could I have the right to be content.— World Socialism Restated quoted by Margaret Cole, The Life of G. D. H. Cole,
Neither a Marxist nor a social democrat, Cole envisioned a socialism of decentralised association and active, participatory democracy, whose basic units would be sited at the workplace and in the community rather than in any central apparatus of the state.
Cole wrote at least seven books for the Left Book Club, all of which were published by Victor Gollancz Ltd. These are marked with LBC in the list of his books given below. He and his wife, Margaret Cole, together wrote 29 popular detective stories, featuring the investigators Superintendent Wilson, Everard Blatchington and Dr. Tancred. Cole and his wife created a partnership, but not a marriage. Cole took little interest in sex and he regarded women as a distraction for men. Margaret documented this comprehensively in a biography she wrote of her husband after his death.
Although Cole admired the Soviet Union for creating a socialist economy, he rejected its dictatorial government as a model for socialist societies elsewhere. In a 1939 lecture, Cole stated:
If I do not accept Stalin's answer, it is because I am not prepared to write off Democratic Socialism, despite all its failures and vacillations of recent years, as a total loss...Democratic Socialism offers the only means of building the new order on what is valuable and worth preserving in the civilisation of to-day.
In his book Europe, Russia and the Future published in 1941, Cole claimed that however immoral the new Nazi-dominated Europe was, in some ways it was better than the "impracticable" system of sovereign states that had preceded it. In economic terms, it could be said that "it would be better to let Hitler conquer all Europe short of the Soviet Union, and thereafter exploit it ruthlessly in the Nazi interest, than to go back to the pre-war order of independent Nation States with frontiers drawn so as to cut right across the natural units of production and exchange". Cole also stated:
I would much sooner see the Soviet Union, even with its policy unchanged, dominant over all Europe, including Great Britain, than see an attempt to restore the pre-war States to their futile and uncreative independence and their petty economic nationalism under capitalist domination. Much better be ruled by Stalin than by the destructive and monopolistic cliques which dominate Western capitalism.
Cole was also a theorist of the co-operative movement and made a number of contributions to the fields of co-operative studies, co-operative economics and the history of the co-operative movement. In particular, his book The British Co-operative Movement in a Socialist Society examined the economic status of the English CWS (the predecessor of the modern Co-operative Group), evaluated its possibility of achieving a Co-operative Commonwealth without state assistance and hypothesised what the role the co-operative might have in a socialist state.
A second book, titled A Century of Co-operation, examined the history of the movement from the very first co-operatives to the contribution of the Chartists and Robert Owen, through to the Rochdale Pioneers as well as the movement's development (in Great Britain) over the following century.
Cole contributed to An Outline of Modern Knowledge, ed. William Rose (Victor Gollancz, 1931) along with other leading authorities of the time, including Roger Fry, C. G. Seligman, Maurice Dobb and F. J. C. Hearnshaw.
The couple had one son and two daughters in a marriage that lasted forty-one years. However, the marriage does not seem to have been especially happy. Cole expressed little interest in actual romantic attachment and even less in sexual relations. Friends observed that emotional attachments tended to be with men rather than women. Cole was very fond of some of his male students. They included the future leader of the Labour Party Hugh Gaitskell. There is no evidence of any homosexual encounters either before or during his marriage.
Cole and his wife jointly wrote a number of books and articles, including twenty-nine detective stories.
Cole could not accept the idea of a "determinate human superior" his wife recalled that "he... never gave orders except in a purely routine and non-significant sense (this somehow did not conflict that he employed household servants throughout his life). His dislike of all forms of hierarchy and hatred of ritual led to atheism at an early age, though he never engaged in anti-religious polemics. While no luddite, he greatly admired everything produced by William Morris including his affection for the Cotswolds. Though he enjoyed classical music and derided the radio as "so much noise." Almost allergic to higher mathematics (he did not understand Algebra) he distrusted science, as it was being used to quantify things that were best left to interpretation.
In literature and poetry he enjoyed (after Morris) Defoe, Swift, William Wordsworth, Walt Whitman, Henry James, William Cobbett, Bertrand Russell, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Butler, but he found Edmund Burke and Thomas Carlyle pretentious. He disliked the "imperialism" of Shakespeare and hated D. H. Lawrence.
In the Spring of 1929 the Cole's returned to London, living in West Hampstead for six years until buying a "rambling Victorian" house called "Freeland" in Hendon where he lived for most of the last three decades of his life. In early 1957 he and his wife moved to a flat in Holland Park, Kensington. He died after going into a diabetic coma in the early hours of 14 January 1959 in hospital in Hampstead. In lieu of religious rites his brother-in-law, Raymond Postgate, read two passages from the works of William Morris at his funeral in Golders Green Crematorium. His estate was offered for probate at £46,617 (equivalent to £1,097,364 in 2020).
- The World of Labour (1913, revised 1920)
- Labour in War Time (1915)
- Trade Unionism on the Railways (1917) [with R. Page Arnot]
- Self-Government in Industry (1917, revised 1920)
- The Payment of Wages (1918)
- The Regulation of Wages During and After the War (1918)
- An Introduction to Trade Unionism (1918)
- Labour in the Commonwealth(1919)
- Social Theory (1920)
- Guild Socialism Restated (1920)
- Chaos and Order in Industry (1920)
- The Future of Local Government (1921)
- Rousseau's Social Contract and Discourses edited and translated in Everyman's Library (1923)
- Robert Owen (1923)
- Workshop Organisation (1923)
- Trade Unionism and Munitions (1923)
- The Life of William Cobbett (1925)
- Some Essentials of Socialist Propaganda (1932)
- The Intelligent Man's Guide through World Chaos (1932)
- The Intelligent Man's Review of Europe Today (1933) [with Margaret Cole]
- Studies in World Economics (1934)
- Principles of Economic Planning (1935)
- The Condition of Britain (1937) [with Margaret Cole] LBC
- The People's Front (1937) LBC
- Practical Economics(1937) Pelican Books, London
- Persons & Periods (1938)
- Socialism in Evolution (1938) Pelican
- The War on the Home Front (1939)
- War Aims (1939) LBC
- Europe, Russia and the Future (1941) LBC
- Great Britain in the Post-War World (1942) LBC
- The Fabian Society, Past and Present (1942)
- Fabian Socialism (1943)
- Monetary Systems and Theories (1943)
- The Means to Full Employment (1943) LBC
- A Century of Cooperation (1944)
- Money Its Present And Future (1944)
- The Common People, 1746–1946 (1946) [with Raymond Postgate]
- A Short History of the British Working Class Movement, 1789–1947 (1947) ISBN 0-415-26564-9
- An Intelligent Man's Guide to the Post-War World (1947)
- A History of the Labour Party from 1914 (London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1948)
- Consultation or Joint Management? (1949)
- Labour's Second Term (1949)
- The Meaning of Marxism (1950) LBC
- The British Co-operative Movement in a Socialist Society, (London, G. Allen & Unwin 1951)
- Introduction to Economic History 1750–1950 (London: Macmillan 1952)
- Studies in Class Structure, (London, Routledge and Kegan Paul 1955)
- Capitalism in the Modern World (1957)
- A History of Socialist Thought: 7 Volumes (London: Palgrave Macmillan (2003) ISBN 1-4039-0264-X
- Cole, G. D. H. (1923) The Brooklyn Murders
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1925) The Death of a Millionaire
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1926) The Blatchington Tangle
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1927) The Murder at Crome House
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1928) The Man from the River
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1928) Superintendent Wilson's Holiday
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1929) Poison in the Garden Suburb aka Poison in a Garden Suburb
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1930) Burglars in Bucks aka The Berkshire Mystery
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1930) Corpse in Canonicalsaka The Corpse in the Constable's Garden
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1931) The Great Southern Mystery aka The Walking Corpse
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1931) Dead Man's Watch
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1932) Death of a Star
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1933) A Lesson in Crime (short stories)
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1933) The Affair at Aliquid
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1933) End of an Ancient Mariner
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1934) Death in the Quarry
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1935) Big Business Murder
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1935) Dr Tancred Begins
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1935) Scandal at School aka The Sleeping Death
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1936) Last Will and Testament
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1936) The Brothers Sackville
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1937) Disgrace to the College
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1937) The Missing Aunt
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1938) Mrs Warrender's Profession
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1938) Off with her Head!
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1939) Double Blackmail
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1939) Greek Tragedy
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1940) Wilson and Some Others
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1940) Murder at the Munition Works
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1940) Counterpoint Murder
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1941) Knife in the Dark
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1942) Toper's End
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1945) Death of a Bride
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. I. (1946) Birthday Gifts
- Cole, G. D. H. and Cole, M. (1948) The Toys of Death
- Murder in Broad Daylight. BBC Home Service, 1 June 1934 (As by GDH and M Cole)
- The Bone of the Dinosaur. (Detection Club: Series 1, Episode 6). BBC Home Service, 23 and 27 November 1940 (As by GDH and M Cole)
Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (July 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Morris, Jeremy (2017). "F. D. Maurice and the Myth of Christian Socialist Origins". In Spencer, Stephen (ed.). Theology Reforming Society: Revisiting Anglican Social Theology. London: SCM Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-334-05373-6.
- "George Douglas Howard Cole Papers", p. 3. Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, Amsterdam. On line.
- Stears, Marc. "Cole, George Douglas Howard (1889–1959)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- Marc Stears, ‘Cole, George Douglas Howard (1889–1959)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 7 May 2017
- Marc Stears, ‘Cole, George Douglas Howard(1889–1959)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/32486, accessed 25 Oct 2017]
- Martin Ceadel, "The Peace Movement Between the Wars: Problems of Definition", in Campaigns for Peace : British peace movements. Edited by Richard Taylor and Nigel Young. Manchester University Press, 1987. ISBN 0719018927 (p. 84).
- Walter Schellenberg, The Schellenberg Memoirs, London 1956 (Deutsch: Aufzeichungen, München 1979) pp 174.
- G. D. H Cole, "World Socialism Restated," pamphlet (1956), quoted by Margaret Cole, The Life of G. D. H. Cole, Macmillan/St. Martin's (1971); cited, Harry Barnes, Three Score Years and Ten (24 July 2006).
- Peter Sedgwick, "A Return to First Things", Balliol College Annual Record 1980, pp.86–88 (review of A. W. Wright, G.D.H. Cole and Socialist Democracy). Marxists’ Internet Archive. Online.
- Daniel Ritschel, The Politics of Planning: The Debate on Economic Planning in Britain in the 1930s. Oxford University Press, 1997 ISBN 019820647X (pp. 282–83)
- Marc Stears, ‘Cole , Dame Margaret Isabel (1893–1980)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 7 May 2017
- Curtis Evans (28 November 2016). Murder in the Closet: Essays on Queer Clues in Crime Fiction Before Stonewall. McFarland. pp. 131–. ISBN 978-0-7864-9992-2.
- "The Decline of Capitalism". Lecture to Fabian Society, 1939.|Quoted in A. W. Wright, G. D. H. Cole and Socialist Democracy. Clarendon Press, 1979. ISBN 0-19-827421-1 (p. 226).
- G. D. H. Cole, Europe, Russia and the Future (London: Victor Gollancz, 1941), p. 104.
- Cole, Europe, Russia and the Future, p. 104.
- Cole, G. D. H., "The British Co-operative Movement in a Socialist Society: A Report for the Fabian Society", London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1951.
- Cole, G.D.H., A Century of Co-operation, Oxford: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1944.
- Cole, Dame Margaret (1971). The Life of G. D. H. Cole. McMillan. p. 35.
- ibid. p. 145
- Ibid. p. 36
- Ibid. p. 35-36
- Ibid. p. 47
- Ibid. p. 144
- Cole p. 171-173
- "Cole, George Ddouglas Howard". The Times. London. 4 September 1959. p. 12.
- "G. D. H. Cole". The Times. London. 15 January 1959.
- "G. D. H. Cole". The Times. London. 17 January 1959.
- The Times 4 September 1959 Ibid.
- [dead link]
- "Penguin First Editions". Penguin Publishing.
- Margaret Cole, The Life of G. D. H. Cole, Macmillan/St. Martin's (1971) ISBN 1-4191-0535-3
- A. W. (Tony) Wright, G. D. H. Cole and Socialist Democracy New York, Oxford (1979) ISBN 0-19-827421-1
- L. P. Carpenter, G.D.H. Cole: An Intellectual Biography, Cambridge (1974) ISBN 0-521-08702-3
- C. Wyatt, "A recipe for a cookshop of the future: G. D. H. Cole and the conundrum of sovereignty" Capital and Class 90 (2006)
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- "Archival material relating to G. D. H. Cole". UK National Archives.
- Works by G. D. H. Cole at Project Gutenberg
- Guild Socialism (1920)
- Some Essentials of Socialist Propaganda (1932)
- The War on the Home Front (1939)
- Capitalism in the Modern World (1957)
- New Statesman article on G.D.H. Cole (2012)
- In Memory of G.D.H. Cole by Ray Challinor.
- Mike Grost on the detective novels
|Party political offices|
| Chairman of the New Fabian Research Bureau
|New office|| Chairman of the Fabian Society
| Chairman of the Fabian Society
| President of the Fabian Society
|New office|| Chichele Professor of
Social and Political Theory