GAS5

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GAS5
Identifiers
Aliases GAS5, NCRNA00030, SNHG2, growth arrest specific 5 (non-protein coding)
External IDs GeneCards: GAS5
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

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RefSeq (protein)

n/a

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Location (UCSC) Chr 1: 173.86 – 173.87 Mb n/a
PubMed search [1] n/a
Wikidata
View/Edit Human

Growth arrest-specific 5 is a non-protein coding RNA that in humans is encoded by the GAS5 gene.[2][3]

GAS5 noncoding RNA, which accumulates in growth arrested cells, acts as a decoy hormone response element for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and hence blocks the upregulation of gene expression by activated GR.[4][5]

A number of studies have linked GAS5 to apoptosis and it may play a role in the progression of some types of cancer.[6][7][8]

The GAS5 introns host several snoRNA sequences, including SNORD81, SNORD47, SNORD80, SNORD79, SNORD78, SNORD44, SNORD77, SNORD76, SNORD75 and SNORD74.[3][9][10][11] These intronic sequences are more conserved than the exons of the host gene, these sorts of genes are often called "inside-out genes".[12]

It was recently discovered that the nonsense-mediated degradation pathway can regulate the function of the GAS5 in mammalian cells.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: growth arrest-specific 5 (non-protein coding)". 
  3. ^ a b Smith, C. M.; Steitz, J. A. (December 1998). "Classification of gas5 as a multi-small-nucleolar-RNA (snoRNA) host gene and a member of the 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine gene family reveals common features of snoRNA host genes". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 18 (12): 6897–6909. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.12.6897. PMC 109273Freely accessible. PMID 9819378. 
  4. ^ Kino T, Hurt DE, Ichijo T, Nader N, Chrousos GP (2010). "Noncoding RNA Gas5 Is a Growth Arrest and Starvation-Associated Repressor of the Glucocorticoid Receptor". Sci Signal. 3 (107): ra8. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2000568. PMC 2819218Freely accessible. PMID 20124551. 
  5. ^ Garabedian MJ, Logan SK (2010). "Glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding decoy is a gas". Sci Signal. 3 (108): pe5. doi:10.1126/scisignal.3108pe5. PMID 20145207. 
  6. ^ Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Pickard MR, Hedge VL, Farzaneh F, Williams GT (2009). "GAS5, a non-protein-coding RNA, controls apoptosis and is downregulated in breast cancer". Oncogene. 28 (2): 195–208. doi:10.1038/onc.2008.373. PMID 18836484. 
  7. ^ Nakamura Y, Takahashi N, Kakegawa E, Yoshida K, Ito Y, Kayano H, Niitsu N, Jinnai I, Bessho M (2008). "The GAS5 (growth arrest-specific transcript 5) gene fuses to BCL6 as a result of t(1;3)(q25;q27) in a patient with B-cell lymphoma". Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 182 (2): 144–9. doi:10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2008.01.013. PMID 18406879. 
  8. ^ Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Hedge VL, Kirkham L, Farzaneh F, Williams GT (2008). "Growth arrest in human T-cells is controlled by the non-coding RNA growth-arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5)". J Cell Sci. 121 (Pt 7): 939–46. doi:10.1242/jcs.024646. PMID 18354083. 
  9. ^ Tanaka R, Satoh H, Moriyama M, Satoh K, Morishita Y, Yoshida S, Watanabe T, Nakamura Y, Mori S (2000). "Intronic U50 small-nucleolar-RNA (snoRNA) host gene of no protein-coding potential is mapped at the chromosome breakpoint t(3;6)(q27;q15) of human B-cell lymphoma". Genes Cells. 5 (4): 277–87. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2000.00325.x. PMID 10792466. 
  10. ^ Raho G, Barone V, Rossi D, Philipson L, Sorrentino V (2000). "The gas 5 gene shows four alternative splicing patterns without coding for a protein". Gene. 256 (1–2): 13–7. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00363-2. PMID 11054530. 
  11. ^ Hirose T, Steitz JA (2001). "Position within the host intron is critical for efficient processing of box C/D snoRNAs in mammalian cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (23): 12914–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.231490998. PMC 60799Freely accessible. PMID 11606788. 
  12. ^ Eddy SR (1999). "Noncoding RNA genes". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 9 (6): 695–9. doi:10.1016/S0959-437X(99)00022-2. PMID 10607607. 
  13. ^ Tani H, Torimura M, Akimitsu N (2013). "The RNA degradation pathway regulates the function of GAS5 a non-coding RNA in mammalian cells". PLOS ONE. 8 (1): e556884. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055684. PMC 3559549Freely accessible. PMID 23383264. 

Further reading[edit]