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GAZ plant site main entrance
|Founded||1932 Nizhny Novgorod
(named Gorky 1932 - 1990)
|Headquarters||Nizhny Novgorod, NIZ, Russia|
|Bo Andersson (President & CEO of GAZ Group), Siegfried Wolf (Chairman of the Board of Directors of OAO GAZ)|
|Products||Automobiles, automotive parts|
|Revenue||$4.1 billion (GAZ Group 2011)|
|$264 million (GAZ Group 2011)|
GAZ or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (Russia, Nizhny Novgorod), translated as Gorky Automobile Plant (Russian: ГАЗ or Го́рьковский автомоби́льный заво́д), is a Russian automotive manufacturer. It started in 1932 as NAZ, a cooperative enterprise between Ford and the Soviet Union, as a result of a Five year plan.
GAZ is the core company of GAZ Group holding, a part of Basic Element business group. The headquarters of GAZ Group is located in Nizhny Novgorod. Russian Machines Corporation is the controlling shareholder in OAO GAZ.
GAZ Group is the leading manufacturer of commercial vehicles in Russia. GAZ Group produces light commercial and medium-duty vehicles (GAZ), heavy-duty trucks (UralAZ), buses PAZ, KAvZ, LiAZ, GOLAZ), cars, powertrain (YaMZ and UMZ) and automotive components. The market shares of the company: about 50% in the light commercial vehicles segment, 58% in the segment of medium-duty trucks, 42% in the all-wheel drive heavy-duty trucks segment and about 65% in the bus segment.
- 1 History
- 2 Products
- 3 Gallery
- 4 Coordinates
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
1929 to 2000
In May 1929 the Soviet Union signed an agreement with the Ford Motor Company. Under its terms, the Soviets agreed to purchase $13 million worth of automobiles and parts, while Ford agreed to give technical assistance until 1938 to construct an integrated automobile-manufacturing plant at Nizhny Novgorod. Production started on January 1, 1932, and the factory and marque was titled Nizhegorodsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or NAZ, but also displayed the "Ford" sign. GAZ's first vehicle was the medium-priced Ford Model A, sold as the NAZ-A, and a light truck, the Ford Model AA (NAZ-AA). NAZ-A production commenced in 1932 and lasted until 1936, during which time over 100,000 examples were built.
In 1933, the factory's name changed to Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or GAZ, when the city was renamed after Maxim Gorky; similarly, models were renamed GAZ-A and GAZ-AA. From 1935 to 1956, the official name was augmented with imeni Molotova (literally, named after Molotov). It became AvtoGAZ, with the integration of its various subcontractors, on 24 August 1971; the same year, it was awarded the Order of Lenin.
The GAZ-A was succeeded by the more modern GAZ-M1 (based largely on the four-cylinder version of the Ford Model B), produced from 1936 to 1942. The M letter stands for Molotovets ('of Molotov's fame'), it was the origin of the car's nickname, M'ka (Эмка).
Experience with the A and the M1 allowed the GAZ engineers to develop their own car model independently of Ford. Called the GAZ-11, this more upscale model entered production in 1942 and remained in limited wartime production until 1946. The M2's bodyshell entered limited production in 1941, mounted on a four-wheel drive chassis and sold in small quantities as the GAZ-61.
At that time, GAZ engineers worked to develop an all-new car model to enter production once hostilities ended. Called the GAZ-M20 Pobeda (Victory), this affordably-priced sedan with streamlined, fastback styling, entered production in 1946 and was produced by GAZ until 1958. (Licensed production under the name Warszawa continued in Polish FSO until the 1970s). It was the first Soviet car with electric windshield wipers (rather than mechanical- or vacuum-operated ones). It also had four-wheel hydraulic brakes. The GAZ-72, a four-wheel drive version, was produced in low volume.
GAZ also made GAZ-12 ZIM, GAZ-21 and GAZ-24 Volga and the luxury cars GAZ-13 and GAZ-14 Chaika. The ZIM was the first GAZ car to feature the leaping deer hood ornament. The GAZ-21 made its public debut in 1955, with a three cars on a demonstration drive from Moscow to the Crimea, two automatic models and a manual. It was launched in 1956 and became a symbol of the whole Soviet epoch. The car offered front seats able to fold flat and came standard with cigarette lighter and a radio at a time when most American-built cars did not have a radio. A small number of Volgas with the 195 hp (145 kW; 198 PS) Chaika engine, automatic transmission, and power steering were built for the KGB as the M23, 603 were built in 1962-1970. As the car's leading engineer Boris Dekhtyar recalled, the new version of the Volga had improved brake pads and reached a higher top speed of over 170 km/h; it was well received. The new engine produced 195 h.p. at 4,400 rpm. The production of Chaika started in 1959. Over the years several modifications of Volga and Chaika were produced.
In the 1960s GAZ plant renewed its truck range by launching such models as GAZ-52, GAZ-53А and GAZ-66. In the 1960s and 1970s, the plant was overhauled and updated; 1962 saw it fitted with the Soviet Union's first automated precision shop. In 1994 the plant started production of GAZelle light commercial vehicles. GAZelle quickly gained popularity in Russia. Currently there are over 300 modifications of these vehicles for various applications. GAZelle gave a huge impetus to development of small and medium businesses in Russia. GAZ plant also launched production of the related Valdai medium-duty truck and the Sobol (sable) light commercial vehicle.
GAZ produced its ten millionth vehicle in March 1981.
2000 to present
In 2006, GAZ made a move on the LDV company based in Birmingham, England, and acquired the van maker from the venture capital group Sun European Partners in July of that year. GAZ said that they planned to market the MAXUS (LDV's new Panel-van that was released in January 2005) into the rest of Europe and Asia. GAZ proposed to increase production in the LDV plant in England, while also commencing production of the MAXUS in a new plant in Russia. However, due to the recession, the production at the LDV plant was halted and the plant was sold to a Chinese company called ECO Concept in 2009.
As then DaimlerChrysler modernized its Sterling Heights Assembly plant in 2006, the old Chrysler Sebring / Dodge Stratus assembly line and tooling was sold to GAZ and was shipped to Nizhny Novgorod in Russia. To produce the vehicle in Nizhny Novgorod, GAZ built a modern production facility with a high degree of automation. GAZ marketed the vehicle with minor design as the Volga Siber from 2008 until the end of 2010 when it was phased out due to the economic crisis. Now GAZ car facility is used for contract manufacturing for Volkswagen and General Motors.
In 2009, Bo Andersson, former Vice-President of General Motors, was appointed President/CEO of GAZ Group. That was a turning point in the company’s development after the crisis period of 2008. Under the leadership of the foreign management the company renewed its model range, established cooperation with the leading international manufacturers and achieved the best financial results in the company’s history.
In 2010, GAZ upgraded its model range by launching new GAZelle-BUSINESS lineup with diesel and petrol engines and LPG equipment. In 2012 GAZ is starting preproduction of the new-generation light commercial vehicle GAZelle-Next. The new GAZ model will be launched into mass production in 2013.
In December 2010, GAZ Group signed a memorandum of understanding with Daimler on contract manufacturing of Mercedes-Benz Sprinter at GAZ plant in Nizhny Novgorod. It is expected that production will start in 2013. In June 2012 GAZ Group and Daimler announced start of implementation of Mercedes-Benz Sprinter contract manufacturing project at GAZ plant, and plans to organize contract manufacturing of Mercedes engines at Yaroslavl Motor Plant of GAZ Group.
In February 2011, General Motors and GAZ Group signed an agreement on contract assembly of the new Chevrolet Aveo car at GAZ plant in Nizhny Novgorod. As of December 2012, production was underway with an expected annual production of 30,000 vehicles.
In June 2011, Volkswagen Group Rus and GAZ Group signed a long-term agreement on contract manufacturing at GAZ plant with total investment of €200 million. It is planned to produce Škoda Yeti, the new Volkswagen Jetta and Škoda Octavia. The total production volume in the peak years will be about 110,000 vehicles. In November 2011, under the contract manufacturing agreement, GAZ started SKD assembly of Škoda Yeti; full-cycle production started in December 2012.
In 2011, GAZ Group achieved the highest results in the history of the company in terms of net profit, net profit margin, and revenue per employee. In 2011 the revenue of the company increased by 37%, EBITDA – by 49%, and net profit – by 4 times. The company’s revenue in 2011 was $4.1 billion, the company earned $264 million of net profit.
In 2011, Bo Andersson received Automotive Executive of the Year Award at the International Automotive Forum organized by the Adam Smith Institute, and was named a Eurostar of automotive industry in the emerging market category by the Automotive News Europe Magazine for achievements in model range renewal, establishment of cooperation between GAZ Group and leading international automakers, and positive financial results of the company in 2010.
- Minibuses and vans
- Medium-duty Trucks
- Heavy-duty Trucks
- Ural NEXT
- Ural 6370
- Powertrain and auto components
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- GAZ-A - 4-door phaeton car (1932–1936) under license Ford Model A (1929)
- GAZ-6 ″Pioneer″ - prototype closed sedan car (1934)
- GAZ-M1 - closed sedan car (1936–1943) - based on 1933 Ford B40
- GAZ-M25 - prototype 6x4 sedan (1938) - based on 6x4 pickup truck GAZ-M21
- GAZ-11-40 - prototype 4-door phaeton version of GAZ-11-73 (1940)
- GAZ-61-40 - 4x4 passenger car with 4-door phaeton body (1940), made only 5 copies
- GAZ-11-73 - closed sedan with 6-I (GAZ-11) engine (1940–1943, 1945–1946) - based on GAZ-M1
- GAZ-M1 V8 - NKVD V8 sedan with Ford V8 (1937–1941) - based on GAZ-M1
- GAZ-61-73 4x4 passenger car (1941–1945) - the world's first 4x4 sedan with a closed body
- GAZ-M20 - ″Pobeda″ passenger car (1946–1948, 1949–1955)
- GAZ-M20V - improved ″Pobeda″ passenger car (1955–1958)  (Russian)
- GAZ-M20G - ″Pobeda″ 6-I KGB car (1956–1958)
- GAZ-М72 - ″Pobeda″ 4x4 passenger car (1955–1958)  (Russian)
- GAZ-12 - ″ZIM″ 6-I big sedan (1949-1959)
- GAZ-12A - ″ZIM″ Taxi (???)
- GAZ-12B - ″ZIM″ Ambulance (1950-1960)
- GAZ-21 - ″Volga″ sedan (1956–1970)
- GAZ-18 - invalid car prototype (1959)
- GAZ-13 - ″Chayka″ luxury sedan (1959-1981)
- GAZ-13A - ″Chayka″ limousine (1960-1977), special edition
- GAZ-13B - ″Chayka″ 4-door phaeton car (1960-1977), special edition, made only 20 copies
- GAZ-22 - Volga station wagon (1962–1970)
- GAZ-23 - Volga V8 KGB sedan (1962–1971)
- GAZ-24 - Volga sedan (1968–1985)
- GAZ-24-01 - Volga sedan Taxi (1970–1985) from GAZ-24
- GAZ-24-07 - Volga sedan Taxi with LPG (1977–1985) from GAZ-24-01
- GAZ-24-02 - Volga station wagon (1972–1986) from GAZ-24
- GAZ-24-03 - Volga Ambulance wagon (1973–1986) from GAZ-24-02
- GAZ-24-04 - Volga station wagon Taxi (1973–1984) from GAZ-24-02
- GAZ-24-24 - Volga V8 KGB sedan (1971–1986) from GAZ-24
- GAZ-14 - ″Chayka″ luxury sedan (1977-1989)
- GAZ-14-05 - ″Chayka″ 4-door phaeton car (1982-1988), special edition, made only 15 copies
- GAZ-3102 - Volga sedan (1982–2008)
- GAZ-3101 - Volga V8 KGB luxury (escort, bodyguard) sedan (1984–1991)
- GAZ-24-10 - Volga sedan (1984–1992) - improved GAZ-24
- GAZ-24-11 - Volga sedan Taxi (1985–1992) from GAZ-24-10
- GAZ-24-17 - Volga sedan Taxi with LPG (1985–1992) from GAZ-24-11
- GAZ-24-12 - Volga station wagon (1986-1993) from GAZ-24-10
- GAZ-24-13 - Volga Ambulance wagon (1986–1993) from GAZ-24-12
- GAZ-24-34 - Volga V8 KGB sedan (1986–1991) from GAZ-24-10
- GAZ-31029 - Volga sedan (1992–1997) - restyling GAZ-24-10
- GAZ-31022 - Volga station wagon (1993-1998) fron GAZ-31029
- GAZ-31023 - Volga Ambulance wagon (1993-1998) fron GAZ-31022
- GAZ-3105 - 4WD Volga luxury sedan (1992-1996) - all new platform to replace GAZ-14 Chayka
- GAZ-3103 - prototype front-wheel-drive version of GAZ-3104 (1998) - all new platform to replace GAZ-3110
- GAZ-3104 - prototype 4WD version of GAZ-3103 (1998) - all new platform to replace GAZ-3102
- GAZ-3110 - Volga sedan (1997–2004) - restyling GAZ-31029
- GAZ-310221 - Volga station wagon (1998-2008) from GAZ-3110
- GAZ-310231 - Volga Ambulance wagon (1998-2008) fron GAZ-310221
- GAZ-3111 - RWD Volga luxury sedan (2001–2004)
- GAZ-31105 - Volga sedan (2004-2009) - restyling GAZ-3110
- GAZ-311055 - Volga LWB sedan (2005-2007) from GAZ-31105
- Volga Siber - mid-class sedan based on Chrysler Sebring platform (2008–2009)
Full-size luxury cars
- GAZ-12 ZIM - big sedan (1950–1960)
- GAZ-13 - Chaika limousine (1959–1981)
- GAZ-14 - Chaika limousine (1977–1988)
- GAZ-19 - prototype van (1955) - based on GAZ-69
- GAZ-2705 - GAZelle cargo van (from 1995)
- GAZ-2752 - Sobol cargo van (from 1998)
- GAZ-TK halftrack (1933–1934) - based on GAZ-A
- GAZ-VM prototype halftrack - based on GAZ-M1
- GAZ-60 halftrack (1938–1946)
- GAZ-65 halftrack (1940) - based on GAZ-MM
- GAZ-47 - off-road vehicle (1954–1967)
- GAZ-03-30 bus (1933–1941, 1945-1950) - based on GAZ-AA
- GAZ-05-193 staff bus (1936–1945) - based on GAZ-AAA
- GAZ-55 ambulance (1938–1950) - based on GAZ-AA
- GZA-651 bus (1949) - based on GAZ-63, production moved to PAZ
- GZA-653 bus (1950)
- GAZ-3221 - GAZelle passenger van (from 1996)
- GAZ-22171 - Sobol passenger van (from 1998)
- GAZ-2217 - Barguzin passenger van (from 1999)
- BA-3 armored car (1933–1935)
- BA-6 medium armoured car (1936–1938)
- BA-10 middle armoured car (1939–1941) - based on GAZ-AAA
- BA-64 light armoured car (1942–1943)
- BA-64B light armoured car (1943–1946)
- GAZ-40 - BTR-40 armoured personnel carrier (1950–1960)
- GAZ-49 - BTR-60 armored personnel carrier (1960–1976)
- GAZ-4905 - BTR-70 armored personnel carrier (1976–1986)
- GAZ-5903 - BTR-80 armored personnel carrier (from 1986)
- VPK-3927 Volk - tactical high-mobility multipurpose military armored vehicle
- GАZ-3934 "Siam" - armored police vehicle
- GAZ-5923 - Rostok (BTR-90) armored personnel carrier (from 2004 until 2010)
- VPK-7829 - Bumerang (VPK) armored personnel carrier (from 2011)
- GAZ-011 amphibian prototype (1949)
- GAZ 46 MAV - light 4x4 amphibian (1952-??)
- GAZ-3937 - Vodnik amphibious 4x4 amphibian (from 1997)
- GAZ-16 - prototype hovercraft (1962)
1971 USSR postage stamp depicting Volga GAZ-24 automobile
Coordinates of GAZ's Nizhniy Novgorod factory: Coordinates:
- Automotive industry
- Automotive industry in Russia
- Automobile model numbering system in the Soviet Union and Russia
- History of Ford Motor Company
- Odin, L.C. World in Motion 1939 - The whole of the year's automobile production. Belvedere Publishing, 2015. ASIN: B00ZLN91ZG.
- Thompson, Andy. Cars of the Soviet Union (Haynes Publishing, Somerset, UK, 2008), p.120.
- Thompson, p. 52
- Thompson, p. 53
- Thompson, p. 68
- Thompson, p. 61
- Thompson, p. 61
- Thompson, p. 62
- Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1946-1959 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2008), passim.
- Thompson, pp.120-121
- Б. А. Дехтяр. "Хвостовые" автомобили ГАЗ. // Биржа плюс Авто. №36. 13.09.2001. С. 38
- Легковой автомобиль ГАЗ-23. Инструкция по уходу. Издание второе. Горький. 1967. С. 114
- Thompson, p.120
- Thompson, p.242
- Ruddick, Graham (October 15, 2009). "LDV Vans bought by China's Qu Li". London: The Telegraph, October 15, 2009.
- "US: GAZ to buy Sebring/Stratus assembly line from Chrysler". Just-Auto, April 18, 2006.
- "GAZ Group has started serial production of upgraded GAZelle-Business" (Press release). GAZ Group. 2010-02-25.
- "Russia: Daimler, GAZ sign Sprinter assembly MoU". Automotive World, December 24, 2010.
- "GM to assemble Chevrolets at Russia's GAZ plant". Reuters, February 1, 2011. February 1, 2011.
- Andrew E. Kramer (December 25, 2012). "Russia's Desire for Cars Grows, and Foreign Makers Take Notice". The New York Times. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- "Skoda Yeti Now Assembled at GAZ Full Cycle". wroom.ru. December 6, 2012. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to GAZ.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to GAZ vehicles.|
- Official site of the plant
- GAZ official website (English)
- GAZ official website (Russian)
- GAZ automotive history (Russian)(English)
|GAZ, a subsidiary of GAZ Group, car timeline, 1930–1959 — next »|
|Executive car||GAZ-A||GAZ-M1||GAZ-M20 Pobeda|
|Luxury car||GAZ-12 ZIM|
|« previous — GAZ, a subsidiary of GAZ Group, car timeline, 1960–present|
|Executive car||GAZ-21 Volga|
|GAZ-24 Volga||GAZ-24-10 Volga||GAZ-31029 Volga||GAZ-3110 Volga||GAZ-31105 Volga|
|GAZ-3105 Volga||GAZ-3111 Volga||GAZ Siber|
|Luxury car||GAZ M13 Chaika|
|GAZ M14 Chaika|