GCE Advanced Level
The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the educational authorities of British Crown dependencies to students completing secondary or pre-university education. A number of countries, including Singapore, Kenya, Mauritius and Zimbabwe have developed qualifications with the same name as and a similar format to the British A Levels. Obtaining A Level or equivalent qualifications is generally required for university entrance.
A Levels are generally worked towards over two years and split into two parts, with one part studied in each year. The first part is known as the Advanced Subsidiary Level, A1 Level or AS Level (the AS Level acronym was previously used for the separate Advanced Supplementary Level qualification). The second part is known as the A2 Level and is more in depth and academically rigorous than the A1 Level. The AS Level is a qualification in its own right and the AS Level combined with the A2 Level forms the complete A Level qualification, with the exception of linear qualifications in which all of the A Level marks are obtained from exams taken in the second year. Up to June 2009 a third Special/Advanced Extension Award level was available for the brightest candidates.
A number of countries use A Levels as a school-leaving qualification. The A Levels taken by students in some countries often differ significantly from the A Levels taken in the United Kingdom.
A Levels are a college or sixth form leaving qualification offered in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. These are not compulsory, unlike GCSEs. In Scotland, A Levels are also offered by selected schools as an alternative school-leaving qualification in place of the Scottish Advanced Higher. The five main examination boards which administer British A Levels in the UK are:
- Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA)
- Oxford, Cambridge and RSA Examinations (OCR)
- Edexcel (Edexcel Pearson - London Examinations)
- Welsh Joint Education Committee (WJEC)
- Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment (CCEA)
Edexcel and Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) also offer international versions of the British A Levels in the United Kingdom and worldwide.
The British variant of A/AS levels are also taken in many Commonwealth and former Commonwealth countries, as well as in examination centres worldwide. British international schools in foreign countries generally offer the British A Levels as offered through Edexcel or Cambridge International Examinations. At select examination centres, the British A Level exams may also be available to private candidates.
In Nepal, Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) GCE Advanced Level qualifications are offered by some of the private, public and international schools as an alternative to the Higher Secondary Education Board (HSEB) +2. A-level has become a popular choice for a number of students in Nepal.
A-levels offered in Pakistan by non-governmental, private institutions, along with International Baccalaureate and other international examinations. Examinations are handled by international British boards and the program is equivalent to Higher Secondary School Certificate. Academies are established all around the country which prepare the students to take the examinations as a private candidate.
In Brunei, the A Level qualification is offered, with examinations conducted by Cambridge International Examinations (CIE). Some subjects are unique to Brunei or have a format, curriculum, or syllabus that is unique to Brunei.
In Malaysia, the A Level qualification is offered, with examinations conducted by Cambridge International Examinations (CIE). Some subjects are unique to Malaysia or have a format, curriculum, or syllabus that is unique to Malaysia. For instance, there are two types of A Level in Malaysia, Cambridge A Level (administered by Cambridge International Examinations) and Edexcel International Advanced Level (administered by Pearson International).
In Mauritius, A/AS Level qualifications are taken as part of the Higher School Certificate, awarded upon successful completion of secondary school after passing of examinations jointly administered by the Mauritius Examinations Syndicate and the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES). A number of exam papers for offered, such as French, are customised to support the national educational standards. Additionally, International A Level qualifications from Edexcel are available, for which exams may be registered through the Mauritius Examinations Syndicate.
In Seychelles, the A Level qualification is offered, with examinations conducted by Cambridge International Examinations (CIE). Some subjects are unique to Seychelles or have a format, curriculum, or syllabus that is unique to Seychelles.
In Singapore, H1/H2/H3 level qualifications are awarded upon successful completion of examinations jointly administered by Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE), Singapore Examinations and Assessment Board (SEAB) and the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES).
In Sri Lanka, A Level is offered by governmental and non governmental schools. The qualifications are awarded upon successful completion of examinations called Local A Levels while most of the private schools award them upon London A Levels. Local GCE Advanced Level qualification is offered by the Department of Examinations. Passing A Levels is the major requirement for applying local universities.
In India, Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) GCE Advanced Level qualifications are offered at private and international schools as an alternative to the conventional Indian School Certificate (ISC) or Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC).
The GCE Advanced Level qualification is offered by the Zimbabwe School Examinations Council (ZIMSEC). Before, this qualification was jointly offered by Cambridge International Examinations and the Council in Zimbabwe. The ZIMSEC variant is perceived to be more challenging than the UK version mostly in science subjects.
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Recently[when?] within the Caribbean there has been a move away from the GCE Advanced Level to the CXC CAPE examinations, making them a de facto university entrance examination. Some universities also require applicants to take separate entrance examination. The International Baccalaureate and European Baccalaureate are also accepted.
In Hong Kong, the British A Level was once accused of grade inflation many years ago, and thus over time both the GCE A Level (GCEAL) and HKAL have become more strictly graded, as shown by NARIC research. Compared to the usual 25–30% rate of achieving an A-grade in the UK AS/A2, there could be statistically fewer than 0.05% candidates scoring an "A" in a single examination in the Hong Kong Advanced Supplementary Level Examination and less than 1% rate of achieving an A-grade every year in an A Level subject. However, this comparison is seen by many[by whom?] as being meaningless and misleading because in the first place, grade A is not the top distinction level and so comparing the second best grade in the GCE A Level to the top grade in HKAL is not very useful and objective. Moreover, it is important to note that because of the significantly different measurement methodologies, these examinations are not directly comparable in terms of the skills and knowledge demonstrated at each grade and that distinction rates alone cannot serve as a fair indicator of one's absolute academic performance. In that NARIC research, only the cumulative percentages were taken into account to reach the huge generalisations, on the very unsafe assumption that two scales are exactly identical and standardised. The wide recognition for both qualifications in many[who?] local universities and companies all attests to this. For example, many[who?] prestigious overseas universities regard the HK qualifications (HKCEE and HKALE) as being equivalent to the UK ones (IGCSE and GCEAL) on a grade-by-grade basis.
- GCSE - General Certificate of Secondary Education (An entry qualification)
- GCE - Ordinary (O) Level (An entry qualification that has been phased out in the United Kingdom)
- Further / Special
- International A-Levels
- International alternates
- Advanced Placement Program (similar qualification in the United States)
- Bagrut (similar qualification in Israel)
- Leaving Certificate
- Malaysian Higher School Certificate (better known as "STPM", an equivalent examination in Malaysia)
- Matriculation Certificate
- Senior Secondary Certificate of Education (Australia)
- "JAIN INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL, BANGALORE, INDIA". jirs.ac.in.
- "Modern Indian School". misktm.edu.np.
- "Zimbabwe School Examinations Council About". Zimbabwe School Examinations Council. Retrieved 2014-07-25.
- Caribbean Examinations Council Report. Reforming the Examination System. House of Commons, 26 March 2003. Retrieved 12 June 2006.
- "A research study into comparison of grades achieved in the Hong Kong HKCEE and HKALE with the GCSE and British GCE A Levels", conducted by NARIC UK
- "". External link in
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