GCE Ordinary Level (United Kingdom)
The General Certificate of Education (GCE) Ordinary Level, also called the O-level or O level, was a subject-based academic qualification. Introduced in 1951 as a replacement for existing 16+ School Certificate (SC), the O-level would act as a pathway to the new, more in-depth and academically rigorous A-level (Advanced Level), in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Later the complementary and more vocational Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) was added to broaden the subjects available and offer qualifications in non academic subjects. The O-Level and CSE were replaced in the United Kingdom in 1988 by the GCSE and later complementary IGCSE exams. The Scottish equivalent was the O-grade (replaced, following a separate process, by the Standard Grade). An O-level branded qualification is still awarded by Cambridge International Examinations in select locations.
O-levels were predominantly exam-based; this had advantages for students in part-time or evening education. Some commentators criticised this mainly exam-based approach as offering only partial proof of the student's overall ability in comparison with other methods (e.g., coursework-based assessment). There was no summative "school certificate": each subject was a separate O-level in its own right.
Madsen Pirie found that the O-level was advantageous to boys because of exam-based learning. Pirie also observes that the GCSE focus on coursework has disadvantaged boys, reversing the gender gap in attainment, to the degree where in all subjects girls outperform boys, including traditionally male subjects such as sciences and physical education.
Initially candidates were only awarded a pass or fail classification, though the independent exam boards soon offered competing numeric and alphabetic classifications, for example 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 would be a pass, while grades 7, 8 and 9 were fails from the JMB. From 1975 standardized alphabetic grades where introduced with grades A, B, C, D, and E were passes, and f and U (Unclassified) were fails. Between 1965 and 1985 grades were allocated primarily on a norm-referenced basis, assigning a fixed proportion of each cohort to each grade (A 10%, B 15%, C 25-30%, D 5-10%, E 5-10%, U 15-20%). Though some exceptions existed, both at the subject and Exam Board level, with Latin and Greek pass rates being consistently higher than other subjects, with 75.4% passing in 1976, in contrast to an average 59% pass rate across all subjects e.g. Biology 56.4%, History 57%. The pass rate and top awards by the Oxford & Cambridge board were also consistently higher than the other boards e.g. In 1976, 27% of Latin entrants gained an A, and ~17% of French, German and Music candidates, this was attributed to the O&C board being primarily used by the Independent schools. The proportion obtaining a pass, A-D, or equivalent was initially fixed at 57% - 58%, and remained under 60% through the 1970s, though there was regional variation with Northern Ireland awarding consistently more pass grades than Wales e.g. In 1982, the pass rates were: Northern Ireland 62%, England 58% Wales 53%. In 1984 a decision was taken, by the Secondary Examinations Council, to replace the norm referencing with criteria referencing, where 16+ and 18+ grades would in future be awarded on Examiner Judgement, this change was implemented, at O-Level, in June 1986. In the final year DES statistics were available 6.8% achieved an A, and 39.8% an A-C grade.
O-levels incorporate an element of negative marking, with marks deducted for incorrect answers, poor spelling, grammar or handwriting.
The table below compares the grading under the O Level / CSE system and GCSE system, at the time of the June 1988 introduction and June 1994/June 2017 revisions of GCSE grading:
|GCSE Grade||O Level Grade||CSE Grade|
Note that this table does not display correctly on the mobile version of Wikipedia, as it incorrectly shows the match between the 2017 grades and the 1994 grades
- Green background – certificate and qualification awarded and considered a 'good pass'
- Blue background – certificate and qualification awarded
- Red background – no certificate or qualification awarded
- 9–1 grades phased in from 2017 to 2020, depending on subject
- A*–G grades last used 2016 to 2019, depending on subject
- Before 1975, each exam board had its own grading system (some used letters, others numbers), with grades only given to schools and not recorded on students' certificates
The 1978 Waddell Report, when comparing O-Level and CSE entrants stated: "the O Level examination tending to be aimed at the upper 20 per cent of the full ability range and CSE catering for the next 40 per cent", is partially supported by the statistics. For subjects where an equivalent O-level paper existed approximately 36% of the pupils entered for either exam, after 1976, sat the O-Level, the remainder (64%) sat the CSE paper. The proportion taking CSE exams increased following the raising of the minimum school leaving age to 16, in 1973, and the subsequent fall in the proportion sitting neither exam e.g.
|Year||Pupils||O-Level Maths Candidates||CSE Maths Candidates||Total Candidates||% Maths Papers: O-Level||% Maths Papers: CSE||% Pupils entered for Maths|
The O-Level syllabi, examinations and awards were made by 9 independent boards: Associated Examining Board, Durham University Examinations Board (dissolved 1964), Joint Matriculation Board, Oxford and Cambridge, Oxford, Southern, Cambridge, London, and Welsh Joint Education Committee
Unlike CSE examinations the participating schools had a choice of syllabi and awarding body, and were not required to use a designated local board.
The O-level qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were replaced by the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). However, the O-level brand is still used in many Commonwealth countries, such as Bangladesh, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, and Singapore, instead of or alongside the IGCSE qualifications. Some British schools also reverted to exams based on the O-levels. The Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination was also benchmarked against the O-levels for comparable subjects. But it has switched to benchmark against the IGCSE. The School Certificate of Mauritius continues to use the O-level exams.
O-levels continue to thrive as well respected international qualifications for students in other countries, who use them for preparation for advanced study in their own country and/or access higher education overseas. Approximately 12 million candidates from more than 200 countries register annually for O-level examinations across the world. Institutions that offer O-levels include Cambridge International Examinations (CIE).
Cambridge International Examinations offers curricula for approximately 40 different subjects.
- Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE)
- GCE Advanced Level (A-Level);
- GCE Ordinary Level (International) (O-Level)
- General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which replaced the O Levels and CSE
- International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE), which is offered with or instead of O Levels internationally
- General Certificate of Education (GCE), which comprises O Levels and A-levels
- School certificate (SC), predecessor to the GCS O-Level and CSE qualifications
- Levy, Andrew. "A* to G grades will be abolished in revamp of GCSEs: Exams will given numbers from one to nine while papers based on pupils' ability will also be axed". Mail Online. Daily Mail. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Brooks, Ron (2014) [First published 1991]. "A decade and more of debate". Contemporary Debates in Education: An Historical Perspective. New York: Routledge. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-582-05797-5. OL 1863538M.
- Pirie, Masen. "How exams are ﬁxed in favour of girls", The Spectator, 20 January 2001.
- In particular see page 88 of the definitive UCAS document at http://www.dur.ac.uk/resources/ug.admissions/ucasinfo/ukquals07.pdf
- Geddes, Diana (1977-08-16). "From borderline to pass, how O level papers are marked". The Times (60319). Times [London, England]. Times [London, England]. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Diana, Geddes (1978-06-05). "Comparison of GCE examination standards gives reassuring evidence, review of 34 studies says.". The Times (60319). Times [London, England]. Times [London, England]. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "THE BACKGROUND TO THE A LEVELS DEBATE". UK Parliament. UK Parliament. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- "O-levels v GCSEs - how do they compare?". The Telegraph. The Telegraph. 2012-09-17. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- Waddell, James. "The Waddell Report - School Examinations". Education In England. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office 1978. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "The Swann Report (1985) - Education for All". Educationengland. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "The Cockcroft Report (1982) - Mathematics counts". Education England. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Clark, Laura. "Private schools dump GCSEs in favour of old-style O Levels", Daily Mail, 9 August 2006.
- Cambridge O Levels described at CIE's website