From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
AliasesGCLC, GCL, GCS, GLCL, GLCLC, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit
External IDsMGI: 104990 HomoloGene: 1148 GeneCards: GCLC
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 6 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 6 (human)[1]
Chromosome 6 (human)
Genomic location for GCLC
Genomic location for GCLC
Band6p12.1Start53,497,341 bp[1]
End53,616,970 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GCLC 202922 at fs.png

PBB GE GCLC 202923 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 6: 53.5 – 53.62 MbChr 9: 77.75 – 77.79 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Glutamate—cysteine ligase catalytic subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GCLC gene.[5][6]


Glutamate-cysteine ligase, also known as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase is the first rate limiting enzyme of glutathione synthesis. The enzyme consists of two subunits, a heavy catalytic subunit and a light regulatory subunit. The gene encoding the catalytic subunit encodes a protein of 367 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 72.773 kDa and maps to chromosome 6. The regulatory subunit is derived from a different gene located on chromosome 1p22-p21. Deficiency of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in human is associated with enzymopathic hemolytic anemia.[6]

Model organisms[edit]

Model organisms have been used in the study of GCLC function. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Gclctm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi[11][12] was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium program — a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists — at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.[13][14][15]

Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion.[9][16] Twenty four tests were carried out on mutant mice, however no significant abnormalities were observed.[9]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000001084 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000032350 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:".
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  5. ^ Gipp JJ, Chang C, Mulcahy RT (May 1992). "Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a full-length cDNA for human liver gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 185 (1): 29–35. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(05)80950-7. PMID 1350904.
  6. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: GCLC glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit".
  7. ^ "Salmonella infection data for Gclc". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.
  8. ^ "Citrobacter infection data for Gclc". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.
  9. ^ a b c Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: High throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta Ophthalmologica. 88 (S248). doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.4142.x.
  10. ^ Mouse Resources Portal, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.
  11. ^ "International Knockout Mouse Consortium".
  12. ^ "Mouse Genome Informatics".
  13. ^ Skarnes WC, Rosen B, West AP, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V, Mujica AO, Thomas M, Harrow J, Cox T, Jackson D, Severin J, Biggs P, Fu J, Nefedov M, de Jong PJ, Stewart AF, Bradley A (Jun 2011). "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337–42. doi:10.1038/nature10163. PMC 3572410. PMID 21677750.
  14. ^ Dolgin E (Jun 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262–3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718.
  15. ^ Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247.
  16. ^ van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW (2011). "The mouse genetics toolkit: revealing function and mechanism". Genome Biology. 12 (6): 224. doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-224. PMC 3218837. PMID 21722353.

Further reading[edit]

  • Dickinson DA, Levonen AL, Moellering DR, Arnold EK, Zhang H, Darley-Usmar VM, Forman HJ (Oct 2004). "Human glutamate cysteine ligase gene regulation through the electrophile response element". Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 37 (8): 1152–9. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.06.011. PMID 15451055.
  • Lebo RV, Kredich NM (Apr 1978). "Inactivation of human gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase by cystamine. Demonstration and quantification of enzyme-ligand complexes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 253 (8): 2615–23. PMID 24639.
  • Beutler E, Moroose R, Kramer L, Gelbart T, Forman L (Jan 1990). "Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase deficiency and hemolytic anemia". Blood. 75 (1): 271–3. PMID 2294991.
  • Konrad PN, Richards F, Valentine WN, Paglia DE (Mar 1972). "-Glutamyl-cysteine synthetase deficiency. A cause of hereditary hemolytic anemia". The New England Journal of Medicine. 286 (11): 557–61. doi:10.1056/NEJM197203162861101. PMID 5058793.
  • Mulcahy RT, Gipp JJ (Apr 1995). "Identification of a putative antioxidant response element in the 5'-flanking region of the human gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy subunit gene". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 209 (1): 227–33. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.1493. PMID 7726839.
  • Sierra-Rivera E, Summar ML, Dasouki M, Krishnamani MR, Phillips JA, Freeman ML (1995). "Assignment of the gene (GLCLC) that encodes the heavy subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase to human chromosome 6". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 70 (3–4): 278–9. doi:10.1159/000134051. PMID 7789189.
  • Kondo T, Yoshida K, Urata Y, Goto S, Gasa S, Taniguchi N (Sep 1993). "gamma-Glutamylcysteine synthetase and active transport of glutathione S-conjugate are responsive to heat shock in K562 erythroid cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (27): 20366–72. PMID 8104187.
  • Tsuchiya K, Mulcahy RT, Reid LL, Disteche CM, Kavanagh TJ (Dec 1995). "Mapping of the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene (GLCLC) to human chromosome 6p12 and mouse chromosome 9D-E and of the regulatory subunit gene (GLCLR) to human chromosome 1p21-p22 and mouse chromosome 3H1-3". Genomics. 30 (3): 630–2. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1293. PMID 8825659.
  • Walsh AC, Li W, Rosen DR, Lawrence DA (1997). "Genetic mapping of GLCLC, the human gene encoding the catalytic subunit of gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase, to chromosome band 6p12 and characterization of a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat within its 5' untranslated region". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 75 (1): 14–6. doi:10.1159/000134447. PMID 8995480.
  • Misra I, Griffith OW (Jul 1998). "Expression and purification of human gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase". Protein Expression and Purification. 13 (2): 268–76. doi:10.1006/prep.1998.0897. PMID 9675072.
  • Tu Z, Anders MW (Dec 1998). "Identification of an important cysteine residue in human glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit by site-directed mutagenesis". The Biochemical Journal. 336 ( Pt 3) (3): 675–80. PMC 1219919. PMID 9841880.
  • Galloway DC, Blake DG, McLellan LI (Jul 1999). "Regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase regulatory subunit (GLCLR) gene expression: identification of the major transcriptional start site in HT29 cells". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1446 (1–2): 47–56. doi:10.1016/S0167-4781(99)00073-1. PMID 10395918.
  • Manna SK, Kuo MT, Aggarwal BB (Jul 1999). "Overexpression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase suppresses tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis and activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B and activator protein-1". Oncogene. 18 (30): 4371–82. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202811. PMID 10439045.
  • Beutler E, Gelbart T, Kondo T, Matsunaga AT (Oct 1999). "The molecular basis of a case of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase deficiency". Blood. 94 (8): 2890–4. PMID 10515893.
  • Ristoff E, Augustson C, Geissler J, de Rijk T, Carlsson K, Luo JL, Andersson K, Weening RS, van Zwieten R, Larsson A, Roos D (Apr 2000). "A missense mutation in the heavy subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene causes hemolytic anemia". Blood. 95 (7): 2193–6. PMID 10733484.
  • Tatebe S, Sinicrope FA, Kuo MT (Feb 2002). "Induction of multidrug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP3 and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene expression by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human colon cancer cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 290 (5): 1427–33. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2002.6367. PMID 11820781.
  • Yang P, Yokomizo A, Tazelaar HD, Marks RS, Lesnick TG, Miller DL, Sloan JA, Edell ES, Meyer RL, Jett J, Liu W (Mar 2002). "Genetic determinants of lung cancer short-term survival: the role of glutathione-related genes". Lung Cancer. 35 (3): 221–9. doi:10.1016/S0169-5002(01)00426-3. PMID 11844594.
  • Ray S, Watkins DN, Misso NL, Thompson PJ (Apr 2002). "Oxidant stress induces gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthesis in human bronchial epithelial NCI-H292 cells". Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 32 (4): 571–7. doi:10.1046/j.0954-7894.2002.01294.x. PMID 11972604.