Growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was first identified as Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 or MIC-1. It is a protein belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that has a role in regulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways in injured tissues and during disease processes. GDF15 is also known as TGF-PL, MIC-1, PDF, PLAB, and PTGFB. GDF15 mRNA is most abundant in the liver, with lower levels seen in some other tissues. Its expression in liver can be significantly up-regulated in during injury of organs such as liver, kidney, heart and lung.
^Bootcov, Michelle R; Bauskin, Asne R.; et al. (1997). "MIC-1, a novel macrophage inhibitory cytokine, is a divergent member of the TGF-β superfamily". PNAS. 94 (21): 11514-11519.CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
^ abZimmers T, Jin X, Hsiao E, McGrath S, Esquela A, Koniaris L (2005). "Growth differentiation factor-15/macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 induction after kidney and lung injury". Shock. 23 (6): 543–8. PMID15897808.