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Growth differentiation factor 15
Symbols GDF15 ; GDF-15; MIC-1; MIC1; NAG-1; PDF; PLAB; PTGFB
External IDs OMIM605312 MGI1346047 HomoloGene3576 GeneCards: GDF15 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GDF15 221577 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 9518 23886
Ensembl ENSG00000130513 ENSMUSG00000038508
UniProt Q99988 Q9Z0J7
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_004864 NM_011819
RefSeq (protein) NP_004855 NP_035949
Location (UCSC) Chr 19:
18.37 – 18.39 Mb
Chr 8:
70.63 – 70.63 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a protein belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that has a role in regulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways in injured tissues and during disease processes.[1] GDF15 is also known as TGF-PL, MIC-1, PDF, PLAB, and PTGFB.[2] GDF15 mRNA is most abundant in the liver, with lower levels seen in some other tissues. Its expression in liver can be significantly up-regulated in during injury of organs such as liver, kidney, heart and lung.[1][2][3]


  1. ^ a b Zimmers T, Jin X, Hsiao E, McGrath S, Esquela A, Koniaris L (2005). "Growth differentiation factor-15/macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 induction after kidney and lung injury". Shock 23 (6): 543–8. PMID 15897808. 
  2. ^ a b Hsiao E, Koniaris L, Zimmers-Koniaris T, Sebald S, Huynh T, Lee S (2000). "Characterization of growth-differentiation factor 15, a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member induced following liver injury". Mol Cell Biol 20 (10): 3742–3751. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.10.3742-3751.2000. PMC 85678. PMID 10779363. 
  3. ^ Ago T, Sadoshima J (2006). "GDF15, a cardioprotective TGF-beta superfamily protein". Circ Res 98 (3): 294–297. doi:10.1161/01.RES.0000207919.83894.9d. PMID 16484622. 

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