General Electric Genesis (officially trademarked GENESIS) is a series of passenger locomotives produced by GE Transportation Systems, a subsidiary of General Electric. Between 1992 and 2001, a total of 321 units were built for Amtrak, Metro-North, and Via Rail.
The Genesis series of locomotives was designed by General Electric in response to a specification published by Amtrak and ultimately selected over a competing design presented by GM EMD. The Genesis series are unique among current North American diesel-electric locomotives because of their low height. This height restriction allowed the locomotive to travel easily through low-profile tunnels in the Northeast Corridor. The Genesis series is lower than even the previous-generation F40PH by 14 inches (356 mm), and is the only Amtrak diesel locomotive that meets the clearance or loading gauge requirements on every Amtrak route.
The GE Genesis series is unique among recently manufactured North American passenger locomotives in that it uses a single, monocoque carbody design, thus making it lighter, more aerodynamic, and more fuel efficient than its predecessors (F40PH, F59PH, P30CH, P32-BWH). However, this makes it more costly and time-consuming to maintain and repair. In 2004, Amtrak started installing bolt-on nose cones on its units for easy replacement in the event of a grade crossing collision with a vehicle. As an example of the improvements over the predecessor locomotives, the Genesis is 22% more fuel-efficient than the F40PH while producing 25% more horsepower. In addition, all Genesis locomotives have four-stroke engines instead of the two-stroke engines previously used in EMD counterparts.
The Genesis unit is a fully computerized locomotive which automatically controls all on-board functions, thus producing high reliability while keeping the maintenance requirements low. For example, its computers can automatically reduce the power plant's output in the event that the locomotive is overheating, or suffering from low oil pressure, low water pressure, or reduced airflow into the intakes, thus making it still operable.
All Genesis engines can provide head-end power (HEP) to the train drawn from an alternator or inverter powered by the main engine at a maximum rating of 800 kilowatts (1,100 hp), making each unit capable of providing HEP for up to 16 Superliner railcars. The P40DC and P42DC power plants can supply 60-hertz head-end power either from the HEP alternator with the engine speed-locked to 900 rpm (normal mode) or from the traction alternator with the engine speed-locked to 720 rpm (standby mode). In the latter case, traction power is unavailable. The P32AC-DM powerplant does not have to be locked at a certain rpm because it utilizes an HEP inverter, which allows the prime mover to run at 1047 rpm when providing both traction power and HEP, and to idle at 620 rpm (or notch three) while still providing HEP for lighting and air-conditioning when not providing traction power.
The trucks of Genesis locomotives were made by Krupp Verkehrstechnik, which has since been absorbed by Siemens Mobility; the trucks on the newest Genesis locomotives carry the Siemens name.
There are three models of Genesis units in operation today: P40DC, P42DC, and P32AC-DM.
The P40DC (GENESIS Series I) or Dash 8-40BP (originally known as the AMD-103 or Amtrak Monocoque Diesel - 103MPH) is the first model in the Genesis series, built in 1993. The locomotive operates in a diesel-electric configuration that uses DC to power the traction motors, producing 4,000 horsepower (2,980 kW) output at 1047 rpm. Power output to the traction motors is 3,550 hp (2,650 kW) when running in HEP mode (900 rpm) with a 0 kW HEP load. Traction horsepower in HEP mode decreases to a bare minimum of 2,525 horsepower (1,880 kW) when providing the maximum 800 kW (1,100 hp) HEP load to the train. The P40DC is geared for a maximum speed of 103 miles per hour (166 km/h). The P40DC was succeeded in 1996 by the P42DC.
A feature unique to the P40DC and P32AC-DM is a hostler stand at the rear of the locomotive providing increased visibility and reversing capabilities to the engineer while conducting reverse operations. When a unit is in operation from this stand it is limited to 10 mph (16 km/h) and a dead man's switch protects against movement without an operator being present. Two unique features to the original P40DC are the two strobes above the cab and an emergency flasher between the strobes. When they were overhauled, those features were removed, likely due to complaints from engine crews.
Both the P40DC and P42DC allowed Amtrak to operate heavy long-distance trains with fewer locomotives compared to the older EMD F40PH locomotives. Two P40DCs could do the same work as three F40PHs. Additional deliveries of the P42DC ended up replacing the P40DCs. Three units had been wrecked (819 in the 1993 Big Bayou Canot train wreck and 807 and 829 in the 1999 Bourbonnais, Illinois, train accident) and scrapped. Eight were leased and later sold to the Connecticut DOT for Shore Line East in 2005, and four were rebuilt and sold to New Jersey Transit in 2007. The remaining 29 units were placed out-of-service for many years. 15 of these units have been rebuilt using 2009 ARRA stimulus funds and returned to service, now in the Phase V livery, except for 822, which is painted in Phase III Heritage livery for Amtrak's 40th Anniversary.
P40DC special liveries
- Amtrak 822: Amtrak 40th Anniversary Phase III livery
Upgraded and "Stimulus" P40DCs
By 2007, New Jersey Transit had upgraded their P40DC units with updated prime movers to match the 4,250 horsepower (3,170 kW) of the successor P42DC. This was done by readjusting the position of the lay shafts within the prime mover.
Amtrak has returned 15 of their P40DC units to service as part of a project funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The first of the units were returned to service in March 2010 after being overhauled at the Beech Grove Shops. They were upgraded like NJT's units had been a few years before to have 4,250 hp (3,170 kW) and match the P42DC's maximum speed of 110 mph (177 km/h). They also received updated cab signaling systems. The upgraded locomotives still have mechanical air brakes, which makes them most suitable for trains that only require a single locomotive. This differs from the electronic air brakes on the P42DC and P32AC-DM. They also feature a builder's plate indicating that they were rebuilt under the auspices of the TIGER stimulus program.
The P42DC (GENESIS Series I) is the successor model to the P40DC. It has an engine output of 4,250 horsepower (3,170 kW) at 1047 rpm, or 3,550 horsepower (2,650 kW) when running in HEP mode (900 rpm) with a 0 kW HEP load. Traction horsepower in HEP mode decreases to a bare minimum of 2,525 horsepower (1,880 kW) when providing the full 800 kW HEP load to the train.
The P42DC has a maximum speed of 110 mph (177 km/h), though Via Rail Canada only permits its engines to travel at a maximum speed of 100 mph (161 km/h). Tractive effort is rated at 280.25 kN (63,000 lbf) of starting effort and 169 kN (38,000 lbf) of continuous effort at 38 mph (61.2 km/h) given wheel horsepower of 3,850 horsepower (2,870 kW).
P42DCs are used primarily on most of Amtrak's long-haul and higher-speed rail service outside the Northeast Corridor, as well as a service with speeds up to 160 km/h (99 mph) on Via Rail's Quebec City-Windsor rail corridor when it replaced the LRC locomotives in 2001. VIA's P42DCs are known as EPA-42a and also have a third headlight above the original cluster.
P42DC special liveries
- Amtrak 156: Amtrak 40th Anniversary Phase I livery
- Amtrak 66: Amtrak 40th Anniversary Phase II livery
- Amtrak 145: Amtrak 40th Anniversary Phase III livery
- Amtrak 184: Amtrak 40th Anniversary Phase IV livery
- Amtrak 42: Special Veterans Appreciation Livery
- Model: P42DC 110 mph (177 km/h), 4,250 hp (3,169 kW), 800 kW (1,100 hp) HEP
- Arrangement: B-B, high speed
- Weight: 133.000 short tons (118.750 long tons; 120.656 t)
- Engine Model: 7FDL16, 4 stroke cycle, with EFI
- Alternator: 1 - GMG195
- Motors: 4 - GE752AH DC motors, axle suspended
- Head-End Power: 1 - GTA33 alternator, 800 kW, 480 V, 3 phase, 60 Hz, microcomputer control
- Air Brake Schedule: 30CDW Integrated Electronic Air Brake Control
- Auxiliary Equipment: Radiator Fan (AC): 1 GYA30
- Equipment Blowers (AC): 2 - GDY76
- Alternator Blower (AC): 1 GDY74
- Dynamic Brake Blowers (DC): 2 - GDY72
- Air Compressor: 1 - WABCO 3CDCLA Air Compressor
- Drive/Control: AC motor - microcomputer control
- Motor: 40 hp (30 kW)
- Configuration & Features:
Via Rail P42DC #901 leaving Toronto on its way to Montreal.
The P32AC-DM (GENESIS Series II) was developed for both Amtrak and Metro-North. They can operate on power generated either by the on-board diesel prime mover or power collected from a third rail electrification system at 750 volts direct current. The P32AC-DM is rated at 3,200 horsepower (2,390 kW), 2,900 horsepower (2,160 kW) when supplying HEP, and is geared for a maximum speed of 110 mph (177 km/h). Tractive effort is rated at 275.8 kN (62,000 lbf) of starting effort from 0 mph (0.00 km/h) to 14 mph (22.5 km/h) and 113.43 kN (25,500 lbf) of continuous effort at 40 mph (64.4 km/h) given wheel horsepower of 2,700 horsepower (2,010 kW).
The Dual Mode P32AC-DM is unique as it is equipped with GE's GEB15 AC (alternating current) traction motors, rather than DC (direct current) motors as used in the other subtypes. It is also only one of two modern American electro-diesel locomotives with third-rail capability, along with the EMD DM30AC operated by the Long Island Rail Road. The British Rail Class 73 and Class 74 also have this capability, and New Jersey Transit and AMT's Bombardier ALP-45DP electro-diesel locomotive can operate from overhead catenary electrification.
The model is confined to services operating from New York City, where diesel emissions through its two fully enclosed main terminal stations are prohibited. P32AC-DMs are seen only on Amtrak's Empire Corridor between Penn Station& Grand Central Terminal and Buffalo, the Ethan Allen Express, Lake Shore Limited (New York section), Adirondack, and Maple Leaf services. However, sometimes the P32AC's are traded out for a P42DC at Albany. This is due to the requirement for the P32AC-DM engines exclusively in this section of rail, and the higher horsepower rating of the P42DC. Metro-North's push-pull trains to and from Grand Central Terminal also utilize P32AC-DM units, and, unlike Amtrak's units, Metro-North's units have an escape hatch in the nose. As of July, 2017 Amtrak rerouted 3 Empire Corridor trains a day to run into Grand Central to reduce train traffic at Penn Station. Metro North Engineers take over from the Amtrak ones at Yonkers as the Amtrak Engineers are not qualified to run into Grand Central.
The third-rail shoes are used on the over-running third-rail into Penn Station for Amtrak units and the under-running third-rail into Grand Central Terminal for Metro-North units.
All P32AC-DM models, unlike the P40DC and P42DC models, lack the door on the rear of the locomotive that would normally lead to the next car, making it impossible to access the locomotive from either a coach or a trailing engine. Another unique feature is that the two lower vents near the back of the locomotive are bigger than that of the P40s and P42s. The name implies from "Passenger, 3200hp, Alternating Current, Dual Mode".
- Model: P32AC-DM - 110 mph (180 km/h), 3,200 hp (2,400 kW), HEP, with Dual Power 650 VDC third rail capability
- Arrangement: B-B - Trucks fitted with 6 third rail power pick-up mechanisms
- Weight: 274,400 lb (124,500 kg).
- Engine Model: 7FDL12, 3,200 hp (2,400 kW) with EFI
- Alternator: 1 - GMG195A1
- Motors: 4 - GEB15 AC, axle suspended
- Inverters: 4 - pulse width modulated, VVVF, one per traction motor for single axle control
- Head-End Power: Inverter rated 800 kW (1,100 hp), 480 V, 3 Phase, 60 Hz
- Air Brake Schedule: 26L Integrated Electronic Air Brake Control by NYAB/Knorr
- Air Compressor: 1 - Sullair 8E Rotary
- Configuration and Features:
- Aerodynamic monocoque carbody
- Enhanced collision capability
- Cab signal equipped - Microcabmatic by GRS
- Microcomputer-based integrated control, full diagnostics
- Engine layover system by Kim Hot Start
- Segmented, spill-resistant fuel tank
- Automatic parking brake
- Remote engine starting
- Retractable third rail shoes
- Blended dynamic/air brake system
- Dual mode with seamless transition
- Hostler stand
- Battery jog capability
Metro-North #206 in the old livery, at Harlem–125th Street.
- 7FDL Specifications and Emissions Description
- P32AC-DM spec sheet via the Web Archive
- Page 14
- Page 29
- "Earlier Locomotive Models". GE Transportation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- US 5535680
- Warner, David C (June 1993). "AMD103: Powering Amtrak Into the 21st Century". Passenger Train Journal. Interurban Press. 24, No. 6 (186): 23. ISSN 0160-6913.
- P40DC Builders Plate https://www.flickr.com/photos/davidfullarton/4412331923/
- Amtrak P40DC roster
- Donald Albertson (September 13, 2007). "NJT 808". rrpicturearchives.net. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- http://www.amtrak.com/pdf/ARRA/Amtrak-ARRA_Project-Summary-FY-09.pdf Amtrak ARRAProject List
- Bob Johnston (October 2010). "Beech Grove to the Rescue". Trains. Vol. 70 no. 10. pp. 48–53.
- P42 Builders Plate https://www.flickr.com/photos/76498245@N05/6871547365/in/photostream
- P42 - Via Rail
- P42DC spec sheet via the Web Archive
- P32 Builders Plate https://www.flickr.com/photos/blazer8696/4984725506/
- Brian Solomon (2000). American Diesel Locomotives. MBI Publishing Company. p. Page 160. ISBN 0-7603-0666-4. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
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