GLOW (TV series)

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Glow TV show logo.png
Genre Comedy
Created by Liz Flahive
Carly Mensch
Composer(s) Craig Wedren
Country of origin United States
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 1
No. of episodes 10 (list of episodes)
Executive producer(s)
Running time 29–37 minutes
Production company(s) Tilted Productions
Fan Dancer
Distributor Netflix
Original network Netflix
Original release June 23, 2017 (2017-06-23) – present
External links

GLOW is an American comedy television series created by Liz Flahive and Carly Mensch.[1] The series revolves around a fictionalization of the characters and gimmicks of the 1980s syndicated women's professional wrestling circuit, the Gorgeous Ladies of Wrestling (or GLOW) originally created by David McLane.[2] The first season consists of 10 episodes[3] and was released via Netflix on June 23, 2017.[4] On August 10, 2017, Netflix renewed the series for a second season of 10 episodes.[5]


Set in Los Angeles in 1985, Ruth Wilder, a struggling actress, auditions along with dozens of other women in a fledgling professional wrestling promotion called the Gorgeous Ladies of Wrestling (GLOW). She is at odds with GLOW's director Sam Sylvia due to her tendency to overact. When Ruth's former best friend, retired soap opera actress Debbie Eagan, arrives at the ring, their confrontation promises to either make or break the show.




In addition to Kia Stevens (who has wrestled as Awesome Kong in TNA, and as Kharma in WWE) in a recurring role, several professional wrestlers made cameos throughout the season. These include John Morrison as Salty "The Sack" Johnson, a trainer who appeared in the first episode; Tyrus and Carlito, who played Carmen's wrestler brothers; Joey Ryan as a wrestler known as "Mr. Monopoly", and Ryan's real-life wife and wrestler Laura James played his valet, "Crystal"; Alex Riley played a wrestler known as "Steel Horse"; Brooke Hogan as night club manager Amber Fredrickson; and Christopher Daniels and Frankie Kazarian as unnamed wrestlers. Hulk Hogan, Ric Flair, and Gorgeous George appear in archived video footage in episodes 1 and 4.


The idea for the series came when Flahive and Mensch, who at the time were looking to make a new female-centric show, came across the 2012 documentary GLOW: The Story of the Gorgeous Ladies of Wrestling.[15][16] Before this series, neither woman had heard of the GLOW wrestling promotion, and they became intrigued by the premise of producing a fictionalized version of it.[16] Both women found the storyline intriguing as a way of exploring the aftermath of the 1970s Woman's Liberation Movement, with Flahive's telling Rolling Stone, "We wanted to look back on the 1970s, coming out of the women's movement, and into the 1980s, and ask the question: Did it work? Did things get better?"[15] To this end, it was important for the series to maintain a tension between whether or not the league was exploiting women or empowering them.[15]

Ursula Hayden, the owner of the GLOW company, served as a series consultant on the series and helped Flahive and Mensch with creating the show. Hayden was also on the original 1980s promotion as Babe, the Farmer's Daughter.[17]

Chavo Guerrero, Jr. of the famous Guerrero wrestling family also served as a consultant on the series and helped train the actresses. His uncle Mando Guerrero had served in the same role for the original series.[18]


The series was shot on several locations in Los Angeles; mainly in the San Fernando Valley. Chavo's Boxing Gym, which is GLOW's training grounds, was a mashup of two locations: the interior was a studio set while the exterior was the rear of the San Fernando Masonic Lodge. The Pink Motel in Sun Valley was used as a stand-in for The Dusty Spur Motel, GLOW's sleeping quarters. Other notable locations include the Mayan Theater and the Hollywood Palladium.[19]

Principal production on season 2 commenced in October 2017.[20]


For the Spain Market, Netflix España released a series of promo videos featuring singers Marta Sánchez and Vicky Larraz. The first video, titled "No Controles", features Sánchez imitating Ruth's imaginary wrestler scene from the first episode. The second video has Sánchez and Larraz squaring off in the ring.[21][22]

For the Brazil market, Netflix Brasil released a promo video featuring singers Gretchen and Rita Cadillac auditioning for GLOW.[23]


The series features several songs from the 1980s, as well as tracks from the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.[24]

Featured songs
  1. "The Warrior" by Scandal
  2. "You Make Me Feel (Mighty Real)" by Sylvester
  3. "Separate Ways (Worlds Apart)" by Journey
  4. "Stir It Up" by Patti LaBelle
  5. "The Look" by Roxette
  6. "We Don't Get Along" by The Go-Go's
  7. "4-3-1" by The Jetzons
  8. "Every Little Bit" by Jackie James
  9. "Life in a Northern Town" by The Dream Academy
  10. "Movin' Out (Anthony's Song)" by Billy Joel
  11. "Head Over Heels" by Tears for Fears
  12. "Make That Money (Scrooge’s Song)" by Alice Cooper
  13. "Rock You Like a Hurricane (2011 Re-recording)" by Scorpions
  14. "Ready Steady Go" by Generation X
  15. "Dare" by Stan Bush
  16. "Theme of Exodus" by Ernest Gold
  17. "Angel" by The Jetzons
  18. "Under Pressure" by Queen and David Bowie
  19. "Car Wash" by Rose Royce
  20. "Magic Moments" by Perry Como
  21. "Things Can Only Get Better" by Howard Jones
  22. "Invincible" by Pat Benatar

Quiet Riot's cover of "Cum On Feel the Noize" was used for the series' trailer. Songs covered by the cast include the Thompson Twins' "Hold Me Now" and Barbra Streisand's "This Is One of Those Moments".[24]


No. Title Directed by Written by Original release date
1 "Pilot" Jesse Peretz Liz Flahive & Carly Mensch June 23, 2017 (2017-06-23)
Ruth Wilder, an actress struggling to find work, receives an invitation for an audition from her casting director. She arrives at an old boxing gym, where she and dozens of other women are auditioning for Gorgeous Ladies of Wrestling (GLOW). On the first day of tryouts, Ruth is dismissed by director Sam Sylvia when her acting skills come into conflict with the training; her day worsens when her purse is snatched by a group of skateboarders. With nowhere else to go, she begins watching professional wrestling videos to develop her persona and returns to the gym for another shot at the audition. Things go awry when her best friend Debbie Eagan confronts her after discovering that she has been having an affair with her husband Mark. Their legitimate catfight in the ring inspires Sam to keep Ruth in the program.
2 "Slouch. Submit." Wendey Stanzler Liz Flahive & Carly Mensch June 23, 2017 (2017-06-23)
During the second week of tryouts, Sam tests the candidates' personalities. He then leaves the training to Cherry Bang while he goes out to try and get Debbie to be the star of his promotion. Tensions arise in the ring when Melrose reveals Cherry's previous affair with Sam and Cherry locks her in a sleeper hold. Melrose further mocks Cherry by faking a miscarriage with a bottle of ketchup. Sam uses the incident and Ruth's affair with Mark to brainstorm on a storyline in the ring. At the end of the day, Sam promises Cherry double her pay if the promotion pulls through. Ruth discovers that Sam will cast her as Debbie's evil arch-nemesis, much to her chagrin.
3 "The Wrath of Kuntar" Claire Scanlon Nick Jones June 23, 2017 (2017-06-23)
The ladies meet their producer Sebastian "Bash" Howard while Sam hands them a script for them to work on, with Ruth reading stage directions. After the script reading session, Bash invites everyone to a party at his Malibu mansion, with Debbie riding in his helicopter. There, Bash brings the ladies to his dressing room to help them further develop their in-ring personas while Ruth puts a drunk Debbie in a taxi back home. As the ladies flaunt their new outfits, Sam and Bash argue over the direction they want the promotion to go. Following the argument, Sam agrees to work with Bash's vision of giving the girls stereotypical gimmicks. The girls pass on their persona tests except for Ruth, who leaves Sam and Bash clueless over her character.
4 "The Dusty Spur" Melanie Mayron Sascha Rothchild June 23, 2017 (2017-06-23)
With five weeks left before shooting GLOW's pilot episode, Sam and Bash announce that the ladies will stay at The Dusty Spur motel in Van Nuys as part of their training. As Ruth struggles to find her character, she is assigned to work with Sheila the She-Wolf. Training is interrupted by Carmen's father Goliath Jackson and her two brothers, who urge her to go home instead of pursuing a wrestling career. After Goliath slaps Sam, Carmen agrees to leave the gym, but Bash fakes an affair with her to convince Goliath to let Carmen make her own decisions. The ladies and Cherry's husband Keith watch one of Sam's old horror films, only to discover his find-a-date video recorded over it. Meanwhile, Ruth gets into an argument with Sheila after discovering a dead squirrel in her bed while Debbie moves into the motel after another quarrel with Mark.
5 "Debbie Does Something" Phil Abraham Rachel Shukert June 23, 2017 (2017-06-23)
As the ladies continue their training, Sam and Bash have a meeting with K-DTV executive Glen Klitnick, who offers GLOW a Saturday morning timeslot and a potential sponsor in the form of indoor/outdoor lifestyle store chain Patio Town. Debbie has her parents take care of her son while she continues her training. Dawn and Stacey spend the night making prank calls to everyone in the motel while Justine is heavily attracted to pizza delivery boy Billy Offal. Ruth and Rhonda travel to Patio Town's new Calabasas branch to meet CEO Patrick O'Towne, who declines to sponsor GLOW until Sam convinces him to reconsider by staging a vignette with Ruth during the ribbon cutting ceremony. It is here that Ruth develops her Soviet gimmick, but shortly learns of Sam's affair with Rhonda. Meanwhile, Melrose joins Debbie and Carmen to watch a local wrestling show, where Debbie discovers the thin line between wrestling and soap operas.
6 "This Is One of Those Moments" Kate Dennis Jenji Kohan June 23, 2017 (2017-06-23)
Sam calls in Ruth and Debbie early morning at the gym to build them both as main eventers. Ruth sells an idea for the match, but Debbie walks out, still refusing to work with her former best friend. To further develop her character, Ruth asks for help from Gregory, the motel's Russian manager, who takes her to a Russian Jewish family party. When Michael, the bris celebrant, overhears Ruth talking about Yentl, he asks her to sing one of Barbra Streisand's songs. Meanwhile, Debbie is having difficulty taking in-ring storylines while Justine confronts Sam over him using GLOW as his personal casting couch. After much convincing by Sam, Debbie finally decides to start a program with Ruth. Later that night, Justine sneaks into Sam's office and steals his camera.
7 "Live Studio Audience" Jesse Peretz Rachel Shukert June 23, 2017 (2017-06-23)
As the ladies gear up for their first show on Friday, Sam and Bash argue over production costs, especially after Sam's camera was stolen. In order to make the best possible main event, Ruth and Debbie begin training with Carmen's brothers. Meanwhile, Sam discovers that Rhonda found his camera in her locker, but he knows that Justine was trying to frame her. On the night of the show, Carmen experiences stage fright and passes out after leaving the gym. The scheduled tag team match goes awry when Dawn and Stacey wear Ku Klux Klan outfits in the ring. After coming to, Carmen discovers that Bash has been cut off financially by his mother after spending over $600,000 on developing GLOW. Debbie and Ruth's training pays off as they both get over the crowd on their main event, but Debbie suddenly walks out of the match when she sees Mark and argues with him backstage before he hands her the divorce papers. Rhonda saves the show by getting the other ladies to rap with her in the ring.
8 "Maybe It’s All the Disco" Sian Heder Nick Jones June 23, 2017 (2017-06-23)
Sam takes Ruth to the Mayan Theater[19] as a potential venue for GLOW's next show. Mark admits to Debbie that he never meant to serve the divorce paper to her and that he has been taking therapy sessions to help fix their marriage. Meanwhile, the ladies celebrate Sheila's birthday by taking her to a roller disco, Rhonda breaks up with Sam, and Ruth secretly undergoes an abortion after her pregnancy test comes out positive.
9 "The Liberal Chokehold" Lynn Shelton Liz Flahive & Carly Mensch June 23, 2017 (2017-06-23)
While most of America is focused on the TWA Flight 847 hijacking, K-DTV executives present Sam and Bash the timeslot for GLOW (following Dr. Gene Scott, a 1970s staple of KHOF-TV), but Sam discovers that Bash is strapped for cash. In order to raise the $9,000 to secure the venue, the ladies host a bikini car wash at the motel. When they collect only $287 and change from their car wash, Bash brings them to his mother's anti-drug charity event to speak as former drug addicts using wrestling as a reformation tool. Their act convinces Bash's mother to allow them to use their ballroom at the Hayworth Hotel. Meanwhile, after confiding with Justine over his failed projects, including the loss of the venue reservation, Sam discovers that she is his illegitimate daughter.
10 "Money’s in the Chase" Tristram Shapeero Liz Flahive & Carly Mensch June 23, 2017 (2017-06-23)
As the ladies pack up for the Hayworth, a drunk Sam returns to the motel to try and mend things with Justine while Debbie bails out to move back in with Mark. Ruth puts herself in charge of the event. With hardly any attendance in the ballroom, Tammé, Melrose, and Sheila pay several moviegoers from the Hollywood Palladium[19] across the street to watch their show. Glen informs Cherry that she got the lead role in the station's upcoming cop drama series, but she has to quit GLOW in the process. The opening match goes out of control when the crowd does not take kindly to Arthie's "Beirut the Mad Bomber" gimmick and Rhonda is hit in the head with a beer can thrown by an audience member. Carmen overcomes her stagefright when her father starts cheering for her. The main event is a tag team match with Ruth and Jenny defeating Dawn and Stacey, only for Ruth to double-cross Jenny and pin her to win the GLOW Crown. Her coronation is suddenly interrupted when Debbie challenges her to a match. Debbie finishes off Ruth with a flying cross body to become the GLOW Champion. Tammé, however, steals the Crown as part of Sam's plan to continue the storyline.


GLOW was praised by critics upon its release; receiving a 94% approval rating from review aggregation site Rotten Tomatoes, the site's consensus being "With spot-on 1980s period detail, knockout writing, and a killer cast, GLOW shines brightly."[25] The series has a Metacritic score of 81 out of 100, based on 37 critics.[26] Darren Franich of Entertainment Weekly gave the first season an A rating, calling it "a silly-smart masterpiece, with an ensemble cast entirely made up of breakout characters".[27] Sophie Gilbert of The Atlantic said, "’s just a blast to watch women having so much fun. GLOW fully owns its campiness and its showy aesthetics, but it’s smart and subversive underneath the glitter."[28]

The series received mixed reactions from some of the original GLOW wrestlers. Jeanne Basone, who wrestled in the promotion as "Hollywood", commented that "Some of the training and the gym and the outfits they get correct." Patricia Summerland, who played "Sunny the California Girl" in the promotion, saw Marc Maron's character Sam Sylvia as a stark contrast to original GLOW director Matt Cimber. Eileen O'Hara, who was known as "Melody Trouble Vixen (MTV)", felt that the series did not properly represent the promotion.[29] Lisa Moretti, who competed as "Tina Ferrari" and would go on to the greatest fame among GLOW alumni as Ivory in the WWF/WWE as a three-time WWF Women's Champion during the Attitude Era, said that she was relieved that the series isn't a documentary because it was more entertaining to have a mix between fact and fiction.[30]

More positive reception came from mainstream wrestling figures including Kurt Angle.[31] Ethan Sapienza of Slate noted accurate comparisons between the series and WWE as well as the various regional promotions that made up the National Wrestling Alliance during its heyday.[32]


Year Award Category Nominee(s) Result Ref.
2018 American Cinema Editors Awards Best Edited Comedy Series for Non-Commercial Television William Turro Pending [33]
Art Directors Guild Awards Half Hour Single-Camera Television Series Todd Fjelsted Pending [34]
Costume Designers Guild Awards Excellence in Period Television Beth Morgan Pending [35]
Critics' Choice Television Awards Best Comedy Series GLOW Nominated [36]
Best Actress in a Comedy Series Alison Brie Nominated
Best Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series Marc Maron Nominated
Best Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Betty Gilpin Nominated
Golden Globe Awards Best Actress – Television Series Musical or Comedy Alison Brie Nominated [37]
Make-Up Artists and Hair Stylists Guild Awards TV and New Media Series – Best Period / Character Make-Up Lana Horochowski, Maurine Burke Pending [38]
TV and New Media Series – Best Period / Character Hair Styling Theraesa Rivers, Valerie Jackson Pending
Satellite Awards Best Musical or Comedy Series GLOW Pending [39]
Best Actress in a Musical or Comedy Series Alison Brie Pending
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series The cast of GLOW Pending [40]
Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series Marc Maron Pending
Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Comedy Series Alison Brie Pending
Outstanding Performance by a Stunt Ensemble in a Television Series GLOW stunt ensemble Pending
Writers Guild of America Awards Comedy Series Arabella Anderson, Kristoffer Diaz, Liz Flahive, Tara Herrmann, Nick Jones, Jenji Kohan, Carly Mensch, Emma Rathbone, Sascha Rothchild, Rachel Shukert Pending [41]
New Series Pending


  1. ^ Nellie Andreeva. "Netflix Orders Jenji Kohan's 'GLOW', Comedy Series About 1980s Female Wrestlers | Deadline". Retrieved May 31, 2016. 
  2. ^ Elizabeth Wagmeister. "Jenji Kohan Producing Netflix Comedy Series 'G.L.O.W.' About '80s Female Wrestling League". Retrieved May 31, 2016. 
  3. ^ "'Orange Is the New Black' Creator Sets '80s Women's Wrestling Comedy Series 'GLOW' at Netflix – Hollywood Reporter". Retrieved May 31, 2016. 
  4. ^ "'GLOW,' Netflix's Women's Wrestling Comedy, to Launch June 23". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 1, 2017. 
  5. ^ "'GLOW': Netflix Renews Women's Wrestling Comedy For Season 2". August 10, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2017. 
  6. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (August 29, 2016). "Alison Brie To Star In Netflix Comedy Series 'G.L.O.W.' From Jenji Kohan". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  7. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (August 30, 2016). "'G.L.O.W.': Betty Gilpin To Co-Star In Netflix's 1980s Wrestling Comedy Series". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 30, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Petski, Denise (September 17, 2016). "Britney Young & Sydelle Noel Join Netflix Comedy Series 'G.L.O.W.' From Jenji Kohan". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  9. ^ Petski, Denise (August 31, 2016). "Marc Maron To Co-Star In Netflix Comedy Series 'G.L.O.W.' From Jenji Kohan". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 31, 2016. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Petski, Denise (September 22, 2016). "'G.L.O.W.': Jenji Kohan Netflix Comedy Series Adds Britt Baron, Jackie Tohn & Five More". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved September 22, 2016. 
  11. ^ Petski, Denise (December 16, 2016). "Chris Lowell Set To Recur On Netflix's 'GLOW'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved December 16, 2016. 
  12. ^ Daniel Holloway. "Jenji Kohan's Netflix Wrestling Comedy 'G.L.O.W.' Casts Gayle Rankin (EXCLUSIVE)". Retrieved September 28, 2016. 
  13. ^ Denise, Petski (October 21, 2016). "Ellen Wong Joins Netflix's 'G.L.O.W.; 'She's Gotta Have It' Adds Sydney Morton". Deadline. Retrieved October 21, 2016. 
  14. ^ Petski, Denise (December 17, 2016). "Alex Rich Joins 'GLOW'; 'Animal Kingdom' Adds Jennifer Landon". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved December 17, 2016. 
  15. ^ a b c Scherer, Jenna. "Get in the Ring: How 'GLOW' Recreates the Golden Age of Lady-Wrestling TV". Rolling Stone. Retrieved June 24, 2017. 
  16. ^ a b Birnbaum, Debra. "Why 'GLOW' Creators Made Women's Wrestling Series". Variety. Retrieved June 24, 2017. 
  17. ^ Francisco, Eric (June 28, 2017). "How the Original G.L.O.W. Wrestlers Helped Shape the Netflix Hit". Inverse. Retrieved December 8, 2017. 
  18. ^ Herzog, Kenny (June 22, 2017). "'GLOW' Fight Coordinator Chavo Guerrero Jr. on Getting Wrestling Right". Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 24, 2017. 
  19. ^ a b c Blake, Lindsay (June 26, 2017). "Here's Where to Find All of the L.A. Locations You Saw in GLOW". Los Angeles. Retrieved July 16, 2017. 
  20. ^ "Alison Brie and Betty Gilpin Suit up in New 'Glow' Season 2 Set Photo". October 17, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2018. 
  21. ^ "Netflix hace que Marta Sánchez y Vicky Larraz peleen". El Mundo. June 28, 2017. Retrieved August 9, 2017. 
  22. ^ "Marta Sánchez y Vicky Larraz se 'zurran' en Netflix". El Periódico de Catalunya. June 30, 2017. Retrieved August 9, 2017. 
  23. ^ "Gretchen. Rita Cadillac. E um duelo épico em GLOW, da Netflix". The Huffington Post. July 3, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017. 
  24. ^ a b McNally, Victoria (June 23, 2017). "The 'Glow' Season 1 Soundtrack Is a Pumped-Up '80s Masterpiece". Retrieved June 27, 2017. 
  25. ^ "GLOW: Season 1". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 15, 2017. 
  26. ^ "GLOW". Metacritic. Retrieved December 15, 2017. 
  27. ^ Franich, Darren (June 12, 2017). "GLOW is unlike any show we've ever seen". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 2, 2017. 
  28. ^ Gilbert, Sophie. "'GLOW' Is a Total Delight". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 30, 2017. 
  29. ^ McCombs, Emily (July 6, 2017). "Obsessed With 'GLOW'? Meet The Real Female Wrestlers Who Inspired The Show". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 14, 2017. 
  30. ^ Barnett, Josh (July 13, 2017). "How accurate is Netflix GLOW series? Original GLOW girl Tina Ferrari weighs in". USA Today. Retrieved July 22, 2017. 
  31. ^ Gagnon, Joshua (July 5, 2017). "Kurt Angle On Who's Approached Him For Advice, WWE Today Compared To '00s, GLOW's Popularity". Wrestling Inc. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  32. ^ Sapienza, Ethan (July 11, 2017). "What GLOW Gets Right About Pro Wrestling". Slate. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  33. ^ Carolyn Giardina (January 3, 2018). "'Dunkirk,' 'Shape of Water,' 'Baby Driver' Among ACE Eddie Awards Nominees". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 3, 2018. 
  34. ^ McNary, Dave. "'Star Wars: The Last Jedi,' 'Dunkirk,' 'Lady Bird' Nab Art Directors Guild Nominations". Variety. Retrieved 4 January 2018. 
  35. ^ Nolfi, Joey. "I, Tonya, Get Out earn Costume Designers Guild nominations". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  36. ^ Pond, Steve (December 6, 2017). "Critics' Choice TV Awards nominations 2018: Full list led by Netflix, 'Feud: Bette and Joan,' 'Big Little Lies' …". Gold Derby. Retrieved December 6, 2017. 
  37. ^ Sheehan, Paul (December 11, 2017). "Golden Globes 2018: Full list of nominations led by 'The Shape of Water,' 'Big Little Lies'". GoldDerby. Retrieved December 12, 2017. 
  38. ^ Giardina, Carolyn (January 5, 2018). "Makeup Artists and Hair Stylists Guild Awards: 'Darkest Hour,' 'Wonder' Lead Feature Nominees". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 11, 2018. 
  39. ^ Pond, Steve (November 28, 2017). "'Dunkirk,' 'The Shape of Water' Lead Satellite Award Nominations". TheWrap. Retrieved November 29, 2017. 
  40. ^ Hipes, Patrick (December 13, 2017). "SAG Awards Nominations: 'Three Billboards' Tops Film List, Netflix Leads In TV". Retrieved January 9, 2018. 
  41. ^ "2017-2018 Awards Timeline". Writers Guild of America. Retrieved December 7, 2017. 

External links[edit]