|Glucose transporter, type 2|
|Glc_transpt_2IPR002440GLUT2Glucosamine/glucose uniporterGlut-2Glucose Transporter Type 2|
Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) also known as solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2 (SLC2A2) is a transmembrane carrier protein that enables protein facilitated glucose movement across cell membranes. It is the principal transporter for transfer of glucose between liver and blood Unlike GLUT4, it does not rely on insulin for facilitated diffusion.
GLUT2 is found in cellular membranes of:
- liver (Primary)
- pancreatic β cell (Primary in mice, tertiary in humans after GLUT1 and GLUT3)
- hypothalamus (Not overly significant)
- basolateral membrane of small intestine and apical GLUT2 is also suggested.
- basolateral membrane of renal tubular cells
GLUT2 has high capacity for glucose but low affinity (high KM, ca. 15–20 mM) and thus functions as part of the "glucose sensor" in the pancreatic β-cells of rodents, though in human β-cells the role of GLUT2 seems to be a minor one. It is a very efficient carrier for glucose.
When the glucose concentration in the lumen of the small intestine goes above 30 mM, such as occurs in the fed-state, GLUT2 is up-regulated at the brush border membrane, enhancing the capacity of glucose transport. Basolateral GLUT2 in enterocytes also aids in the transport of fructose into the bloodstream through glucose-dependent cotransport.
In drug-treated diabetic pregnancies in which glucose levels in the woman are uncontrolled, neural tube and cardiac defects in the early-developing brain, spine, and heart depend upon functional GLUT2 carriers, and defects in the GLUT2 gene have been shown to be protective against such defects in rats. However, whilst a lack of GLUT2 adaptability is negative, it is important to remember the fact that the main result of untreated gestational diabetes appears to cause babies to be of above-average size, which may well be an advantage that is managed very well with a healthy GLUT2 status.
GLUT2 appears to be particularly important to osmoregulation, and preventing edema-induced stroke, transient ischemic attack or coma, especially when blood glucose concentration is above average. GLUT2 could reasonably be referred to as the "diabetic glucose transporter" or a "stress hyperglycemia glucose transporter."
SLC2A2 was associated with clinical stages and independently associated with overall survival in patients with HCC, and could be considered a new prognostic factor for HCC.
Interactive pathway map
Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles.[§ 1]
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- McCulloch LJ, van de Bunt M, Braun M, Frayn KN, CLark A, Gloyn AL (December 2011). "GLUT2 (SLC2A2) is not the principal glucose transporter in human pancreatic beta cells: implications for understanding genetic association signals at this locus". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 104 (4): 648–53. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.08.026. PMID 21920790.
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- Santer R, Groth S, Kinner M, Dombrowski A, Berry GT, Brodehl J, Leonard JV, Moses S, Norgren S, Skovby F, Schneppenheim R, Steinmann B, Schaub J (January 2002). "The mutation spectrum of the facilitative glucose transporter gene SLC2A2 (GLUT2) in patients with Fanconi-Bickel syndrome". Human Genetics. 110 (1): 21–9. doi:10.1007/s00439-001-0638-6. PMID 11810292. S2CID 1767168.
- Li R, Thorens B, Loeken MR (March 2007). "Expression of the gene encoding the high-Km glucose transporter 2 by the early postimplantation mouse embryo is essential for neural tube defects associated with diabetic embryopathy". Diabetologia. 50 (3): 682–9. doi:10.1007/s00125-006-0579-7. PMID 17235524.
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- Stolarczyk E, Le Gall M, Even P, Houllier A, Serradas P, Brot-Laroche E, Leturque A (December 2007). Maedler K (ed.). "Loss of sugar detection by GLUT2 affects glucose homeostasis in mice". PLOS ONE. 2 (12): e1288. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2.1288S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001288. PMC 2100167. PMID 18074013.
- Kim, Yun Hak; Jeong, Dae Cheon; Pak, Kyoungjune; Han, Myoung-Eun; Kim, Ji-Young; Liangwen, Liu; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Tae Hwa; Hyun, Dong Woo; Oh, Sae-Ock (2017-09-15). "SLC2A2 (GLUT2) as a novel prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma". Oncotarget. 8 (40): 68381–68392. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.20266. ISSN 1949-2553. PMC 5620264. PMID 28978124.