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TypePump action grenade launcher
Place of originRussia
Service history
Used bySpetsnaz, FSB, MVD and National Guard
Wars2005 raid on Nalchik[1]
Libyan Civil War[2]
Crimean Crisis
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine[2]
Production history
Mass4.8 kg (10.6 lb) unloaded
5.8 kg (12.8 lb) loaded
Length810 mm (31.9 in) stock extended
540 mm (21.3 in) stock folded

ActionDouble action
Muzzle velocity85 m/s (280 ft/s)
Effective firing range300 m (330 yd)
Maximum firing range500 m (550 yd)
Feed system3 round pump action above-barrel tubular magazine
SightsIron sights

The GM-94 is a pump action grenade launcher developed by the KBP design bureau for use by Russian special and security forces.


The GM-94 is a short range weapon, allowing it to be used in close urban environments. With a minimum safe distance of only 10 meters,[3][4] the GM-94 is well suited to close, room-to-room fighting. Its simple design and operation allows it to operate in dusty and dirty environments and even after being immersed in water.

The launcher is capable of firing VGM-93.900 high explosive fragmentation, VGM-93.100 thermobaric, VGM-93.300 smoke and VGM-93.200 tear gas canisters, VGM-93.600 rubber slugs and other non-lethal payloads.[3]

The VGM-93.100 thermobaric grenade contains around 160 grams of explosive filler. It can penetrate up to 8 mm of mild steel or interior wall, while producing minimal primary fragmentation.[3]

In June 2005, GM-94 with thermobaric VGM-93.100 ammunition was adopted by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs.[5] In October 2007, the Russian armed forces adopted a new launcher designated LPO-97 developed in the KBP Instrument Design Bureau on the basis of the GM-94 with a thermobaric grenade,[6] in 2008 GM-94 adopted for the branches of the Federal Security Service.[7] Though the launcher was intended for use by Russian security forces, the GM-94 has been spotted as far afield as Kazakhstan and Libya.[2]

Russian forces have fired the tear gas version of canisters on protesters in Ukraine.[8]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Popenker & Jenzen-Jones 2015, p. 16.
  2. ^ a b c d e Popenker & Jenzen-Jones 2015, p. 17.
  3. ^ a b c Popenker & Jenzen-Jones 2015, p. 15
  4. ^ "VGM93.100". Rosoboronexport.
  5. ^ "ГМ-94 - ручной гранатомёт". Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  6. ^ "ОАО "Конструкторское бюро приборостроения" - 10 лет ГМ-94". Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  7. ^ "ГМ-94". Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  8. ^ 🇺🇦 Ukraine Weapons Tracker [@UAWeapons] (22 March 2022). "#Ukraine: A little insight on what kind of munitions were used by the Russian forces to disperse the pro-Ukrainian rally in #Kherson - an empty VGM93.200 CS irritant round for the GM-94 grenade launcher was found on the ground." (Tweet). Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 24 April 2022 – via Twitter.
  9. ^ "Рассказываем, что за гранатомет был замечен вчера у спецназовца «Алмаза» в Минске". Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  10. ^ Ferguson, Jonathan; Jenzen-Jones, N.R. (November 2014). Raising Red Flags: An Examination of Arms & Munitions in the Ongoing Conflict in Ukraine, 2014. Research Report 3. Armament Research Services. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-9924624-3-7.