GMC (automobile)

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GMC Division of General Motors LLC
Division
LLC
IndustryAutomotive
PredecessorsRapid Motor Vehicle Company
Reliance Motor Car Company
FoundedJuly 22, 1911; 107 years ago (1911-07-22)
FounderWilliam C. Durant
HeadquartersDetroit, Michigan, U.S.
Area served
  • Worldwide
ProductsAutomobiles
Commercial vehicles
Trucks
Services
  • Vehicle financing
  • Vehicle insurance
ParentGeneral Motors
Websitegmc.com

GMC (General Motors Truck Company), formally the GMC Division of General Motors LLC, is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM) that primarily focuses on trucks and utility vehicles. GMC sells pickup and commercial trucks, buses, vans, military vehicles, and sport utility vehicles marketed worldwide by General Motors.

History[edit]

Model 25 One ton chain drive - 1915
GMC truck, from a 1919 advertisement

GMC traces its history to the 1902 founding of the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company in Pontiac, MI. In 1909 William C. Durant gained control of Rapid Motor Vehicle Company and made it a subsidiary of his General Motors Company. In 1908 Durant gained control of Reliance Motor Car Company, another early commercial vehicle manufacturer. In 1911 General Motors formed the General Motors Truck Company and folded Rapid and Reliance into it. In 1912 the Rapid and Reliance names were dropped in favor of “GMC.” All General Motors truck production was consolidated at the former Rapid Motor Plant 1 in Pontiac, MI.[1]

GMC maintained three manufacturing locations in Pontiac, Michigan, Oakland, California, and Saint Louis, Missouri.

In 1916, a GMC Truck crossed the country from Seattle to New York City in thirty days, and in 1926, a 2-ton GMC truck was driven from New York to San Francisco in five days and 30 minutes. During the Second World War, GMC Truck produced 600,000 trucks for use by the United States Armed Forces.

In 1925, GM purchased a controlling interest in Yellow Coach, a bus and taxicab manufacturer based in Chicago, Illinois which was founded by John D. Hertz. The company was renamed Yellow Truck & Coach Manufacturing Company (YT&CMC), a affiliated subsidiary of General Motors. All manufacturing operations of General Motors Truck Company were placed under YT&CMC. In 1928 Plant 2 opened and all headquarters staff moved to the administration building at 660 South Boulevard E in Pontiac, MI. In 1943, GM purchased the remaining interest in YT&CMC and renamed it GMC Truck and Coach Division.[2]

In 1981, GMC Truck & Coach Division became part of GM Worldwide Truck & Bus Group. Bus production ended in May 1987 and the division name was changed from GMC Truck & Coach to GMC Truck Division. The Canadian plant (in London, Ontario) produced buses from 1962 until July 1987. GM withdrew from the bus and coach market because of increased competition in the late 1970s and 1980s. Rights to the RTS model were sold to Transportation Manufacturing Corporation, while Motor Coach Industries of Canada purchased the Classic design.[3] In 1998, GMC's official branding on vehicles was shortened from "GMC Truck" to simply "GMC".

In 1996, GM merged GMC Truck Division with the Pontiac Motor Division in order to "give the combined division a brand image projecting physical power and outdoor activity".[4] While many GMC and Chevrolet trucks are mechanically identical, GMC is positioned as a premium offering to the mainstream Chevrolet brand, with luxury vehicles such as the Denali series.

In 2002, GMC celebrated its 100 anniversary and released a book entitled GMC: The First 100 Years, a complete history of the company.

In 2007, GMC introduced the Acadia, a crossover SUV, which was the division's first unibody vehicle whose predecessor, the GMT-360 based Envoy, was discontinued with the closure of GM's Moraine, Ohio plant on December 23, 2008.

In 2009, GMC ended production of medium-duty commercial trucks after over 100 years.[5] In the same year, GMC introduced the Terrain, a mid-size crossover SUV based on the GM Theta platform shared with the Chevrolet Equinox. It replaced the Pontiac Torrent after the brand's demise.

GMC currently manufactures SUVs, pickup trucks, vans, and light-duty trucks, catered to a premium-based market. In the past, GMC also produced fire trucks, ambulances, heavy-duty trucks, military vehicles, motorhomes, transit buses, and medium duty trucks; the latter to become exclusive to Chevrolet with the launch of the 4500HD/5500HD Silverado in 2018.[6]

Platform sharing with Chevrolet[edit]

1919 GMC Tanker
1920 Chevrolet tow truck
1941 GMC Model 9314

Beginning in 1920, GMC and Chevrolet trucks became largely similar, built as variants of the same platform, sharing much the same body sheetwork, except for nameplates and grilles – though their differences, especially engines, have varied over the years. GMC advertising marketed its trucks to commercial buyers and businesses, whereas the Chevy's targeted private ownership. From 1939 to 1974 GMC had its own line of six cylinder engines, first the inline sixes known as "Jimmy's" from 1939–1959, and then their own Vee-six from 1960–1974, of which a V8 and a V12 version also existed. Additionally, from 1955 through 1959, the less than 2-ton, domestic GMC gasoline trucks were equipped with Pontiac, Buick, and Oldsmobile V8s—whereas the Canadian models used Chevrolet engines. New Chevrolet vehicles are sold exclusively at Chevrolet dealerships, GMC vehicles are sold alongside Buick and Cadillac dealerships (Pontiac and Oldsmobile branded dealerships also had a similar arrangement). Stand alone GMC franchises exist for sales of the entire GMC line up and includes medium and light-duty commercial models as well. This crossover allowed GM dealers that did not sell Chevrolets to offer full lineups of both cars, trucks, and SUVs by offering GMC's trucks and SUVs. Between 1962 and 1972, most GMC vehicles were equipped with quad-headlights, while their Chevrolet clones were equipped with dual-headlights.

In 1971, GMC marketed their version of the Chevrolet El Camino, which was based on the Chevrolet Chevelle. Called Sprint, it was virtually identical to the El Camino, and a sport version, the SP, was equivalent to the El Camino SS. In 1973, with GM’s introduction of the new "rounded line" series trucks, GMC and Chevrolet trucks became even more similar, ending production of GMC's quad-headlight models, and setting the standard for the Chevrolet/GMC line of trucks for over thirty years.[citation needed]

GMC models[edit]

Light-duty trucks[edit]

Model Introduced Discontinued Notes
C and E series[7] 1941 1947 Little difference with the Chevrolet Art Deco trucks
New Design series 1947 1955 Little difference with the Chevrolet Advance-Design trucks
Blue Chip series 1955 1959 Pontiac Powered, similar to the Chevrolet Task-Force trucks
C and K Series 1960 1998 half–, three-quarter– and one-ton trucks, with Sierra, Sierra Grande, High Sierra, and Sierra Classic trim lines
Sprint 1971 1977 Coupe utility – GMC version of the 1971 to 1977 Chevrolet El Camino
Caballero 1978 1987 Coupe utility – GMC version of the 1978 to 1987 Chevrolet El Camino
S-15 1982 1990 Became the Sonoma in 1991
Sonoma 1991 2004 Formerly the S-15 1982–1990
Syclone 1991 1991 High performance version of the Sonoma
Sierra 1996 current GMC version of Chevrolet Silverado medium- and heavy-duty pickup
Canyon 2004 current GMC version of Chevrolet Colorado midsize pickup

Medium-duty trucks[edit]

Model Introduced Discontinued Notes
Varies, first letter denotes production year:
A=1939-1940, C=1941-1945, E=1946, F=1947-1950, Z=1954, Y=1955, X=1956, T=1957, S=1958-1959, N=1960;
Second letter denotes cab style:
C=cab behind engine, F=cab over engine
1939 1959 Line sold to Navistar, now marketed under the WorkHorse brand.
L-Series 1960 c.1984 Steel Tilt Cab
TopKick 1980 1996
C-Series 1960 2009
Forward 1980s 2010
W-Series 1984 2010 Rebranded Isuzu Elf
T-Series 1994 2010
TopKick 2003 2009 Model used for Ironhide in the Transformers film series

Heavy-duty trucks[edit]

A 1972 GMC HM-7500 truck carrying a medium-sized excavator.
Model Introduced Discontinued Notes
DLR/F/“Crackerbox” 1959 1968 Aluminium Tilt Cab
B-Model 1960 1966
7500 1963 1978
9500 1966 1978
Astro 95 1968 1988
General 1977 1988
Brigadier 1978 1988

Buses[edit]

GM P-series bus, made in the late 1950s, still working in Conchillas, Uruguay (2011).
Model Introduced Discontinued Notes
P-series[8] 1940s[9] 1980 "Parlor" (highway) coaches
"Old Look" 1940[9] 1969 transit
"New Look" 1959 1986 transit
RTS 1977 1987 transit
Classic 1982 1987 transit
B-series 1966 2003 school bus
S-series 1986 1989 school bus (forward control)

Vans[edit]

Model Introduced Discontinued Notes
Handi-Van 1964 1970
Handi-Bus 1964 1970
Rally 1970 1996 GMC version of the Chevrolet Sportvan
Vandura 1970 1996 GMC version of the Chevrolet Chevy Van
Safari 1985 2005 GMC version of the Chevrolet Astro
Savana 1996 current GMC version of the Chevrolet Express

SUVs[edit]

Model Introduced Discontinued Notes
Suburban 1937 2000 Rebranded as Yukon XL
Jimmy 1969 2005 GMC version of the Chevrolet Blazer
S-15 Jimmy 1983 2005
Tracker 1989 1991 Canada only
Typhoon 1992 1993 High performance version of the S-15 Jimmy
Yukon 1992 current GMC version of the Chevrolet Tahoe
Envoy 1998 2009 GMC version of the Chevrolet TrailBlazer
Yukon Hybrid 2009 2013 GMC version of Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid and Cadillac Escalade Hybrid
Yukon XL 2001 current Formerly the Suburban
Acadia 2007 current GMC version of the Chevrolet Traverse; became a mid-size crossover SUV commencing with the 2017 model year
Terrain 2010 current GMC version of the Chevrolet Equinox

Motorhomes[edit]

Model Introduced Discontinued Notes
GMC motorhome 1973 1978

Military vehicles[edit]

Model Introduced Discontinued Notes
CCKW/CCW 1941 1945
AFKWX 1941 1945 Cab over engine
DUKW 1942 1945 Amphibious

Sedans[edit]

Model Introduced Discontinued Notes
Chevette 1992 1995 Rebadged Chevrolet Chevette intended for the Argentinian market

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The First Century of GMC Truck History" (PDF). GM Heritage Center. Donald Meyer. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  2. ^ Theobald, Mark. "Yellow Coach Part 1". Coachbuilt. Coachbuilt. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  3. ^ Stauss, Ed (1988). The Bus World Encyclopedia of Buses. Woodland Hills, CA: Stauss Publications. pp. 29–32, 87, 102–105. ISBN 0-9619830-0-0.
  4. ^ Bradsher, Keith (February 20, 1996). "G.M. to Merge GMC Division With Pontiac". New York Times.
  5. ^ "GM Getting Out of Medium-Duty Truck Business". NBCNews.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  6. ^ No Plans For GMC Versions Of 2019 Silverado 4500HD, 5500HD Medium Duty Truck from GM Authority (January 22, 2018)
  7. ^ "A Brief Outline of the First Century of GMC Truck History". GM Heritage Center. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  8. ^ "List of GM PD Series Parlor Coaches".
  9. ^ a b produced by Yellow Coach 1940–43

External links[edit]