JTD engine

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JTD/MultiJet engine
Overview
Manufacturer
Also called Family B engine
Production 1997–present
Combustion chamber
Cylinder block alloy Cast iron
Cylinder head alloy Aluminium alloy
Combustion
Fuel type Diesel
Oil system Wet sump
Cooling system Water cooled

Multijet is Fiat Chrysler Automobiles' term for its current common rail direct injection turbodiesel engine range. Most of the Fiat, Alfa Romeo, Lancia range as well as certain Chrysler, RAM Trucks, Jeep and Maserati vehicles have Multijet engines. Ownership of some Fiat Multijet designs is shared with General Motors as part of a settlement of the failed merger between the two auto conglomerates. GM Powertrain Torino group in Turin, Italy manages their interest in these engines. Some PSA Peugeot Citroën diesel engines are also rebadged JTD units. The first-generation of Fiat's common rail diesel engine was known as JTD, an initialism of uniJet Turbo Diesel.

Characteristics[edit]

The property that distinguishes the Multijet from previous generations of common rail diesel engines from FCA is the combustion of the fuel, which is split into multiple injections, thus allowing for a more complete, quieter combustion in the cylinder. Compared to the first-generation JTD engines which only featured a smaller pilot and a larger main injection, Multijet is capable of up to five injections per combustion cycle which enables better, more efficient cold running, better performance especially in the lower rev-range, quieter operation as well as even lower consumptions and emissions. The time between injections has been reduced to 150 microseconds while the minimal injection quantity has been reduced from two to less than one microlitre.

This enables even mid-sized sedans like the Alfa Romeo 156 and Lancia Lybra to achieve a fuel economy of upwards of 45 mpgUS (55 mpgimp or 5L/100 km) on country roads and highways.

A sophisticated electronic control unit controls the injection and changes the injection logic and number of injections based on a multitude of parameters, most importantly revolutions per minute of the engine, engine torque requested by the driver and the temperature of the coolant.

The injection pressure of the diesel fuel on the second-generation Multijet is limited to between 1,400 bar (20,000 psi) on the 1.3 Multijet and 1,600 bar (23,000 psi) on the 2.4 Multijet 20V.

Multijet II[edit]

In 2009 Fiat Powertrain introduced the third generation of this technology, called Multijet II. With its new and innovative injectors with hydraulically balanced solenoid valve and even higher injection pressure of 2,000 bar (29,000 psi) it is capable of even more precise controlling of the injected diesel fuel, injecting it in a quicker and more flexible manner. It enables up to eight consecutive injections per combustion cycle and implemented Injection Rate Shaping technology, which provides two very close pilot injection making the fuel delivery more continuous and modulated.[1] This results in an engine that is quiet and has a smoother operation, lower emissions, better fuel mileage and higher performance compared to the previous generation.

Automotive engines[edit]

0.8[edit]

0.8 L
Overview
Manufacturer Maruti Suzuki
Also called DDiS 125
Production 2015-present
Combustion chamber
Configuration I2
Displacement 793 cc (48.4 cu in)
Output
Power output 34 kW; 47 PS (46 bhp)
Torque output 125 newton metres (92 lb·ft)

A 0.8 liter 2-cylinder diesel engine was introduced in 2015 for the Maruti Suzuki Celerio under the name "DDiS125" for the Indian market. With a displacement of 793 cc, it was India's smallest diesel engine (turbocharged with intercooler), with a maximum power output of 47 PS (46 hp; 34 kW) and a maximum torque of 125 Nm (92 lb-ft). The small engine made the Celerio India's most economic car with a fuel economy of 27.62 km/L.

Applications:

1.0[edit]

1.0 L
Overview
Manufacturer General Motors
Also called
  • XSDE (Xtra Smart Diesel Engine)
  • Smartech Diesel
Production 2011–present
Combustion chamber
Configuration I3
Displacement 936 cc (57.1 cu in)
Cylinder bore 69.615 mm (2.74 in)
Piston stroke 82.0 mm (3.23 in)
Valvetrain DOHC with roller finger followers
Compression ratio 16.8:1
Combustion
Fuel system Common rail
Output
Power output 43 kW; 57 hp (57 bhp)
Torque output 150 N·m (111 lb·ft)
Dimensions
Length 553.3 mm (21.78 in)
Width 547.3 mm (21.55 in)
Height 700.5 mm (27.58 in)
Dry weight 130 kg (287 lb)

A 1.0 L (936 cc) 3-cylinder variant, (called XSDE, Xtra Smart Diesel Engine) or Smartech Diesel, was introduced in 2011. Co-developed by GM Powertrain Torino and the GM Technical Center India for the Indian Market the engine is rated at 57 bhp (43 kW; 57 hp) of power and 150 N·m (111 lb·ft) of torque.[2]

Applications:

1.3 Multijet[edit]

1.3 L
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat/General Motors
Also called
Production 2003–present
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 1,248 cc (76.2 cu in)
Cylinder bore 69.6 mm (2.74 in)
Piston stroke 82.0 mm (3.23 in)
Valvetrain Dual overhead camshafts
Compression ratio 17.6:1
Dimensions
Dry weight 140 kg (310 lb)

A small 1.3 L (1,248 cc) version (called the SDE, Small Diesel Engine) introduced in February 2003[3] is produced in Bielsko-Biała, Poland,[4] and in Ranjangaon, Pune, India, by Fiat India Automobiles.[5] The Multijet 75 PS version was chosen in 2005 as the International Engine of the Year in the 1-litre to 1.4-litre category.

There are five versions of this engine: a 70 PS (51 kW; 69 hp), a 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) (used in the Fiat Punto, Panda, Palio, Albea, Idea; Opel Corsa, Combo, Meriva; Suzuki Ritz, Swift, SX4; and Tata Indica Vista), a variable inlet geometry 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp) (used in the Fiat Grande Punto,[6] Linea; Opel Corsa, Astra; Suzuki Ertiga; Tata Indigo Manza and Alfa Romeo MiTo), a 95 PS (70 kW; 94 hp) from the Multijet II generation,[7] and a 105 PS (77 kW; 104 hp) available on the Lancia Ypsilon. At the time of the launch this was the smallest four-cylinder diesel engine available and had a fuel consumption of 3.3 L/100 km (86 mpg-imp; 71 mpg-US) in some applications. The engine is able to meet Euro IV pollution standards without the use of a diesel particulate filter.[7]

In January 2008, Tata Motors introduced the new Indica Vista model, which features new Quadrajet branded version of this engine.[8] The second generation Ford Ka uses 1.3 Multijet named as Duratorq TDCi. In GM nomenclature, it is called Small Diesel Engine (SDE).

During 2009, Fiat launched a new generation badged Multijet II, with a new injection management system (up to 8 injections per cycle, instead of 5) and able to meet Euro V pollution standards.[9] It is available with several power outputs, from 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp), with fixed geometry turbocharger, to 95 PS (70 kW; 94 hp), with variable geometry turbocharger.[10]

As of 2013, more than 5 million 1.3 MultiJet engines were produced.[11]

Applications:

1.6 Multijet[edit]

1.6 L
Overview
Also called Multijet (Fiat)
Production 2006–present
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 1,598 cc (97.5 cu in)
Cylinder bore 79.5 mm (3.13 in)
Piston stroke 80.5 mm (3.17 in)

In 2006, Fiat Powertrain announced a downsized version of the 1.9 16V Multijet, a new 1.6L 16V Multijet (1,598 cc) with two power levels of 105PS and 120 PS (118 hp/88 kW) to replace the still-used 1.9L 8-valve engine. The new 1.6 Multijet diesel with 105 PS was released in December 2007, the 120PS version arrived later in 2008.[12]

Applications:

1.9[edit]

1.9 L
Alfa Romeo JTDm 159.jpg
JTDm engine cover of Alfa Romeo 159
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat/GM
Also called
Production 1997–present
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 1,910 cc (117 cu in)
Cylinder bore 82 mm (3.2 in)
Piston stroke 90.4 mm (3.56 in)
Dimensions
Dry weight 125 kg (276 lb) (Single Turbo)

The most common JTD engine is the 1.9 L (1,910 cc, 82 mm bore, 90.4 mm stroke) straight-4 found on various brands and models. The first car that used this engine was Alfa Romeo 156 in 1997 (105 PS or 77 kW or 104 hp), making it the world's first common-rail diesel passenger car. In 1999, it was introduced on the Fiat Punto JTD with a smaller, fixed-geometry turbocharger and 80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp), as well as in the Fiat Brava, Bravo and Marea range. There were also 85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp), 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp), 105 PS (77 kW; 104 hp), 110 PS (81 kW; 110 hp) and 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) versions available. The engine block weighs approximately 125 kg (276 lb), the cylinder head features an overhead camshaft with directly actuated valves.

The Multijet second generation features an advanced common-rail system and is available with seven different power outputs. The 8-valve version has 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp), 120 PS (88 kW; 120 hp) or 130 PS (96 kW; 130 hp) and the 16-valve version has 134 PS (100 kW; 136HP), 138 PS (103 kW; 140HP), 150 PS (110 kW; 150 hp) or 170 PS (130 kW; 170 hp). Except for the 100HP Multijet, all engines feature a variable-geometry turbocharger.

Opel also uses a version of this engine. Their CDTI engine, manufactured in Pratola Serra, Italy and Kaiserslautern, Germany, is the product of the half-decade joint venture between GM and Fiat. It is used in the Vectra, Signum, Astra, Zafira, Cadillac BLS and Suzuki SX4 as well as some Saabs marked as TiD and TTiD (twinturbo version).

Applications:

Twin Turbo[edit]

Engine cover of Lancia Delta´s 1.9 TT Multijet.

Fiat Powertrain Technologies released information about new twin stage turbo (twin turbo) version of this engine in summer 2007, engine is available with two power levels, first one is producing 180 PS (132 kW; 178 hp) and second one 190 PS (140 kW; 187 hp), both have a maximum torque output of 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) at 2000 rpm. 180 PS version production started summer 2007. The engine weighs approximately 185 kilograms (408 lb). This engine will be sold both to Fiat Group Automobiles and other brands, but the 190 PS (140 kW; 187 hp) version is reserved only to Fiat Group Automobiles.[14]

Applications:

2.0 Multijet II[edit]

2.0 L
Alfa Romeo JTDm-2 giulietta.jpg
JTDm 2 engine cover of Alfa Romeo Giulietta
Overview
Manufacturer
Also called
  • CDTI (Opel)
  • TiD4 or TTiD4 (Saab)
  • GM Family B engine (GM)
  • Multijet (Fiat)
Production 2008–present
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 1,956 cc (119.4 cu in)
Cylinder bore 83 mm (3.3 in)
Piston stroke 90.4 mm (3.56 in)
Cylinder block alloy Cast iron
Cylinder head alloy Aluminum
Valvetrain Dual overhead camshafts
Compression ratio 16.5
Combustion
Fuel system Direct injection
Fuel type
Oil system Wet sump
Cooling system Water-cooled
Output
Power output 110–192 hp (82–143 kW)
Torque output 192–280 lb·ft (260–380 N·m)
Dimensions
Dry weight 174–182 kg (384–401 lb)

A new 2 litre (1,956 cc, 83 mm bore, 90.4 mm stroke) Multijet diesel was introduced in third generation Lancia Delta in summer 2008. At its first version this engine produces 165 PS (121 kW; 163 hp). For 2009 the engine was fitted to Alfa Romeo 159 as 170 PS (125 kW; 168 hp) variant. Fiat Sedici, Suzuki SX4 and the new Fiat Doblò generation use a 135 PS (99 kW; 133 hp) variant of this engine.

GM Powertrain separately developed their diesel engines based on 1.9 JTD, after end of "marriage" between GM and Fiat,[15] and first was 160 PS (120 kW; 160 hp) version for Astra and Insignia, which was latter upgraded to 165 PS for Astra (163 PS in restyled version of Insignia), and less powerful version for Insignia with 110 PS and 130 PS. In 2011 GM Powertrain Europe developed a new derivative - the twin-turbocharger BiTurbo version, with 195 PS (143 kW; 192 hp), which is used in the Insignia and starting with 2013 in the Astra J. Internally the new engine is referred to as GM Family B engine. The same engine was also available in the 2011 Saab 9-5 with 160 PS and 190 PS twin-turbo. In 2013 Opel introduced cleaner and more fuel efficient versions of the 2.0 CDTI engine and the ecoFLEX version, with 99 g/km of CO2 and 120 PS (140 PS for Insignia).[16]

Applications:

2.2 Multijet II[edit]

2.2 L
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat (Pratola Serra plant)
Also called
  • Multijet II (Fiat)
Production 2015-current
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2,184 cc (133.3 cu in)
Cylinder bore 83.8 mm (3.30 in)
Piston stroke 99 mm (3.9 in)
Cylinder block alloy Cast iron
Cylinder head alloy Aluminum
Valvetrain Dual overhead camshafts
Compression ratio 15.5:1
Combustion
Turbocharger Variable-geometry integrated in the exhaust manifold
Fuel system Common Rail
Management Multijet II (Magneti Marelli)
Output
Power output 185–200 hp (138–149 kW)
Torque output 440 N·m (320 lb·ft)

The 2.2 Multijet II (2,184 cc) was introduced by Fiat in mid-2015.[17] These engines produce 185 PS (136 kW; 182 hp) and 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) with 440 N·m (320 lb·ft) of torque at 2500 RPM in the Jeep Cherokee. It was developed to offer more torque in the low-rev range compared to the 2.0L Multijet.[18] This engine further improves the existing 2.0 Multijet in various areas, such as a higher injection pressure (2,000 Bar instead of 1,600 Bar) with Injector Rate Shaping, an oil pump with variable displacement and counterbalance-shafts to reduce noises and vibrations.[19] This engine meets Euro 6 emission norms without the use of diesel exhaust fluid injection.

A further development of this engine with a 2,143 cc displacement, and a die-cast Aluminium block, is used in the Alfa Romeo Giulia (952).[20]

Applications:

2.4[edit]

2.4 L
Alfa0038 JTD.jpg
Engine cover of Alfa Romeo 166 2.4 JTD
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat/GM
Also called
Combustion chamber
Configuration I5
Displacement 2,387 cc (145.7 cu in)
Cylinder bore 82 mm
Piston stroke 90.4 mm
Cylinder block alloy Cast iron
Valvetrain OHC
Compression ratio 18,5
Combustion
Fuel system Direct injection

The 2.4 L (2,387 cc) straight-5 version is based on the 2.4 124 PS (91 kW; 122 hp) 5 cylinder TD engine as used in the Mk1 Fiat Marea and the Mk1 Lancia Kappa. The JTD version benefits from the solid build of the TD block, and an improved head/injection system. There are 2 versions of the 2.4 JTD, the 10-valve as used in the Fiat Marea 130 JTD and the earlier Alfa Romeo 156/Lancia Lybra diesels where it was available as 136 PS (100 kW; 134 hp), 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp), 150 PS (110 kW; 148 hp) and later a Multijet 20-valve version 175 PS (129 kW; 173 hp) as used in the later (2003>) Alfa Romeo 156 as well as some Lancia vehicles.

It was designed for transverse front-wheel drive use and was deemed too long and tall for widespread use in other GM or Fiat products. A newer Multijet variant of this engine, capable for 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp), is currently used in the Alfa Romeo 159, Alfa Romeo Brera and Fiat Croma. The latest version of this engine produces 210 PS (154 kW; 207 hp) and 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) at 1500 rpm, and is used in Alfa Romeo vehicles.[21]

Applications:

3.0 V6 Multijet II[edit]

See List of VM Motori engines#A 630 DOHC.

Heavy-duty engines[edit]

2.3[edit]

2.3 L
Overview
Also called
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2,287 cc (139.6 cu in)

The 2.3 Multijet (2,287 cc) was developed by Iveco for heavy-duty applications and is available in three versions 120 MultiJet (Sofim F1AE0481D), 130 MultiJet (Sofim F1AE0481N or F1AE6481D) and 150 MultiJet (Sofim F1AE3481E), these engines produce 120 PS (88 kW; 118 hp), 130 PS (96 kW; 128 hp) and 148 PS (109 kW; 146 hp) respectively.

Applications:

2.8[edit]

2.8 L
Overview
Manufacturer Iveco
Also called
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2,798 cc (170.7 cu in)

The 2.8 JTD (2,798 cc) made by Iveco (Sofim) was used in second generation Fiat Ducato, it produces 127 PS (93 kW; 125 hp) or 146 PS (107 kW; 144 hp).

Applications:

3.0[edit]

3.0 L
Overview
Manufacturer Iveco
Also called
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2,998 cc (182.9 cu in)

The 160 MultiJet Power, introduced in 2007, saw displacement increased to 3.0 L (2,998 cc). This engine produces 157 PS (115 kW; 155 hp) or 177 PS (130 kW; 175 hp) in Fiat-badged models. In Iveco Massif this engine is also available as 176 PS (129 kW; 174 hp) version.

Applications:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (PDF) https://www.iav.com/sites/default/files/handouts/2014/en-us/diesel-injection-rate-shaping.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ Raja, Shrawan (Jul 23, 2011). "Chevrolet Beat XSDE SMARTECH engine". Indian Autos Blog. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  3. ^ "Third generation FIRE engine: the 1.3 Multijet 16v". Italiaspeed.com. 7 February 2003. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  4. ^ http://www.italiaspeed.com/2005/cars/fiat/11/1300_multijet/3011.html
  5. ^ Jan 19, 2012 (2012-01-19). "Fiat, Suzuki ink pact for Multijet - News". Autocar India. Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  6. ^ "Fiat Grande Punto: A very comprehensive array of sophisticated engines and gearboxes". Italiaspeed.com. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "Fiat Punto Evo: Technological innovation". Fiat Group Automobiles Press. 29 September 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  8. ^ "Tata Motors launches new vehicle models at the New Delhi Auto Expo" (Press release). Tata Motors. January 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  9. ^ "The new 1.3 Multijet II 95 HP (Euro5) engine is making its first appearance on the Fiat 500 and 500C". Fiat Group Automobiles Press. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  10. ^ "Four millionth 1.3 MultiJet 16V diesel engine is built at Fiat powertrain's Poland factory". Italiaspeed.com. 2011-02-09. Retrieved 2012-04-01. 
  11. ^ "5 million 1.3 MultiJet engines produced". Fiatpress.com. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  12. ^ "The new Fiat Bravo has already hit its full year sales targets". italiaspeed.com. 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  13. ^ Kim, Chang-Ran (June 27, 2011). "Suzuki to use Fiat engines for new car from 2013". reuters.com. Retrieved 2011-06-27. 
  14. ^ "New engine 1.9 JTD twin stage turbo" (PDF). fptpowertrain.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-01. Retrieved 2007-06-08. 
  15. ^ "Vehicles Engines Introduction". General Motors Company. 2011. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-05. 
  16. ^ "The New Opel Insignia – The Engine and Infotainment Revolution". Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  17. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=09PI6puHdps.  Missing or empty |title= (help); External link in |website= (help);
  18. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uU5D6UillG0.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2015/06/22/jeep-cherokee-debutta-il-nuovo-2-2-turbodiesel-fca-che-sara-anche-sullalfa-giulia/1802293/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rH1UinmCk_4.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ "Alfa Romeo at the 77th Geneva International Motor Show 2007". alfaromeopress.com. 2012-04-06. Retrieved 2012-04-06. 

References[edit]