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GM New Look bus

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GM New Look
A GM "New Look" bus model T6H-5307N in service for the TTC (2008)
ManufacturerGM Truck and Bus (United States)
GM Diesel Division (Canada)
  • 1959–1977 (U.S.)
  • 1962–1986 (Canada)[1]
Body and chassis
ClassTransit bus
Body styleMonocoque stressed-skin
  • 4-speed non-synchromesh manual
  • 1-speed Allison VH automatic
  • 2-speed Allison VS-2 automatic
  • 3-speed Allison V730 automatic
Wheelbase162 in (4.11 m), 235 in (5.97 m), or 285 in (7.24 m)[1]
Length29 ft (8.84 m), 35 ft (10.67 m), or 40 ft (12.19 m)
Width96 in (2.44 m) or 102 in (2.59 m)
Height121 in (3.07 m)
(height over roof hatches)[1]
PredecessorGM/Yellow Coach "old look"
A restored GM "New Look" bus of the former New York Bus Service (now the MTA)

The GM New Look bus is a municipal transit bus that was introduced in 1959 by the Truck and Coach Division of General Motors to replace the company's previous coach, retroactively known as the GM "old-look" transit bus.

Also commonly known by the nickname "Fishbowl" (for its original six-piece rounded windshield, later replaced by a two-piece curved pane), it was produced until 1977 in the United States, and until 1985 in Canada.[2] More than 44,000 New Look buses were built. Its high production figures and long service career made it an iconic North American transit bus. The design is listed as U.S. patent D182,998 by Roland E. Gegoux and William P. Strong.

Production overview[edit]

44,484 New Look buses were built over the production lifespan, of which 33,413 were built in the U.S. and 11,071 were built in Canada (GM Diesel Division). Separated by general type, the production figures comprised 510 29-foot (8.8 m) city buses (all U.S.-built); 9,355 35-foot (10.7 m) city buses (7,804 U.S.-built, 1,551 Canadian); 31,348 40-foot (12.2 m) city buses (22,034 U.S., 9,314 Canadian) and 3,271 suburban coaches (of which only 206 were built in Canada).[1] The total production of New Looks was 41,213 transit coaches and 3,271 suburban coaches.[1]

Other than demonstrators, Washington, D.C., was the very first city to take delivery of any GM New Look buses, specifically TDH-5301s built in 1959 for O. Roy Chalk's D.C. Transit System,[3] which operated in Washington, D.C., and the suburbs of Maryland and Virginia.

Several different models were introduced over the following years, and modifications made to the design. See the section below, headed "Description".

Production of the New Look in the U.S. ceased in 1977,[1] when it was replaced by the RTS transit bus. Production continued after this, however, at General Motors Diesel Division in Canada, due to the RTS design being rejected by Canadian transit agencies, with the name plate changing from "GM" to "GMC". Few were produced after 1983 due to the GMDD's introduction of the Classic in that year. The last New Looks to be built were an order for Santa Monica Municipal Bus Lines (now Big Blue Bus) of Santa Monica, California, in 1986.[2] The completion of that order brought a final end to New Look production in April 1986.[2][4] At least one transit property, the Société de transport de l'Outaouais in Gatineau, Quebec, operated the model until at least 2015 [5] nearly 60 years after introduction and more than 30 years after mass production ended, but has since retired the type from active use. [6]

The last American-built New Look GM buses were ordered by the city of Wausau, Wisconsin, which placed an order for twelve 35-foot (10.7 m) transit buses, model T6H-4523N, the last of which was delivered in March 1977.[citation needed]

The GM Buffalo bus, a group of intercity bus models built between 1966 and 1980, shared many mechanical and body parts with the fishbowl models, and were discontinued by the Pontiac, Michigan, plant shortly after the RTS replaced fishbowl model production there.

GM later sold the rights to produce both Classic and RTS models to other manufacturers, and exited the heavy-duty transit and intercity markets for full-sized buses, although production of some medium-duty and light-duty chassis products sold in these markets continued.


Like GM's over-the-road buses, including the Greyhound Scenicruiser, the air-sprung New Look did not have a traditional ladder frame. Instead it used an airplane-like stressed-skin construction in which an aluminum riveted skin supported the weight of the bus. The wooden floor kept the bus's shape. The engine cradle was hung off the back of the roof. As a result, the GM New Look weighed significantly less than competitors' city buses.

AC Transit mechanics examine the 6V71 engine of bus no. 976

Virtually all New Look buses were powered by Detroit Diesel Series 71 two-cycle diesel engines. The original engine was the 6V71 (V6). GM buses used a unique "Angle-drive" configuration with a transverse mounted engine. The transmission angled off at a 45-or-so degree angle to connect to the rear axle. The engines were canted backwards for maintenance access; in fact, the only parts not accessible from outside the bus were the right-hand exhaust manifold and the starter. The entire engine-transmission-radiator assembly was mounted on a cradle that could be quickly removed and replaced, allowing the bus to return to service with minimal delay when the powertrain required major maintenance. Originally, all New Looks were powered by the 6V-71. GM resisted V8 power but eventually gave in to pressure from customers.

(The exception to the above was the 29-foot (8.8 m) TDH-3301, which was powered by the GMC DH-478 Toroflow four-stroke V6, and had a more conventional T-drive transmission.)

Original transmission choices were a four-speed non-synchronized manual transmission with solenoid reverse and the Allison Automatic VH hydraulic transmission. The latter was essentially a one-speed automatic transmission which drove the wheels through a torque converter. At sufficient speed a clutch bypassed the torque converter and the engine drove the rear wheels directly. A later option was the VS-2, similar to the VH but with a two-speed planetary gearset with three modes: Hydraulic, direct (1:1), and direct-overdrive. The very last batch of American-built New Looks and most Canadian-built New Looks from 1977 through 1987 use the Allison V730 transmission, a traditional three-speed automatic with a lockup torque converter. These four transmissions were the only V-drive transmissions made.

"Suburban" interior with high-back seats and "dropped" center floor

New Looks were available in both Transit and Suburban versions. Transits were traditional city buses with two doors; Suburbans had forward-facing seats (four-abreast), underfloor luggage bays, and had only one door. The floor beneath the seats was higher than the center aisle to accommodate the luggage bays. There were also "Suburban-style" transits which had forward-facing seats on slightly raised platforms that gave the appearance of a dropped center aisle. GM refused to install lavatories on these buses; at least one transit authority (Sacramento Transit Authority in Sacramento, California) added its own.

The New Look was built in 30 ft (9.1 m), 35 ft (10.7 m) and 40 ft (12.2 m) lengths and 96 and 102 in (2.44 and 2.59 m) widths. 35 and 40 ft (10.7 and 12.2 m) buses had different-length side windows, so the profiles of both buses looked very similar, but not the same. In the 1970s, AC Transit shortened several 35' New Look buses to 29' by removing a section from the middle for dial-a-ride demand-responsive service, maintaining common parts and drivers with the remainder of its fleet.[7]

In 1967 and 1968, Red Arrow Lines tested a GM New Look bus converted to operate as a railbus on its interurban routes and the Norristown High Speed Line.[8]

Variants based on the New Look[edit]

Turbine engines

General Motors had been interested in developing gas turbine engines for highway use and showed the General Motors Firebird series of turbine-powered sports car concepts in the 1950s; to demonstrate the engine's practicality, GM fitted a copy of the same GT-300 "Whirlfire" engine from Firebird I into an "old-look" TDH-4512 transit bus and called it the "Turbo-Cruiser". For the 1964 New York World's Fair, the latest version of the gas turbine engine, designated GT-309, was fitted to a New Look bus (TDH-5303, serial #0001) and named "Turbo-Cruiser II";[9] the GT-309 was also fitted to the Chevrolet Tilt-Cab truck chassis and called "Turbo Titan III". The GT-309 developed power and torque comparable to the 8V-71 and weighed less, but fuel consumption and emissions proved to be intractable problems. The same TDH-5303 was later equipped with a continuously-variable transmission and rebranded "Turbo-Cruiser III".[10] Production records also indicate a "Turbo-Cruiser V" was built using a T8H-5305A in 1969.[11] The Turbo-Cruiser III drivetrain also was used on the "RTX" (Rapid Transit eXperimental) bus of 1968, prototyping the styling and features of the Rapid Transit Series, which succeeded the New Look buses starting in 1977.[10]

Trolley buses
Brown Boveri trolleybus number 192

In 1981–82, Brown Boveri & Company constructed 100 model HR150G trolley buses from 40-foot (12.2 m) New Look bus shells for the Edmonton Transit System (ETS). Two coaches (No. 192 and 197) were sent to the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) for evaluation as potential supplements to the aging Flyer E700 trolley bus fleet in 1989 and placed in revenue service in January 1990; pleased with the results, TTC leased 38 more for a three-year term, starting in June 1990. All the leased buses were in the group of ETS fleet numbers between #149 and #199; in TTC service, the leased buses were renumbered with a leading 9 but retained their ETS livery and colors. TTC decided to discontinue trolley bus service in January 1992 to reduce operating costs; as ETS would not allow an early return of the leased buses, TTC continued to run the leased buses on two routes until July 1993.[12]

Back in Edmonton, 19 of the returned trolley buses were retired and used for spare parts, while the rest of the fleet remained in use for 27 years until the Edmonton trolley bus system was shut down in 2009.[12] Two were sold to the Greater Dayton Regional Transit Authority in 1996, where they were fitted with wheelchair lifts and operated in revenue service for approximately a decade to supplement the existing Flyer E800 fleet until both types were replaced by ETI 14TrE trolley buses.[13] In 2010, 28 were sold to Plovdiv, Bulgaria, in an attempt to save the trolleybus system there,[14] but they were abandoned after the Plovdiv trolleybus system shut down as well in 2012. Although they were transferred to Yambol, which had built a trolleybus network but did not have the vehicles to operate it, they were eventually scrapped in 2015 after the city abandoned its plans to open a trolleybus system there as well.

The Dayton trolleybuses (#109 and 110) were moved into storage in 2004.[15] Two others were preserved after Edmonton shut down the trolleybus system in 2009: the Illinois Railway Museum received #181 in Fall 2009[12][16] and the Seashore Trolley Museum received #125 in 2010.[17]

Articulated buses
The articulated version, built only in 1982, had a New Look body but a "Classic" front end.

A 60-foot (18.3 m) articulated version was designed and built in 1982 for a Government of Ontario demonstration project. While a New Look body was used, a newer front (to allow a wider entrance), which would eventually be incorporated into the Classic transit bus, was used. For this reason, this model is sometimes not described as being a New Look and is not included in New Look production figures.[18]

Series production took place in 1982–1983, and a total of only 53 were built.[18] With the newer front and older body, these buses, which were model TA60-102N (for Transit Articulated 60 feet long × 102 inches wide No air-conditioning), were a transitional model. Unlike most other articulated buses with an engine in the front section and a powered middle axle, the TA60-102N utilized a "pusher" design that used a conventional New Look drive train and a specially-designed anti-jackknifing articulated joint that limited the angle between the two section to 7° at normal speeds (while traveling straight forward) and to less than 2° at highway speeds.[19] 12 were tested by TTC in 1982, but TTC chose to purchase a fleet of Orion III articulated buses instead.[20]

Model naming[edit]

The model naming for the GM New Look bus is shown below. Examples of model names are TDH-5301, T8H-5305N, T6H-5307N, S6H-4504A, and T6H-4521N. (Note that not all possible combinations were constructed.) The front end of the bus remained essentially the same through the production of the New Look.

Type Engine Transmission Nominal seating capacity Series Air conditioning
T = transit bus
S = suburban bus
1st & 2nd generation
D = diesel
G = gasoline

3rd & 4th generation
6 = Detroit Diesel 6V71
6 = Detroit Diesel 6V92TA1
8 = Detroit Diesel 8V712

H = hydraulic (automatic) transmission
M = manual transmission
- 33 = 29 feet (8.8 m)3
45 = 35 feet (10.7 m)
53 = 40 feet (12.2 m)

two digits4

A = Air conditioning
N = No air conditioning5
  1. The Detroit Diesel 6V92TA was available on 53-series buses as an alternative to the Detroit Diesel 6V71 and 8V71.
  2. Only 40-foot (12.2 m) buses were available with an 8V71 engine.
  3. The 33 passenger model was not offered in a Suburban version.
  4. For 40-foot coaches: fourth digit odd, 102 inches wide; fourth digit even, 96 inches wide.
  5. "N" omitted for first and second generation.

First generation (1959–1962)[edit]

  • Distinctive 6-piece windshield, earning the nickname "Fishbowl" for the bus.
  • Tail lights were housed in streamlined nacelles modeled after afterburners.
  • Side roof signals were in geometric chrome strips.
  • "GM" logo was on a plaque with a black background.
  • In the first year of production, buses were built with pantograph wipers instead of single arm wipers.
Type Models Example
(TDH-5301 shown)
  • 4516: 35 ft (10.7 m) × 102 in (2.59 m)
  • 4517: 35 ft (10.7 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)
  • 5301: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 102 in (2.59 m)
  • 5302: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)
  • 4501: 35 ft (10.7 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)
  • 5301: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)

Second generation (1963–1967)[edit]

  • Tail light nacelles were removed.
  • Side roof signals were placed in small bullet-pods.
  • Prototype XMC-53 (TDH-5303) with 8V71 was built in 1967 and tested by SF Muni, later entered revenue service as AC Transit #625.[21]
Type Models Example
(TDH-4519 shown)
  • 4518: 35 ft (10.7 m) × 102 in (2.59 m)
  • 4519: 35 ft (10.7 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)
  • 5303: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 102 in (2.59 m)
  • 5304: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)
  • 4502: 35 ft (10.7 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)
  • 5302: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)

Third generation (1968–1971)[edit]

  • same windshield as previous generation.
  • Tail lights were enlarged and given less flair.
  • Because of new FMCSA regulations, three roof head and tail lights, commonly called "Michigan markers", were added as standard equipment (they had been optional on first- and second-generation New Looks). First-generation New Looks had these lights installed in a roof-mounted bracket, called "Manhattan style"; thereafter each light was mounted directly on roof.
  • Third clearance light added at top center on either side, previously only at top corners. Bullet-pods of second-generation New Looks were eliminated.
  • Alternator-based electrical system introduced; previous generations used DC generators.
  • Slight update of driver's instrument panel: Voltmeter replaced previous generator warning light; separate left and right turn signal indicators replaced previous single DIR. SIGNAL light.
  • The logo was changed to "GMC" over a silver background.
  • The GM 8V71 engine became an option on 40-foot buses.
  • From this point on, only the 40 ft (12.2 m) transit model would be available in a 102 in (2.59 m) width.
Type Models Example
(S8M-5303A shown)
  • 4503: 35 ft (10.7 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)
  • 5303: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)

Fourth generation (1972–1979 USA; 1972–1986 Canada)[edit]

  • Same front as the third generation.
  • For units built for American operators, the exhaust system was shifted from below the bus to the left of the rear window. Also used by Canadian operators; called Environmental Improvement Package.
  • A ventilation system on the right of the rear window became a popular option.
  • Roof ventilation/escape hatches introduced as an option from 1974, also very popular.
  • NEXT STOP lights introduced 1976–1979; allows bell to ring only once for each stop.
  • Starting in 1981, the 6V92TA engine became an engine option for the 5307 transit and 5304 suburban model.
  • 5309 and 5310 were developed for the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, in New York, as a variant of the 5307.
  • Front logo plate changed from "GMC" to "GM" around 1980-1982.
Type Models Example
(T6H-5307N shown)
  • 3302: 29 ft (8.8 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)1
  • 4523: 35 ft (10.7 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)
  • 5307: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 102 in (2.59 m)
  • 5308: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)
  • 5309: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 102 in (2.59 m)2
  • 5310: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 102 in (2.59 m)2
  • 4504: 35 ft (10.7 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)
  • 5304: 40 ft (12.2 m) × 96 in (2.44 m)
  1. The 3302 ceased production in 1973.
  2. The 5309 & 5310 were sold only to the New York MTA in 1972–1973. The 5309 had perimeter seating, while the 5310 had forward-facing suburban seating. They were assigned to MABSTOA, MSBA, NYCTA, and one 5310 police bus by the NYPD.

Manufacturing location was indicated by the serial number. No prefix was used for Pontiac, Michigan, C (Canada) indicated London, Ontario, and M (Montreal) Saint-Eustache, Quebec. All buses with 17-digit VINs were built in Saint-Eustache.

Production figures by model[edit]

Production totals are through August 1980, when serial numbers changed to 17-digit vehicle identification numbers.[22][23]


Model U.S.A. Canada
Quantity Built Quantity Built
TGH-3301 13 1969-1971 0 -
TDH-3301 113 1969-1971 0 -
TDH-3301A 161 1969-1971 0 -
TDH-3302A/TDH-3302N 223 1972-1973 0 -
TDH-4516 149 1960-1962 0 -
TDH-4517 1,799 1959-1964 66 1962-1964
TDM-4517 6 1960-1962 0 -
TDH-4518 124 1963-1965 0 -
TDH-4519 1,959 1963-1967 401 1963-1968
TDM-4519 08 1963-1967 0 -
T6H-4521 369 1968-1971 329 1968-1972
T6H-4521A 849 1968-1971 0 -
T6H-4523A/T6H-4523N1 2,562 1971-1977 537 + 95M 1972-1980
TDH-5301 3,794 1959-1964 186 1961-1964
TDM-5301 30 1961 0 -
TDH-5302 774 1960-1962 10 1964
TDM-5302 20 1961 0 -
TDH-5303 6,205 1963-1967 1,069 1963-1968
TDM-5303 65 1964-1967 0 -
TDH-5304 2,062 1963-1967 145 1963-1968
TDM-5304 57 1963-1965 0 -
T6H-5305 298 1967-1971 783 1968-1972
T6H-5305A 723 1968-1971 0 -
T6M-5305A 41 1968 0 -
T8H-5305 454 1968-1971 0 -
T8H-5305A 212 1968-1971 20 1970
T6H-5306 381 1968-1971 72 1968-1972
T6H-5306A 889 1968-1971 0 -
T6M-5306 50 1968 0 -
T8H-5306 5 1969-1970 0 -
T8H-5306A 344 1969-1971 0 -
T6M-5306A 46 1969 0 -
T6H-5307A/T6H-5307N2 446 1972-1979 2,444 + 2,006M 1972-1979
T8H-5307A 3,131 1971-1977 62 + 77M 1973-1979
T6H-5308A/T6H-5308N 3003 1971-1979 2094 1972-1976
T8H-5308A/T8H-5308N5 447 1972-1979 0 -
T6H-5309A 434 1972-1973 0 -
T6H-5310A 106 1972-1973 0 -
All Canadian figures are for London, Ontario, except for totals marked "M".
  1. No T6H-4523As were built in Canada.
  2. No T6H-5307As were built in Canada.
  3. Only one T6H-5308N was built in the U.S.
    (for Martucci Bus Company of West Orange, NJ)
  4. No T6H-5308As were built in Canada.
  5. No T8H-5308Ns were built.


Model U.S.A. Canada
Quantity Built Quantity Built
SDH-4501 90 1960-1961 0 -
SDM-4501 116 1960-1962 19 1962
SDH-4502 53 1963-1967 33 1965-1968
SDM-4502 162 1963-1967 41 1963-1966
S6H-4503 3 1968-1971 8 1969
S6H-4503A 31 1968-1971 0 -
S6M-4503 16 1968-1969 2 1968
S6M-4503A 29 1968-1971 0 -
S6H-4504A 13 1972-1973 0 -
S6M-4504A 2 1972-1973 0 -
SDH-5301 3 1960-1961 0 -
SDM-5301 589 1960-1962 2 1963
SDH-5302 96 1963-1967 15 1965
SDM-5302 1,079 1963-1967 104 1964-1968
S8H-5303A 48 1969-1971 6 1970
S8M-5303A 298 1968-1971 3 1968
S8H-5304A 236 1972-1976 0 -
S8M-5304A 171 1972-1976 0 -

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Stauss, Ed (1988). The Bus World Encyclopedia of Buses, pp. 29-30 and 94-101. Woodland Hills, CA (US): Stauss Publications. ISBN 0-9619830-0-0.
  2. ^ a b c Stauss (1988), p. 30.
  3. ^ Semendinger, David H.; and Robert E. Sauer, Jr. (July–September 2003). "D. C. Transit System" [history of]. Motor Coach Age, p. 9. ISSN 0739-117X.
  4. ^ Motor Coach Today, Vol. 5, No. 1 (January–March 1998), p. 9. Motor Bus Society.
  5. ^ Tom Spears, Ottawa Citizen (May 14, 2015). "Chrome glory: Old bus still gleaming in Outaouais". Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  6. ^ "Canadian Public Transit Board Page".
  7. ^ "AC Transit shortens bus for possible use in Dial-a-Ride operation" (PDF). Transit-Times. Vol. 16, no. 4. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District. October 1973. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
  8. ^ This bus rides rail or highway with equal ease Railway Age November 6, 1967 page 26
  9. ^ "GM TDH5303 U.S. Production List". The Ohio Museum of Transportation. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
  10. ^ a b Brophy, Jim (June 2, 2018). "Bus Stop Classics: General Motors (GM) Turbo Cruiser I, II and III Urban Transit Coaches – Maverick (Top Gun), Your Bus is Here…". Curbside Classic. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
  11. ^ "GM T8H5305A U.S. Production List". The Ohio Museum of Transportation. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
  12. ^ a b c Bow, James (January 20, 2021). "The fourth generation: The Edmonton GM-Brown Boveri buses (1989–1993)". Transit Toronto. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
  13. ^ Brophy, Jim (June 16, 2018). "Bus Stop Classics: A Short History of Dayton's Trolley Buses". Curbside Classic. Retrieved June 18, 2024.
  14. ^ "Edmonton sells 28 Year Old Trolleys For Further Service" (PDF). Transit Talk. Vol. 23. Edmonton Trolley Coalition. January 27, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
  15. ^ "Dayton's Second-Hand Trolleys". Dayton Trolleys. Retrieved June 18, 2024.
  16. ^ "Roster of Equipment: Trolley Coaches". Illinois Railway Museum. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
  17. ^ "Edmonton Transit System 125". New England Electric Railway Historical Society. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
  18. ^ a b Stauss (1988), p. 33.
  19. ^ The Articulated Bus, Toronto: Toronto Transit Commission, November 1982, p. 4
  20. ^ Lubinski, Robert (June 25, 2019). "GM's New Look articulated buses". Transit Toronto. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
  21. ^ "AC Transit Bus Roster". AC Transit. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  22. ^ "GM New Look U.S. Production Lists". Coach Manufacturer Production Lists. The Ohio Museum of Transportation. November 15, 2006. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
  23. ^ Alan Gryfe (August 2, 2000). "General Motors Diesel Division Bus Models & Deliveries". Retrieved September 17, 2012.


  • Burness, Tad (1985). American Truck & Bus Spotter's Guide, 1920-1985. Osceola, Wisconsin (US): Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-0-87938-198-1.
  • Luke, William A. & Metler, Linda L. (2005). City Transit Buses of the 20th Century. Hudson, Wisconsin: Iconografix. ISBN 1-58388-146-8.
  • McKane, John H. & Squier, Gerald L. (2006). Welcome Aboard the GM New Look Bus. Hudson, Wisconsin (US): Iconografix. ISBN 1-58388-167-0.
  • McKane, John H. (1999). The General Motors New Look Bus Photo Archive. Hudson, Wisconsin: Iconografix. ISBN 1-58388-007-0.
  • Stauss, Ed (1988). The Bus World Encyclopedia of Buses. Woodland Hills, California (US): Stauss Publications. ISBN 0-9619830-0-0.

External links[edit]