Genetically modified food
Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also genetically engineered foods, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering techniques allow for the introduction of new traits as well as greater control over traits than previous methods such as selective breeding and mutation breeding.
Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its Flavr Savr delayed-ripening tomato. Most food modifications have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybean, corn, canola, and cotton seed oil. Genetically modified crops have been engineered for resistance to pathogens and herbicides and for better nutrient profiles. GM livestock have been developed, although as of November 2013 none were on the market.
There is general scientific agreement that food from genetically modified crops is not inherently riskier to human health than conventional food. However, there are ongoing public concerns related to food safety, regulation, labelling, environmental impact, research methods, and the fact that some GM seeds are subject to intellectual property rights owned by corporations.
- 1 Definition
- 2 History
- 3 Process
- 4 Crops
- 5 Derivative products
- 6 Other uses
- 7 Controversies
- 8 Testing
- 9 Regulation
- 10 Detection
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Genetically modified foods, GM foods or genetically engineered foods, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering as opposed to traditional cross breeding. In the US, the Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) favor the use of "genetic engineering" over "genetic modification" as the more precise term; the USDA defines genetic modification to include "genetic engineering or other more traditional methods."
According to the World Health Organization, "Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally...".
Food biotechnology is a branch of food science that seeks to improve foods and food production. Associated processes include industrial fermentation, cross breeding, plant cultures and genetic engineering.
Food biotechnology dates back to the time of the Sumerians and Babylonians who used yeast to make fermented beverages such as beer. Plant enzymes such as malts were also by that time. The invention of the microscope allowed humans to discover microorganisms that came to be used in food production. In 1871 Louis Pasteur discovered that heating juices to a certain temperature kills dangerous bacteria, affecting wine and fermentation. The eponymous pasteurization was applied to milk, to improve food safety.
In 1944, Avery, McCarty, and MacLeod demonstrated that nucleic acids carried the genetic material of cells and could be passed between organisms. The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1983, using antibiotic-resistant tobacco. In 1994, the transgenic Flavr Savr tomato was approved by the FDA for marketing in the US. The modification allowed the tomato to delay ripening after picking. In the early 1990s, recombinant chymosin was approved for use in several countries.
Genetically modified microbial enzymes were the first application of genetically modified organisms in food production and were approved in 1988 by the US Food and Drug Administration. These included the protease chymosin for cheese production. Cheese had typically been made using the enzyme complex rennet that had been extracted from cows' stomach lining. Scientists modified bacteria to produce chymosin, which was also able to clot milk, resulting in cheese curds.
In the US in 1995, the following transgenic crops received marketing approval: canola with modified oil composition (Calgene), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn/maize (Ciba-Geigy), cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil (Calgene), Bt cotton (Monsanto), Bt potatoes (Monsanto), glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (Monsanto), virus-resistant squash (Monsanto-Asgrow), and additional delayed ripening tomatoes (DNAP, Zeneca/Peto, and Monsanto). In 2000, with the creation of golden rice, scientists genetically modified food to increase its nutrient value for the first time. As of 2011, the US is the leading country in the production of GM foods. Twenty-five GM crops had received regulatory approval. In 2015, 92% of corn, 94% of soybeans, and 94% of cotton produced in the US were genetically modified strains.
Genetically engineered organisms are generated and tested in the laboratory for desired qualities. The most common modification is to add one or more genes to an organism's genome. Less commonly, genes are removed or their expression is increased or silenced or the number of copies of a gene is increased or decreased.
Once satisfactory strains are produced, the producer applies for regulatory approval to field-test them, called a "field release." Field-testing involves cultivating the plants on farm fields or growing animals in a controlled environment. If these field tests are successful, the producer applies for regulatory approval to grow and market the crop. Once approved, specimens (seeds, cuttings, breeding pairs, etc.) are cultivated and sold to farmers. The farmers cultivate and market the new strain. In some cases, the approval covers marketing but not cultivation.
According to the USDA, the number of field releases for genetically engineered organisms has grown from four in 1985 to an average of about 800 per year. Cumulatively, more than 17,000 releases had been approved through September 2013.
Fruits and vegetables
Papaya was genetically modified to resist the ringspot virus. 'SunUp' is a transgenic red-fleshed Sunset papaya cultivar that is homozygous for the coat protein gene PRSV; 'Rainbow' is a yellow-fleshed F1 hybrid developed by crossing 'SunUp' and nontransgenic yellow-fleshed 'Kapoho'. The New York Times stated, "in the early 1990s, Hawaii’s papaya industry was facing disaster because of the deadly papaya ringspot virus. Its single-handed savior was a breed engineered to be resistant to the virus. Without it, the state’s papaya industry would have collapsed. Today, 80% of Hawaiian papaya is genetically engineered, and there is still no conventional or organic method to control ringspot virus." The GM cultivar was approved in 1998. In China, a transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya was developed by South China Agricultural University and was first approved for commercial planting in 2006; as of 2012 95% of the papaya grown in Guangdong province and 40% of the papaya grown in Hainan province was genetically modified.
The New Leaf potato, brought to market by Monsanto in the late 1990s, was developed for the fast food market. It was withdrawn in 2001 after retailers rejected it and food processors ran into export problems.
In 2011, BASF requested the European Food Safety Authority's approval for cultivation and marketing of its Fortuna potato as feed and food. The potato was made resistant to late blight by adding resistant genes blb1 and blb2 that originate from the Mexican wild potatoSolanum bulbocastanum. In February 2013, BASF withdrew its application.
In 2013, the USDA approved the import of a GM pineapple that is pink in color and that "overexpresses" a gene derived from tangerines and suppress other genes, increasing production of lycopene. The plant's flowering cycle was changed to provide for more uniform growth and quality. The fruit "does not have the ability to propagate and persist in the environment once they have been harvested," according to USDA APHIS. According to Del Monte's submission, the pineapples are commercially grown in a "monoculture" that prevents seed production, as the plant's flowers aren't exposed to compatible pollen sources. Importation into Hawaii is banned for "plant sanitation" reasons.
In 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J.R. Simplot Company that contained ten genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried. The modifications eliminate specific proteins from the potatoes, via RNA interference, rather than introducing novel proteins.
In February 2015 Arctic Apples were approved by the USDA, becoming the first genetically modified apple approved for sale in the US. Gene silencing is used to reduce the expression of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus preventing the fruit from browning.
Corn used for food and ethanol has been genetically modified to tolerate various herbicides and to express a protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that kills certain insects. About 90% of the corn grown in the U.S. was genetically modified in 2010. In the US in 2015, 81% of corn acreage contained the Bt trait and 89% of corn acreage contained the glyphosate-tolerant trait. Corn can be processed into grits, meal and flour as an ingredient in pancakes, muffins, doughnuts, breadings and batters, as well as baby foods, meat products, cereals and some fermented products. Corn-based masa flour and masa dough are used in the production of taco shells, corn chips and tortillas.
Genetically modified soybean has been modified to tolerate herbicides, express Bt and produce healthier oils. In 2015, 94% of soybean acreage in the U.S. was genetically modified to be glyphosate-tolerant. Soybeans contain about 20% oil. In the most common method used to extract the oil, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, rolled into flakes and solvent-extracted with commercial hexane. The remaining soy meal has a 50% soy protein content. The meal is 'toasted' (actually heated with moist steam) and ground in a hammer mill. Part of the balance is processed further into high protein soy products that are used in a variety of foods, such as salad dressings, soups, meat analogues, beverage powders, cheeses, nondairy creamer, frozen desserts, whipped topping, infant formulas, breads, breakfast cereals, pasta and pet foods. Processed soy protein appears in foods mainly in three forms: soy flour, soy protein isolates and soy protein concentrates.
Food-grade soy protein isolate first became available on October 2, 1959.:227–28 Soy protein isolate is a highly refined form of soy protein with a minimum protein content of 90% on a moisture-free basis. It is made from soy meal that has had most of the fats and carbohydrates removed. Soy isolates are mainly used to improve the texture of processed meat products and to increase protein content, enhance moisture retention and as an emulsifier.
Soy protein concentrate is about 70% soy protein and is basically soybean meal without carbohydrates. Soy protein concentrate retains most of the bean fiber. It is used as a functional or nutritional ingredient in food products, mainly in baked foods, breakfast cereals and in some meat products. Soy protein concentrate is used in meat and poultry products to increase water and fat retention and to improve nutritional values (more protein, less fat).
Soy flour is made by grinding soybeans into a fine powder. It comes in three forms: natural or full-fat (contains natural oils); defatted (oils removed) with 50% protein content and with either high water solubility or low water solubility; and lecithinated (lecithin added). As soy flour is gluten-free, yeast-raised breads made with soy flour are dense in texture. Soy grits are similar to soy flour except the soybeans have been toasted and cracked into coarse pieces. Kinako is a soy flour used in Japanese cuisine.
Corn starch and starch sugars, including syrups
Starch or amylum is a polysaccharide produced by all green plants as an energy store. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odourless powder. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight.
- Maltodextrin, a lightly hydrolyzed starch product used as a bland-tasting filler and thickener.
- Various glucose syrups, also called corn syrups in the US, viscous solutions used as sweeteners and thickeners in many kinds of processed foods.
- Dextrose, commercial glucose, prepared by the complete hydrolysis of starch.
- High fructose syrup, made by treating dextrose solutions with the enzyme glucose isomerase, until a substantial fraction of the glucose has been converted to fructose. In the US, high fructose corn syrup is the principal sweetener used in sweetened beverages because fructose has better handling characteristics, such as microbiological stability, and more consistent sweetness/flavor. One kind of high fructose corn syrup, HFCS-55, is typically sweeter than regular sucrose because it is made with more fructose, while the sweetness of HFCS-42 is on par with sucrose.
- Sugar alcohols, such as maltitol, erythritol, sorbitol, mannitol and hydrogenated starch hydrolysate, are sweeteners made by reducing sugars.
Lecithin is a naturally occurring lipid. It can be found in egg yolks and oil-producing plants. it is an emulsifier and thus is used in many foods. Corn, soy and safflower oil are sources of lecithin, though the majority of lecithin commercially available is derived from soy.[better source needed][page needed] Sufficiently processed lecithin is often undetectable with standard testing practices.[not in citation given] According to the FDA, no evidence shows or suggests hazard to the public when lecithin is used at common levels. Lecithin added to foods amounts to only 2 to 10 percent of the 1 to 5 g of phosphoglycerides consumed daily on average. Nonetheless, consumer concerns about GM food extend to such products.[better source needed] This concern led to policy and regulatory changes in Europe in 2000, when Regulation (EC) 50/2000 was passed which required labelling of food containing additives derived from GMOs, including lecithin. Because of the difficulty of detecting the origin of derivatives like lecithin with current testing practices, European regulations require those who wish to sell lecithin in Europe to employ a comprehensive system of Identity preservation (IP).[verification needed][page needed]
The US imports 10% of its sugar, while the remaining 90% is extracted from sugar beet and sugarcane. After deregulation in 2005, glyphosate-resistant sugar beet was extensively adopted in the United States. 95% of beet acres in the US were planted with glyphosate-resistant seed in 2011. Herbicide-tolerant beets are approved in Australia, Canada, Colombia, EU, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Russian Federation and Singapore. Pulp from the refining process is used as animal feed. The sugar produced from GM sugarbeets contains no DNA or protein—it is just sucrose that is chemically indistinguishable from sugar produced from non-GM sugarbeets.
Independent analyses conducted by internationally recognized laboratories found that sugar from Roundup Ready sugar beets is identical to the sugar from comparably grown conventional (non-Roundup Ready) sugar beets. And, like all sugar, sugar from Roundup Ready sugar beets contains no genetic material or detectable protein (including the protein that provides glyphosate tolerance). These results were validated with the sugar derived from a 2007 commercial-scale processing of Roundup Ready sugar beets.
Most vegetable oil used in the US is produced from GM crops canola, corn, cotton and soybeans. Vegetable oil is sold directly to consumers as cooking oil, shortening and margarine and is used in prepared foods. There is a vanishingly small amount of protein or DNA from the original crop in vegetable oil. Vegetable oil is made of triglycerides extracted from plants or seeds and then refined and may be further processed via hydrogenation to turn liquid oils into solids. The refining process removes all, or nearly all non-triglyceride ingredients.
Livestock and poultry are raised on animal feed, much of which is composed of the leftovers from processing crops, including GM crops. For example, approximately 43% of a canola seed is oil. What remains after oil extraction is a meal that becomes an ingredient in animal feed and contains canola protein. Likewise, the bulk of the soybean crop is grown for oil and meal. The high-protein defatted and toasted soy meal becomes livestock feed and dog food. 98% of the US soybean crop goes for livestock feed. In 2011, 49% of the US maize harvest was used for livestock feed (including the percentage of waste from distillers grains). "Despite methods that are becoming more and more sensitive, tests have not yet been able to establish a difference in the meat, milk, or eggs of animals depending on the type of feed they are fed. It is impossible to tell if an animal was fed GM soy just by looking at the resulting meat, dairy, or egg products. The only way to verify the presence of GMOs in animal feed is to analyze the origin of the feed itself."
A 2012 literature review of studies evaluating the effect of GM feed on the health of animals did not find evidence that animals were adversely affected, although small biological differences were occasionally found. The studies included in the review ranged from 90 days to two years, with several of the longer studies considering reproductive and intergenerational effects.
Rennet is a mixture of enzymes used to coagulate milk into cheese. Originally it was available only from the fourth stomach of calves, and was scarce and expensive, or was available from microbial sources, which often produced unpleasant tastes. Genetic engineering made it possible to extract rennet-producing genes from animal stomachs and insert them into bacteria, fungi or yeasts to make them produce chymosin, the key enzyme. The modified microorganism is killed after fermentation. Chymosin is isolated from the fermentation broth, so that the Fermentation-Produced Chymosin (FPC) used by cheese producers has an amino acid sequence that is identical to bovine rennet. The majority of the applied chymosin is retained in the whey. Trace quantities of chymosin may remain in cheese.
FPC was the first artificially produced enzyme to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. FPC products have been on the market since 1990 and as of 2015 had yet to be surpassed in commercial markets. In 1999, about 60% of US hard cheese was made with FPC. Its global market share approached 80%. By 2008, approximately 80% to 90% of commercially made cheeses in the US and Britain were made using FPC. The most widely used FPC is produced either by the fungus Aspergillus niger (CHY-MAX®)
In some countries, recombinant (GM) bovine somatotropin (also called rBST, or bovine growth hormone or BGH) is approved for administration to increase milk production. rBST may be present in milk from rBST treated cows, but it is destroyed in the digestive system and even if directly injected into the human bloodstream, has no observable effect on humans. The FDA, World Health Organization, American Medical Association, American Dietetic Association and the National Institutes of Health have independently stated that dairy products and meat from rBST-treated cows are safe for human consumption. However, on 30 September 2010, the United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit, analyzing submitted evidence, found a "compositional difference" between milk from rBGH-treated cows and milk from untreated cows. The court stated that milk from rBGH-treated cows has: increased levels of the hormone Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1); higher fat content and lower protein content when produced at certain points in the cow's lactation cycle; and more somatic cell counts, which may "make the milk turn sour more quickly."
A 2003 review published on behalf of Food Standards Australia New Zealand examined transgenic experimentation on terrestrial livestock species as well as aquatic species such as fish and shellfish. The review examined the molecular techniques used for experimentation as well as techniques for tracing the transgenes in animals and products as well as issues regarding transgene stability.
Some mammals typically used for food production have been modified to produce non-food products, a practice sometimes called Pharming.
The genetically modified foods controversy is a dispute over the use of food and other products derived from genetically modified crops and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. The disputes involve consumers, farmers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, activists and scientists. The key areas of controversy are whether GM food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, objectivity of scientific research and publication and the effects on health, the environment, pesticide resistance, farmers and on global food supplies. Other concerns include contamination of the conventional food supply, rigor of the regulatory process and control of the food supply by GM seed companies. Additional concerns include the impacts of conflicts of interest on research outcomes.
However, the American Academy of Environmental Medicine ("AAEM") released a position paper calling for a moratorium on GM foods pending independent long term studies to investigate the role of GM foods on human health. The authors asserted that "there is more than a casual association between GM foods and adverse health effects." The paper cited numerous animal studies showing adverse effects and posited that the biological plausibility, as defined by Hill’s criteria, in light of this data is that adverse health effects are also caused in humans. A 2011 study found maternal/fetal pesticide exposure associated with GM crops in Quebec. A leading critique, Gilles-Éric Séralini of the University of Caen, and his team reported that rats fed GM corn developed tumors and organ damage in 2012 in the Journal Food and Chemical Toxicology. After reanalyses of the results, and the paper was retracted by the publisher, Elsevier, on the ground that the study consisted of a limited number of test samples (Sprague-Dawley rats) to make any conclusive evidence on the adverse effect of GM on the rats. Sprague-Dawley rats are known to develop tumours even under normal conditions. But Séralini defended his study and republished the same findings in Environmental Sciences Europe in 2014, published by SpringerOpen.
Labeling of GMO products in the marketplace is required in 64 countries. However, the US does not require this. The FDA's policy is to require a label only given significant differences in composition or health impacts. They have not identified such differences in any food currently approved for sale.
Some medical and environmental groups claim that the potential long-term impact on human health have not been adequately assessed and propose mandatory labeling or a moratorium on such products. The European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility (ENSSER), disputes the claim of scientific consensus on the relative safety of GM food, and that research issues due to intellectual property rights, limited access to research material, differences in methods, analysis and the interpretation of data, it is not possible to state whether GMOs are generally safe or unsafe, and instead must be a judged on case-by-case basis. The Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council also determined that GM food safety needs to be assessed on a case-by-case basis, and noted the limited ability of scientists to predict "adverse consequences of genetic change".
One particular concern, in regards to the environment, is that GMOs designed to decrease the problem with weeds aggravate it instead. Palmer amaranth is a weed that competes with cotton. A native of the southwest, it has traveled east and was first found resistant to glyphosate in 2006. Glyphosate-tolerant cotton was introduced in the 1990s.
One study did not show statistically significant evidence of sponsorship conflict of interest influence on study outcomes, but did find author affiliation to be strongly correlated to study outcome, concluding that "articles where a COI was identified show a tendency to produce outcomes favorable to the associated commercial interests."
The starting point for assessing GM food safety is to evaluate its similarity to the non-modified version. Further testing is then done on a case-by-case basis to ensure that concerns over potential toxicity, allergenicity, possible gene transfer to humans or genetic outcrossing to other organisms are satisfied.
Governments assess and manage genetic engineering technology and GMO development and release. Marked differences separate the US and European countries. Regulation varies depending on the intended product use. For example, a crop not intended for food use is generally not reviewed by authorities responsible for food safety.
In the US, three government organizations regulate GMOs. The FDA checks the chemical composition of organisms for potential allergens. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) supervises field testing and monitors the distribution of GM seeds. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for monitoring pesticide usage, including plants modified to contain proteins toxic to insects. Like USDA, EPA also oversees field testing and the distribution of crops that have had contact with pesticides to ensure environmental safety.[better source needed] In 2015 the Obama administration announced that it would update the way the government regulated GM crops.
In 1992 FDA published "Statement of Policy: Foods derived from New Plant Varieties." This statement is a clarification of FDA's interpretation of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act with respect to foods produced from new plant varieties developed using recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) technology. FDA encouraged developers to consult with the FDA regarding any bioengineered foods in development. The FDA says developers routinely do reach out for consultations. In 1996 FDA updated consultation procedures.
Some jurisdictions require that GM foods carry a label indicating that fact. In some case, the requirement depends on the relative quantify of the GMO in the product. A study that investigated voluntary labeling in South Africa found that 31% of products labeled as GMO-free had a GM content above 1.0%. In Canada and the USA labeling is voluntary, In Europe all food (including processed food) or feed that contains greater than 0.9% GMOs must be labelled.
As of 2015, 64 countries required GMO labeling.
In a January 2010 paper, the extraction and detection of DNA along a complete industrial soybean oil processing chain was described to monitor the presence of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean: "The amplification of soybean lectin gene by end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was successfully achieved in all the steps of extraction and refining processes, until the fully refined soybean oil. The amplification of RR soybean by PCR assays using event-specific primers was also achieved for all the extraction and refining steps, except for the intermediate steps of refining (neutralisation, washing and bleaching) possibly due to sample instability. The real-time PCR assays using specific probes confirmed all the results and proved that it is possible to detect and quantify genetically modified organisms in the fully refined soybean oil. To our knowledge, this has never been reported before and represents an important accomplishment regarding the traceability of genetically modified organisms in refined oils."
- California Proposition 37 (2012)
- Genetic engineering
- Genetically modified crops
- Genetically modified food controversies
- Genetically modified organisms
- Pharming (genetics) – use of genetically modified mammals to produce drugs
- Regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms
- Starlink corn recall
- GM Science Review First Report, Prepared by the UK GM Science Review panel (July 2003). Chairman Professor Sir David King, Chief Scientific Advisor to the UK Government, P 9
- James, Clive (1996). "Global Review of the Field Testing and Commercialization of Transgenic Plants: 1986 to 1995" (PDF). The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- "Consumer Q&A". Fda.gov. 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Board of Directors (2012). Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors On Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods, and associated Press release: Legally Mandating GM Food Labels Could Mislead and Falsely Alarm Consumers
- American Medical Association (2012). Report 2 of the Council on Science and Public Health: Labeling of Bioengineered Foods
- World Health Organization. Food safety: 20 questions on genetically modified foods. Accessed December 22, 2012.
- United States Institute of Medicine and National Research Council (2004). Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects. National Academies Press. Free full-text. See pp11ff on need for better standards and tools to evaluate GM food.
- A decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001-2010) (PDF). Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. Biotechnologies, Agriculture, Food. European Union. 2010. p. 16. doi:10.2777/97784. ISBN 978-92-79-16344-9.
- Other sources:
- Tamar Haspel for the Washington Post. October 15, 2013. Genetically modified foods: What is and isn’t true
- Winter CK and Gallegos LK (2006). Safety of Genetically Engineered Food. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Communications, Publication 8180.
- Ronald, Pamela (2011). "Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security". Genetics 188 (1): 11–20. doi:10.1534/genetics.111.128553. PMC 3120150. PMID 21546547.
- Miller, Henry (2009). "A golden opportunity, squandered" (PDF). Trends in Biotechnology 27 (3): 129–130. doi:10.1016/j.tibtech.2008.11.004. PMID 19185375.
- Dr. Christopher Preston, AgBioWorld 2011. Peer Reviewed Publications on the Safety of GM Foods.
- Cowan, Tadlock (18 Jun 2011). "Agricultural Biotechnology: Background and Recent Issues" (PDF). Congressional Research Service (Library of Congress). pp. 33–38. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Frequently asked questions on genetically modified foods". World Health Organization. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Genetically engineered foods". University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Glossary of Agricultural Biotechnology Terms". United States Department of Agriculture. 27 Feb 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Questions & Answers on Food from Genetically Engineered Plants". US Food and Drug Administration. 22 Jun 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Food, genetically modified". World Health Organization. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- Lee, Byong H. (1 December 2014). Fundamentals of Food Biotechnology. Montreal: Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-38493-0.
- Food Insight (2009). Background on Food Biotechnology
- Biotechnology Online (2009). A food biotechnology timeline
- Food Science and Technology. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons. 26 August 2011. ISBN 978-1-4443-5782-0.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Avery OT, MacLeod CM, McCarty M (1944). "Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of pneumonococcal types- Induction of transformation by a deoxyribo-nucleic acid fraction isolated from pnuemococcus type III.". Journal of Experimental Medicine 79: 137–157.
- "FDA Approves 1st Genetically Engineered Product for Food". Los Angeles Times. 24 March 1990. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- Staff, National Centre for Biotechnology Education, 2006. Case Study: Chymosin
- James, C (2011). "ISAAA Brief 43, Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2011". ISAAA Briefs. Ithaca, New York: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA). Retrieved 2012-06-02.
- "Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S.". Economic Research Service. USDA. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- Fernandez-Cornejo J, Wechsler S, Livingston M, Mitchell L (Feb 2014). "Genetically engineered crops in the United States". Economic Research Service.
- Gonsalves, D. (2004). "Transgenic papaya in Hawaii and beyond". AgBioForum 7 (1&2): 36–40.
- Ronald, Pamela; McWilliams, James (May 14, 2010). "Genetically Engineered Distortions". The New York Times. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
- "The Rainbow Papaya Story". Hawaii Papaya Industry Association. Retrieved April 2015.
- Li, Y; et al. (April 2014). "Biosafety management and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China.". Plant Cell Reproduction 33 (4): 565–73. PMID 24493253.
- "The History and Future of GM Potatoes". Potatopro.com. 2010-03-10. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- Johnson, Stanley R. (February 2008). "Quantification of the Impacts on US Agriculture of Biotechnology-Derived Crops Planted in 2006" (PDF). Washington DC: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- "GMO Database: Zucchini (courgette)". GMO Compass. February 28, 2015.
- "Business BASF applies for approval for another biotech potato". Research in Germany. November 17, 2011.
- Burger, Ludwig (October 31, 2011). "BASF applies for EU approval for Fortuna GM potato". Frankfurt: Reuters. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Turley, Andrew (February 7, 2013). "BASF drops GM potato projects". Royal Society of Chemistry News.
- PERKOWSKI, MATEUSZ (April 16, 2013). "Del Monte Gets Approval to Import GMO Pineapple". Food Democracy Now.
- Pollack, Andrew (November 7, 2014). "U.S.D.A. Approves Modified Potato. Next Up: French Fry Fans". The New York Times.
- "Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Potato Genetically Engineered for Low Acrylamide Potential and Reduced Black Spot Bruise". Federal Register. May 3, 2013.
- Pollack, A. (February 13, 2015). "Gene-Altered Apples Get U.S. Approval". The New York Times.
- Tennille, Tracy (Feb 13, 2015). "First Genetically Modified Apple Approved for Sale in U.S.". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved Feb 2015.
- "Apple-to-apple transformation". Okanagan Specialty Fruits. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- For a list of all traits, see table As of September 2012 that site listed 13 traits in nearly 30 different products.
- "Acreage NASS" (PDF). National Agricultural Statistics Board annual report. June 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2010.
- "Corn-Based Food Production in South Dakota: A Preliminary Feasibility Study" (PDF). South Dakota State University, College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Station. June 2004.
- "GMO Compass - GM Soy".
- Lusas, Edmund W.; Riaz, Mian N (1995). "Soy Protein Products: Processing and Use" (PDF). 125 (3_Suppl). Journal of Nutrition. pp. 573S–580S.
- Sipos, E.S. "Edible Uses of Soybean Protein" (PDF).
- Singh, Preeti; Kumar, R.; Sabapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S. (2008). "Functional and Edible Uses of". Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 7: 14–28. doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2007.00025.x.
- Shurtleff, William; Aoyagi, Akiko (2008). "History of Cooperative Soybean Processing in the United States: Extensively Annotated Bibliography and Sourcebook" (PDF). Soyinfo Center.
- Weingartner, Karl; Owen, Bridget (March 2009). "Soy Protein Applications in Nutrition & Food Technology" (PDF). National Soybean Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- Isolated Soy Proteins
- Staff, World Initiative for Soy in Human Health (WISHH) Soy Protein Concentrate Reference Guide
- Soy Flours
- Textured Soy Proteins
- Jaffe,Greg (Director of Biotechnology at the Center for Science in the Public Interest) (February 7, 2013). "What You Need to Know About Genetically Engineered Food". Atlantic.
- "International Starch: Production of corn starch". Starch.dk. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
- White, JS (21 February 2014). "2". In Rippe, James M. Sucrose, HFCS, and Fructose: History, Manufacture, Composition, Applications, and Production. Fructose, High Fructose Corn Syrup, Sucrose and Health (New York: Springer Science & Business Media). ISBN 978-1-4899-8077-9.
- "Lecithin". Oct 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Lecithin". Aug 10, 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Poster of corn products" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- "Corn Oil, 5th Edition" (PDF). Corn Refiners Association. 2006.
- "Regulation (EC) 50/2000". Eur-lex.europa.eu.
- Marx,Gertruida M. (December 2010). "Dissertation submitted in fulfilment of requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Health Sciences" (PDF). MONITORING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PRODUCTS IN SOUTH AFRICA] (South Africa: University of the Free State).
- Davison, John; Bertheau, Yves Bertheau (2007). "EU regulations on the traceability and detection of GMOs: difficulties in interpretation, implementation and compliance". CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 2 (77).
- "ISAAA Brief 43-2011. Executive Summary: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2011". Isaaa.org. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- "ISAAA Pocket K No. 2: Plant Products of Biotechnology". Isaaa.org. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2009). Sugar Beet: White Sugar (PDF). p. 9.
- Klein, Joachim; Altenbuchner, Josef; Mattes, Ralf (1998-02-26). "Nucleic acid and protein elimination during the sugar manufacturing process of conventional and transgenic sugar beets". Journal of Biotechnology 60 (3): 145–153. doi:10.1016/S0168-1656(98)00006-6.
- "Soyatech.com". Soyatech.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- "Food Fats and Oils" (PDF). Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils. 2006. Retrieved 2011-11-19.
- "Twenty Facts about Cottonseed Oil". National Cottonseed Producers Association.
- Simon, Michelle (August 24, 2011). "ConAgra Sued Over GMO ’100% Natural’ Cooking Oils". Food Safety News.
- "ingredients of margarine". Imace.org. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- "USDA Protein(g) in Fats and Oils". Retrieved 2015-05-31.
- "How Cooking Oil is Made". Madehow.com. 1991-04-27. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- Crevel, R.W.R; Kerkhoff, M.A.T; Koning, M.M.G (2000). "Allergenicity of refined vegetable oils". Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (4): 385–93. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00158-1. PMID 10722892.
- "What is Canola Oil?". CanolaInfo. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- David Bennett for Southeast Farm Press, February 5, 2003 World soybean consumption quickens
- "Soybean". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
- "2012 World of Corn, National Corn Growers Association" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- Staff, GMO Compass. December 7, 2006. Genetic Engineering: Feeding the EU's Livestock
- Snell C; Bernheim A; Berge JB; Kuntz M; Pascal G; paris A; Ricroch AE (2012). "Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: A literature review.". Food and Chemical Toxicology 50: 1134–1148.
- Emtage, JS; Angal, S; Doel, MT; Harris, TJ; Jenkins, B; Lilley, G; Lowe, PA (1983). "Synthesis of calf prochymosin (prorennin) in Escherichia coli". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 80 (12): 3671–5. Bibcode:1983PNAS...80.3671E. doi:10.1073/pnas.80.12.3671. PMC 394112. PMID 6304731.
- Harris TJ, Lowe PA, Lyons A, Thomas PG, Eaton MA, Millican TA, Patel TP, Bose CC, Carey NH, Doel MT (April 1982). "Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA coding for calf preprochymosin". Nucleic Acids Res. 10 (7): 2177–87. doi:10.1093/nar/10.7.2177. PMC 320601. PMID 6283469.
- "Chymosin". GMO Compass. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- Law, Barry A. (2010). Technology of Cheesemaking. UK: WILEY-BLACKWELL. pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-1-4051-8298-0.
- "Food Biotechnology in the United States: Science, Regulation, and Issues". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2006-08-14.
- Johnson, M.E.; Lucey, J.A. (2006). "Major Technological Advances and Trends in Cheese". Journal of Dairy Science 89 (4): 1174–8. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72186-5. PMID 16537950.
- Hansen, C. "Improving Food & Health". Retrieved 2014-01-14.
- "DMS cheese enzymes page".
- Baumana, Dale E.; Collier, Robert J (September 15, 2010). "Use of Bovine Somatotropin in Dairy Production" (PDF).
- Staff (2011-02-18). Last Medical Review. Missing or empty
- "Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone".
- Brennand, Charlotte P. "Bovine Somatotropin in Milk" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-06.
- Cima, Greg (November 18, 2010). "Appellate court gives mixed ruling on Ohio rBST labeling rules". JAVMA News.
- leafcom. "INTERNATIONAL DAIRY FOODS ASS'N v. BOGGS – Argued: June 10, 2010". Leagle.com.
- Rick MacInnes-Rae, Rick (November 27, 2013). "GMO salmon firm clears one hurdle but still waits for key OKs AquaBounty began seeking American approval in 1995". CBC News.
- Pollack, Andrew (May 21, 2012). "An Entrepreneur Bankrolls a Genetically Engineered Salmon". The New York Times. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- Staff (December 26, 2012). "Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon" (PDF) 77 (247). Federal Register. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- Naik, Gautam (September 21, 2010). "Gene-Altered Fish Closer to Approval". Wall Street Journal.
- Harper, G.S., Brownlee, A., Hall, T.E., Seymour, R., Lyons, R. and Ledwith, P. (2003). "Global progress toward transgenic food animals: A survey of publicly available information." (PDF). Food Standards Australia and New Zealand. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- "Statement on Genetically Modified Organisms in the Environment and the Marketplace". Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment [http://cape.ca/capes-position-statement-on-gmos/. October 2013.
- "Genetically Modified Maize: Doctors' Chamber Warns of "Unpredictable Results" to Humans". November 11, 2013.
- Chartered Institute of Environmental Health (2006) Proposals for managing the coexistence of GM, conventional and organic crops Response to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs consultation paper. October 2006
- "IDEA Position on Genetically Modified Foods". Irish Doctors’ Environmental Association. Retrieved 2014-03-25.
- American Medical Association (2012). Report 2 of the Council on Science and Public Health: Labeling of Bioengineered Foods. "To better detect potential harms of bioengineered foods, the Council believes that pre-market safety assessment should shift from a voluntary notification process to a mandatory requirement." page 7
- Ronald, Pamela (2011). "Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security". Genetics 188 (1): 11–20. doi:10.1534/genetics.111.128553. PMC 3120150. PMID 21546547.
- Bett, Charles; Ouma, James Okuro; Groote, Hugo De (August 2010). "Perspectives of gatekeepers in the Kenyan food industry towards genetically modified food". Food Policy 35 (4): 332–340. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.01.003.
- "American Academy of Environmental Medicine Calls for Immediate Moratorium on Genetically Modified Foods, position paper". American Academy of Environmental Medicine. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Press Advisory". American Academy of Environmental Medicine. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Causation and Hill's Criteria". Science Based Medicine. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Aris, Aziz; Leblanc, Samuel (May 2011). "Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada". Reproductive Technology 31 (4): 528–533.
- Séralini, GE; Clair, E; Mesnage, R; Gress, S; Defarge, N; Malatesta, M; Hennequin, D; de Vendômois, JS (2012). "Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize". Food and Chemical Toxicology 50 (11): 4221–4231. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2012.08.005. PMID 22999595.
- Wallace Hayes, A. (2014). "Editor in Chief of Food and Chemical Toxicology answers questions on retraction". Food and Chemical Toxicology 65: 394–395. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2014.01.006. PMID 24407018.
- "Retraction notice to "Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize" [Food Chem. Toxicol. 50 (2012) 4221-4231]". Food and Chemical Toxicology 63 (24). 2014. PMID 24490213.
- "Elsevier Announces Article Retraction from Journal Food and Chemical Toxicology". Newswire Association LLC. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Gress, Steeve; Defarge, Nicolas; Malatesta, Manuela; Hennequin, Didier; de Vendômois, Joël (2014). "Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize". Environmental Sciences Europe 26 (1): 14. doi:10.1186/s12302-014-0014-5.
- Hallenbeck, Terri (2014-04-27). "How GMO labeling came to pass in Vermont". Burlington Free Press. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
- Van Eenennaam, Alison; Chassy, Bruce; Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas; Redick, Thomas (2014). "The Potential Impacts of Mandatory Labeling for Genetically Engineered Food in the United States" (PDF). Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) 54 (April 2014). ISSN 1070-0021. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
To date, no material differences in composition or safety of commercialized GE crops have been identified that would justify a label based on the GE nature of the product.
- "GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS" (PDF). Public Health Association of Australia. 2007.
- Hilbeck; et al. (2015). "No scientific consensus on GMO safety" (PDF). Environmental Sciences Europe. doi:10.1186/s12302-014-0034-1.
- Culpepper, Stanley A; et al. (2006). "Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri ) confirmed in Georgia.". Weed Science 54 (4): 620–626.
- Gallant, Andre. "Pigweed in the Cotton: A superweed invades Georgia". Modern Farmer.
- Webster, TM; Grey, TL (2015). "Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Morphology, Growth, and Seed Production in Georgia.". Weed Science 63 (1): 264–272.
- Diels et al. (2011). "Association of financial or professional conflict of interest to research outcomes on health risks or nutritional assessment studies of genetically modified products". Food Policy. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.11.016.
- "The History and Future of GM Potatoes". PotatoPro.com.
- APPDMZ\ccvivr. "Commonly Asked Questions about the Food Safety of GMOs". monsanto.com.
- Pollack, Andrew (2015-07-02). "White House Orders Review of Rules for Genetically Modified Crops". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-07-03.
- "Food from Genetically Engineered Plants". FDA. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Statement of Policy - Foods Derived from New Plant Varieties". Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Botha, Gerda M.; Viljoen, Christopher D. (2009). "South Africa: A case study for voluntary GM labelling". Food Chemistry 112 (4): 1060–4. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.050.
- "The Regulation of Genetically Modified Food".
- Davison, John (2010). "GM plants: Science, politics and EC regulations". Plant Science 178 (2): 94–8. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2009.12.005.
- "International Labeling Laws". Center for Food Safety.]
- "EU GMO testing homepage". European Commission Join Research Centre. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Amaral, Joana S.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P. (2010). "Monitoring genetically modified soybean along the industrial soybean oil extraction and refining processes by polymerase chain reaction techniques". Food Research International 43: 301. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2009.10.003.
- on YouTube
- Library resources in your library and in other libraries about Genetically modified food
- Media related to Genetically modified organisms at Wikimedia Commons