GNSS road pricing
GNSS road pricing or GNSS tolling is the charging of road users using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) sensors inside vehicles. Advocates argue that road pricing using GNSS permits a number of policies such as tolling by distance on urban roads and can be used for many other applications in parking, insurance and vehicle emissions. Critics argue that GNSS could lead to an invasion of people’s privacy.
Even though GNSS and electronic toll collection have been around for decades, the idea of using satellites for road tolling is quite recent. The first successful demonstration of GNSS Road Pricing systems was given in 1994 during the ETC field trials on the A555 motorway between Bonn and Cologne (Germany). It was done using the American NavStar GPS System, which was commissioned that year (There were no other GNSS systems that had been commissioned in 1994). In 1998, the European Union published a report which proposed the use of GNSS to charge vehicles by distance. Germany introduced the first the GNSS road pricing system for truck tolling in 2005. In 2007, the Netherlands legislated the implementation of GNSS road pricing by 2011, and nationwide by 2016. However the project was declared controversial and subsequently put on indefinite hold due to the Dutch government collapse on February 20, 2010.  Official rejection of the proposed national road pricing in the Netherlands has been sealed after the largest party in Dutch government, i.e., the CDA, in March 2010.
How it works
Although the architecture of individual systems may vary, all GNSS road pricing systems share key common elements in how they work. In a typical road pricing system, in-vehicle sensors record time and position data. The vehicle data is processed into trip data, which is then matched to a set pricing scheme to produce a bill. Most systems process trip data at a back office, though some systems are designed with all the processing taking place inside the vehicle itself.
Some cities that have already implemented congestion pricing are looking at ways to expand and improve their systems. Proponents of GNSS road pricing claim it can be used to charge vehicles for how much they travel within a cordoned area as opposed to a flat entry fee, thus avoiding "sharp pricing edges."
Time distance place (TDP) road pricing
GNSS road pricing enables road pricing policies based on time, distance and place (TDP). TDP road pricing is very much based on the road pricing principles outlined by William Vickrey. In such a system, vehicles are charged based on when, where, and how much they drive. Some transportation experts see TDP road pricing as a fairer, more effective means of charging road users and managing travel demand.
GNSS road pricing providers
- Intelligent Mechatronic Systems
- Trafficmaster plc
- Toll Collect
- Kapsch TrafficCom
- Siemens VDO
- Global Navigation Satellite System
- Global Positioning System
- Road Pricing
- Congestion pricing
- Electronic toll collection
- Vehicle miles traveled tax (VMT tax)
- A presentation explaining the benefits and privacy issues of GNSS road pricing
-  Fair Payment for Infrastructure Use: A phased approach to a common transport infrastructure charging framework in the EU, Commission of the European Communities, July 22, 1998.
-  IDG article on German Truck Tolling
-   Dutch Ministry site describing the Netherlands tolling plans
-  Controversy over Dutch kilometre charge poll
- Netherlands road pricing set back, 19 March 2010
- Illustration of Skymeter's road pricing system here
- Satellic's Road Pricing technology illustration
- Vickrey, William (1992). "Principles of Efficient Congestion Pricing". Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
- Technology Strategy Board Request for TDP proposals
-  Next Generation Travel Demand Management: Time-Distance-Place Motor Vehicle Use Charges