GOT2

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GOT2
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases GOT2, KAT4, KATIV, mitAAT, KYAT4, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2
External IDs MGI: 95792 HomoloGene: 1572 GeneCards: GOT2
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GOT2 200708 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_002080
NM_001286220

NM_010325

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001273149
NP_002071

NP_034455.1
NP_034455

Location (UCSC) Chr 16: 58.71 – 58.73 Mb Chr 8: 95.86 – 95.89 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT2 gene. Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and inner-membrane mitochondrial forms, GOT1 and GOT2, respectively. GOT plays a role in amino acid metabolism and the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. Also, GOT2 is a major participant in the malate-aspartate shuttle, which is a passage from the cytosol to the mitochondria. The two enzymes are homodimeric and show close homology.[3] GOT2 has been seen to have a role in cell proliferation, especially in terms of tumor growth.

Structure[edit]

GOT2 is a dimer containing two identical subunits that hold overlapping subunit regions. The top and sides of the enzyme are made up of helices, while the bottom is formed by strands of beta sheets and extended hairpin loops. The subunit itself can be categorized into four different parts: a large domain, which binds pyridoxal-P, a small domain, an NH2-terminal arm, and a bridge across two domains, which is formed by residues 48-75 and 301-358.[4] Virtually ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, GOT2 nucleic acid and protein sequences are highly conserved, and its 5’regulatory regions in genomic DNA resemble those of typical house-keeping genes in that, e.g.,they lack a TATA box.[5] The GOT2 gene is also located on 16q21 and has an exon count of 10.[3]

Function[edit]

In order to produce the energy needed for everyday activities, our body needs to go through the process of glycolysis, which breaks down glucose into pyruvate. In this pathway, one very important part is the reduction of NAD+ to NADH and then the rapid oxidation of NADH back into NAD+. The oxidation phase mainly occurs in the mitochondria as part of the electron transport chain, but the transfer of NADH into the mitochondria from the cytosol is impossible, due to the impermeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to NADH. Therefore, the malate-aspartate shuttle is needed to transfer reducing equivalents across the mitochondrial membrane for energy production. GOT2 and another enzyme, MDH, are essential for the functioning of the shuttle. GOT2 converts oxaloacetate into aspartate by transamination. This aspartate as well as alpha-ketoglutarate return into the cytosol, which is then converted back to oxaloacetate and glutamate, respectively.[6]

Another function of GOT2 is that it is believed to transaminate kynurenine into kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the brain. The KYNA made by the GOT2 is thought to be an important factor in brain pathology. It is suggested that KYNA synthesized by GOT2 could constitute a common, and mechanistically relevant, feature of the neurotoxicity caused by mitochondrial poisons, such as otenone, malonate, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and 3-nitropropionic acid.[7]

Clinical Significance[edit]

In nearly all cancer cells, glycolysis has been seen to be highly elevated to meet their increased energy, biosynthesis, and redox needs. Therefore, the malate-aspartate shuttle promotes the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria to ensure a high rate of glycolysis in diverse cancer cell lines. In a study completed in 2008, inhibiting the malate-aspartate shuttle was found to impair the glycolysis process and essentially decreased breast adenocarcinoma cell proliferation. Furthermore, knocking down GOT2 and GOT1 has also been reported to inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation in pancreatic cancer cell lines, suggesting that the GOT enzyme is essential for maintaining a high rate of glycolysis to support rapid tumor cell growth. Also, both glucose and glutamine increase GOT2 3K acetylation in Panc-1 cells and that GOT2 3K acetylation plays a critical role in coordinating glucose and glutamine uptake to provide energy and support cell proliferation and tumor growth. This implies that inhibiting GOT2 3K acetylation may merit exploration as a therapeutic agent especially for pancreatic cancer.[6]

Interactions[edit]

GOT2 has been seen to interact with:

Interactive pathway map[edit]

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

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GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to Entrez go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to Entrez go to article
|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis edit]]
Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis edit
  1. ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534". 

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: GOT2 glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial (aspartate aminotransferase 2)". 
  4. ^ Ford GC, Eichele G, Jansonius JN (May 1980). "Three-dimensional structure of a pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 77 (5): 2559–63. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.5.2559. PMC 349441Freely accessible. PMID 6930651. 
  5. ^ Zhou SL, Gordon RE, Bradbury M, Stump D, Kiang CL, Berk PD (Apr 1998). "Ethanol up-regulates fatty acid uptake and plasma membrane expression and export of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in HepG2 cells". Hepatology. 27 (4): 1064–74. doi:10.1002/hep.510270423. PMID 9537447. 
  6. ^ a b Yang H, Zhou L, Shi Q, Zhao Y, Lin H, Zhang M, Zhao S, Yang Y, Ling ZQ, Guan KL, Xiong Y, Ye D (Apr 2015). "SIRT3-dependent GOT2 acetylation status affects the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle activity and pancreatic tumor growth". The EMBO Journal. 34 (8): 1110–25. doi:10.15252/embj.201591041. PMID 25755250. 
  7. ^ Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R (Jul 2007). "Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing enzyme in the mammalian brain". Journal of Neurochemistry. 102 (1): 103–11. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04556.x. PMID 17442055. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Doonan S, Barra D, Bossa F (1985). "Structural and genetic relationships between cytosolic and mitochondrial isoenzymes". The International Journal of Biochemistry. 16 (12): 1193–9. doi:10.1016/0020-711X(84)90216-7. PMID 6397370. 
  • Furuya E, Yoshida Y, Tagawa K (May 1979). "Interaction of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase with negatively charged lecithin liposomes". Journal of Biochemistry. 85 (5): 1157–63. PMID 376500. 
  • Craig IW, Tolley E, Bobrow M, van Heyningen V (1979). "Assignment of a gene necessary for the expression of mitochondrial glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase in human-mouse hybrid cells". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 22 (1-6): 190–4. doi:10.1159/000130933. PMID 752471. 
  • Pol S, Bousquet-Lemercier B, Pavé-Preux M, Bulle F, Passage E, Hanoune J, Mattei MG, Barouki R (Sep 1989). "Chromosomal localization of human aspartate aminotransferase genes by in situ hybridization". Human Genetics. 83 (2): 159–64. doi:10.1007/BF00286710. PMID 2777255. 
  • Fahien LA, Kmiotek EH, MacDonald MJ, Fibich B, Mandic M (Aug 1988). "Regulation of malate dehydrogenase activity by glutamate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and multienzyme interaction". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 (22): 10687–97. PMID 2899080. 
  • Pol S, Bousquet-Lemercier B, Pave-Preux M, Pawlak A, Nalpas B, Berthelot P, Hanoune J, Barouki R (Dec 1988). "Nucleotide sequence and tissue distribution of the human mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase mRNA". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 157 (3): 1309–15. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(88)81017-9. PMID 3207426. 
  • Fahien LA, Kmiotek EH, Woldegiorgis G, Evenson M, Shrago E, Marshall M (May 1985). "Regulation of aminotransferase-glutamate dehydrogenase interactions by carbamyl phosphate synthase-I, Mg2+ plus leucine versus citrate and malate". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 260 (10): 6069–79. PMID 3997814. 
  • Martini F, Angelaccio S, Barra D, Pascarella S, Maras B, Doonan S, Bossa F (Nov 1985). "The primary structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from human heart". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 832 (1): 46–51. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(85)90172-4. PMID 4052435. 
  • Davidson RG, Cortner JA, Rattazzi MC, Ruddle FH, Lubs HA (Jul 1970). "Genetic polymorphisms of human mitochondrial glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase". Science. 169 (3943): 391–2. doi:10.1126/science.169.3943.391. PMID 5450376. 
  • Ford GC, Eichele G, Jansonius JN (May 1980). "Three-dimensional structure of a pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 77 (5): 2559–63. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.5.2559. PMC 349441Freely accessible. PMID 6930651. 
  • Jeremiah SJ, Povey S, Burley MW, Kielty C, Lee M, Spowart G, Corney G, Cook PJ (May 1982). "Mapping studies on human mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase". Annals of Human Genetics. 46 (Pt 2): 145–52. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1982.tb00705.x. PMID 7114792. 
  • Tolley E, van Heyningen V, Brown R, Bobrow M, Craig IW (Oct 1980). "Assignment to chromosome 16 of a gene necessary for the expression of human mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (aspartate aminotransferase) (E.C. 2.6.1.1.)". Biochemical Genetics. 18 (9-10): 947–54. doi:10.1007/BF00500127. PMID 7225087. 
  • Lain B, Iriarte A, Mattingly JR, Moreno JI, Martinez-Carrion M (Oct 1995). "Structural features of the precursor to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase responsible for binding to hsp70". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (42): 24732–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.42.24732. PMID 7559589. 
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (Jan 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. 
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano S (Oct 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149.