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G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 5, member A
Symbols GPRC5A ; GPCR5A; PEIG-1; RAI3; RAIG1; TIG1
External IDs OMIM604138 MGI1891250 HomoloGene2961 IUPHAR: 258 GeneCards: GPRC5A Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 9052 232431
Ensembl ENSG00000013588 ENSMUSG00000046733
UniProt Q8NFJ5 G5E8C3
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003979 NM_181444
RefSeq (protein) NP_003970 NP_852109
Location (UCSC) Chr 12:
12.89 – 12.92 Mb
Chr 6:
135.07 – 135.08 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Retinoic acid-induced protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPRC5A gene.[1][2]


This gene encodes a member of the type 3 G protein-coupled receptor family, characterized by the signature 7-transmembrane domain motif. The encoded protein may be involved in interaction between retinoic acid and G protein signalling pathways. Retinoic acid plays a critical role in development, cellular growth, and differentiation. This gene may play a role in embryonic development and epithelial cell differentiation.[2]

Post transcriptional regulation[edit]

GPRC5A is one of only a handful of genes known in the literature that are post-transcriptionally controlled by miRNAs through their 5'UTR.[3]

Clinical Significance[edit]

GPRC5A is dysregulated in many human cancers and in other diseases.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Cheng Y, Lotan R (1998). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel retinoic acid-inducible gene that encodes a putative G protein-coupled receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (52): 35008–15. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.52.35008. PMID 9857033. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: GPRC5A G protein-coupled receptor, family C, group 5, member A". 
  3. ^ Zhou H, Rigoutsos I (2014). "MiR-103a-3p targets the 5' UTR of GPRC5A in pancreatic cells". RNA 20 (9): 1431–9. doi:10.1261/rna.045757.114. PMC 4138326. PMID 24984703. 
  4. ^ Zhou H, Rigoutsos I (2014). "The emerging roles of GPRC5A in diseases". Oncoscience 1 (12): 765–76. PMC 4303886. PMID 25621293. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Cafferata EG, Gonzalez-Guerrico AM, Pivetta OH, Santa-Coloma TA (1996). "Identification by differential display of a mRNA specifically induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in T84 human colon carcinoma cells". Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 42 (5): 797–804. PMID 8832110. 
  • Bräuner-Osborne H, Krogsgaard-Larsen P (2000). "Sequence and expression pattern of a novel human orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPRC5B, a family C receptor with a short amino-terminal domain". Genomics 65 (2): 121–8. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6164. PMID 10783259. 
  • Robbins MJ, Michalovich D, Hill J, Calver AR, Medhurst AD, Gloger I, Sims M, Middlemiss DN, Pangalos MN (2000). "Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel retinoic acid-inducible orphan G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRC5B and GPRC5C)". Genomics 67 (1): 8–18. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6226. PMID 10945465. 
  • Tao Q, Cheng Y, Clifford J, Lotan R (2004). "Characterization of the murine orphan G-protein-coupled receptor gene Rai3 and its regulation by retinoic acid". Genomics 83 (2): 270–80. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(03)00237-4. PMID 14706456. 
  • Wu Q, Ding W, Mirza A, Van Arsdale T, Wei I, Bishop WR, Basso A, McClanahan T, Luo L, Kirschmeier P, Gustafson E, Hernandez M, Liu S (2005). "Integrative genomics revealed RAI3 is a cell growth-promoting gene and a novel P53 transcriptional target". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (13): 12935–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M409901200. PMID 15659406. 
  • Zhang Y, Wolf-Yadlin A, Ross PL, Pappin DJ, Rush J, Lauffenburger DA, White FM (2005). "Time-resolved mass spectrometry of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling network reveals dynamic modules". Mol. Cell Proteomics 4 (9): 1240–50. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500089-MCP200. PMID 15951569. 
  • Nousiainen M, Silljé HH, Sauer G, Nigg EA, Körner R (2006). "Phosphoproteome analysis of the human mitotic spindle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (14): 5391–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507066103. PMC 1459365. PMID 16565220. 
  • Hirano M, Zang L, Oka T, Ito Y, Shimada Y, Nishimura Y, Tanaka T (2006). "Novel reciprocal regulation of cAMP signaling and apoptosis by orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPRC5A gene expression". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 351 (1): 185–91. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.10.016. PMID 17055459. 

External links[edit]

  • "GPRC5 Receptors: RAIG1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.