GRES Estação Primeira de Mangueira

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The Grêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba Mangueira is one of the most traditional and best supported Samba schools in Rio de Janeiro. It was founded on April 28, 1928 in Morro da Mangueira, near the region of Maracanã by Carlos Cachaça, Cartola, Zé Espinguela, Nelson Cavaquinho, among others. It is headquartered on Rua Visconde de Niterói, in the district of the same name.

History[edit]

Back in the days when samba was not highly regarded outside of the samba schools themselves, the community around Mangueira emerged as a pioneer of the Rio Carnival through its 'Cordões', in which a group of masked participants were led by a teacher with a whistle followed by a veritable percussion orchestra. In Mangueira, there were at least two Cordões: the Warriors of the Mountain Warriors (Guerreiros da Montanha) and the Triumphs of Mangueira (Triunfos da Mangueira). Later came the 'Ranches', which introduced several very important concepts to the carnival procession: the participation of women, floats, a theme to connect the procession, and the use of woodwind, brassed and string instrumentation (particularly plucked strings). They also added two special dancers, now known as master of ceremonies (mestre-sala) and flag bearer (porta-bandeira). Three ranches stood out in Mangueira: Drop of Love (Pingo de Amor), Pearl of Egypt (Pérola do Egito) and Princes of the Forest (Príncipes da Mata). By 1920 the 'carnival blocks' with elements taken from both the Cordão and Ranch traditions, along with the now familiar percussion block, debuted. These were a strong influence on the development of the other samba schools.

There was no lack of blocks in the Mangueira area. In just the Buraco Quente neighborhood, one could find the Tia Fé, Tia Tomázia and Mestre Candinho blocks. Most famous of all was the Block of Arengueiros (Bloco dos Arengueiros). It was Cartola, aged 19, who felt it was time to channel the natural gifts of the blocks' rogues and thus to show them in a more organized light, displaying the power and choreographic legacy of their African roots.

Then, on April 28, 1928, at a meeting at Travessa, Saião Lobato, aged 21, the arengueiros Zé Espinguela, "Seu" Euclides, Saturnino Gonçalves (father of Dona Neuma), Massu, Cartola, Pedro Cain and Abelardo Bolinha founded the First Station Block (Bloco Estação Primeira) - regarded as a predecessor to the present day carnival blocks and samba schools. This block was present at the first contest between samba dancers in the house of Zé Espinguela in 1929, one of the forerunners of the samba schools, along with Deixa Falar and Portela.

Cartola, who later married D.Zica, was the first bandmaster and musical director of the school and gave the final word on the choice of the name and colors: First Station - because it was the first railway stop from the Central of Brazil Railway Station where there was samba; green and pink as a tribute to a ranch that existed in Laranjeiras, the Arrepiados. Gradually all other blocks of the hill merged their associations to it and by the 1930s and 40's, Mangueira was already included in the list of "major" samba schools of the city.

Mangueira was the first samba school that created a composers' wing, and the first to maintain, since its foundation, a unique beat of the surdo leading in the school percussion section. On the symbol of the school, the surdo represents the samba, the laurels are the victories won as the general champion, the crown is the imperial district of São Cristóvão (Rio de Janeiro), and the stars, the victories. It was also the first one to develop an "front commission", or Comissão de Frente, as it is called in Portuguese and an official criterion for the parade contest, as a way for the school to show to the public the story concept for the year's event.

Mangueira holds 19 general championship titles, and 1 Super Cup, exclusively won only in 1984, the inauguration of the Sambódromo. The Green-and-Pink was the champion on the Carnival on Monday, Portela on Sunday. Three schools went on for the Championship Saturday where they competed in the Super Championship, and in the end the school won the general super championship of the year.

One of the most emblematic figures of the Mangueira samba was Jamelão, which was the official school singer from 1949 until 2006 (a record 57 years) and become a true "carnival and samba institution" in Rio, with his moody ways and his powerful voice. In 2006, Jamelão suffered a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke and did not record the Mangueira theme song for the official 2007 Carnival CD, nor could he march with the school any longer. (From 1950 up that that year his voice was featured in every school Carnival LP and CD produced by the school.)

In 2007, Mangueira confronted various taboos. After 79 years, Mangueira celebrated the 80th anniversary opening the doors of its percussion drums section to women. The idea of the president of the Mangueira drums, Ivo Meirelles, to accept women in the battery of Green and Pink was controversial. Moreover, Preta Gil became queen of the Drums Section (or Queen of Drums) of the school, breaking a tradition of having only queens originating from the community, elected through a contest. Luizito replaced Jamelão as school singer. On the show, the school board prevented the big star Beth Carvalho from parading, and the legendary Nelson Sargento preferred not to parade either, possibly because his wife's costume had not been delivered. Such developments led to a certain unease in samba circles and a lot of criticism for the directors of contemporary samba schools.

In 2008, Mangueira underwent what many consider their worst crisis. First, their theme was not about the 100th Anniversary of Cartola, but, on the centenary of the frevo, which is not music from Rio but Pernambuco. Second, the choice of the Queen of Drums Section (in Portuguese Rainha de Bateria), and finally the involvement with the hill drug traffic, which resulted in a disappointing 10th place.

On June 14, 2008, the school lost one of its greatest icons: Jamelão, the victim of multiple organ failure. The loss of Jamelão left a huge void not only in the school but also in the whole of Brazil's samba community.

In 2009, after eight years as the head of the school, Max Lopes left and was replaced by the carnivalist Roberto Szaniecki. The theme was a tribute to the Brazilian people, based on the book O Povo Brasileiro, Formação e Sentido do Brasil, by professor, anthropologist and politician Darcy Ribeiro.

After the Carnival of 2009, there was an election, won by Ivo Meirelles, who decided to shakeup the structure of the school. Since then, new names have been hired and the first changes were the carnivalist Marcia Lage, the new MC and Flag Bearer, Raphael and Marcella Alves, and the creation of a trio called "The Three Tenors , comprising Luizito, Zé Paulo and Rixxah.

For 2010, the school chose the theme Mangueira is the Music of Brazil by Marcia Lage, who was removed and replaced by Jaime Cezário and Jorge Caribé.

The 2015 edition saw the school place 10th at the final standings - one of its worst finishes ever. The following year, its tribute to the beloved singer Maria Bethania saw it win it's 19th Carnival as the general champion for the Special Group. It also won its Gold Standard award (for best school and revelation of the Carvinal respectively).

Notable Mangueirenses[edit]

Carnivals participated including championship years[edit]

Place Group Plot Carnival Producer-Comiss School Singer/s Ref.
1929 Sambista Contest Chega de demanda e Beijos Sr. Armando [citation needed]
1930 Did not compete
1931
1932 Champion ÚNICO Sorrindo e Na floresta Sr. Armando [1]
1933 Champion ÚNICO Uma segunda-feira do Bonfim na Ribeira Sr. Armando [2][3]
1934 Champion ÚNICO República da Orgia Sr. Armando [3][4]
1935 1st runner up and Vice Champion ÚNICO O regresso de uma colheita na primavera Sr. Armando [5]
1936 1st runner up and Vice Champion ÚNICO Não quero mais amar a ninguém Sr. Armando [6]
1937 Did not compete [7][8]
1938 Did not compete [9]
1939 1st runner up and Vice Champion ÚNICO O Jardim Sr. Armando [10]
1940 Champion ÚNICO Prantos, pretos e poetas Sr. Armando [11]
1941 1st runner up and Vice Champion ÚNICO Pedro Ernesto Sr. Armando [12]
1942 3rd ÚNICO A vitória do Samba nas Américas Sr. Armando [13]
1943 1st runner up and Vice Champion ÚNICO Samba no Palácio do Itamarati Sr. Armando [14]
1944 1st runner up and Vice Champion ÚNICO Glória ao Samba Sr. Armando [15]
1945 1st runner up and Vice Champion ÚNICO Nossa História Sr. Armando [16]
1946 1st runner up and Vice Champion ÚNICO Carnaval da Vitória Sr. Armando [17]
1947 1st runner up and Vice Champion ÚNICO Brasil, Ciências e Artes Sr. Armando [18]
1948 4th ÚNICO Brasil, Tesouro Invejado Sr. Armando Xangô da Mangueira [19]
1949 Champion ÚNICO Apoteose aos Mestres Funcionários da Casa da Moeda Jamelão [20]
1950 Champion ÚNICO Plano SALTE - Saúde, alimentação, transporte e energia Funcionários da Casa da Moeda Jamelão [21]
1951 3rd UGESB Unidade Nacional Funcionários da Casa da Moeda Jamelão [22]
1952 Did not compete Gonçalves Dias Funcionários da Casa da Moeda Jamelão [23]
1953 3rd 1 Unidade Nacional Funcionários da Casa da Moeda Jamelão [24]
1954 Champion 1 Rio de Janeiro, de ontem e de hoje Funcionários da Casa da Moeda Jamelão [25]
1955 1st runner up and Vice Champion 1 Cântico à Natureza Funcionários da Casa da Moeda Jamelão [26][27]
1956 3rd 1 O Grande Presidente Funcionários da Casa da Moeda Jamelão [28]
1957 3rd 1 Emancipação Nacional - Rumo ao progresso Funcionários da Casa da Moeda Jamelão [29]
1958 3rd 1 Canção do exílio Funcionários da Casa da Moeda Jamelão [30]
1959 3rd 1 Brasil através dos tempos Funcionários da Casa da Moeda Jamelão [31]
1960 Champion 1 Carnaval de todos os tempos Roberto Paulino and Darque Dias Moreira Jamelão [32]
1961 Champion 1 Reminiscências do Rio Antigo Roberto Paulino and Darque Dias Moreira Jamelão [33]
1962 4th 1 Casa-grande e senzala Roberto Paulino and Darque Dias Moreira Jamelão [34]
1963 1st runner up and Vice Champion 1 Exaltação à Bahia Júlio Mattos Jamelão [35]
1964 3rd 1 História de um preto velho Júlio Mattos Jamelão [36]
1965 4th 1 Rio através dos séculos Júlio Mattos Jamelão [37]
1966 1st runner up and Vice Champion 1 Exaltação à Villa-Lobos Júlio Mattos Jamelão [38]
1967 Champion 1 O mundo encantado de Monteiro Lobato Júlio Mattos Jamelão [39]
1968 Champion 1 Samba, festa de um povo Júlio Mattos Jamelão [40]
1969 1st runner up and Vice Champion 1 Os Mercadores e suas tradições Júlio Mattos Jamelão [41]
1970 3rd 1 Um Cântico à natureza Júlio Mattos Jamelão [42]
1971 4th 1 Os Modernos bandeirantes Júlio Mattos Jamelão [43]
1972 1st runner up and Vice Champion 1 Rio, Carnaval dos Carnavais Carlos Alberto Jamelão [44]
1973 Champion 1 Lendas do Abaeté Júlio Mattos Jamelão [45]
1974 4th 1 Mangueira em tempo de folclore Júlio Mattos Jamelão [46]
1975 1st runner up and Vice Champion 1 Imagens poéticas de Jorge Lima Elói Machado Jamelão [47]
1976 1st runner up and Vice Champion 1 No reino da Mãe do Ouro Elói Machado Jamelão [48]
1977 7th 1 Panapanã, o segredo do amor Júlio Mattos Jamelão [49]
1978 1st runner up and Vice Champion 1 Dos carroceiros do imperador ao Palácio do Samba Júlio Mattos Jamelão [50]
1979 4th 1-A
(first appearance)
Avatar… e a selva transformou-se em ouro Júlio Mattos Jamelão [51]
1980 8th 1-A Coisas nossas Liana Silveira and Ecila Cirne Jamelão [52]
1981 4th 1-A De Nonô a JK Alcione Barreto and Elói Machado Jamelão [53]
1982 4th 1-A As mil e uma noites cariocas Fernando Pinto Jamelão [54]
1983 5th 1-A Verde que te quero rosa… semente viva do samba Max Lopes Jamelão [55]
1984 Champion 1-A Yes, Nós Temos Braguinha Max Lopes Jamelão [56][57]
1985 9th 1-A Abram Alas que eu quero passar Eloy Machado and Bia Dumont Rubem da Mangueira [58][59]
1986 Champion 1-A Caymmi Mostra ao Mundo o que a Bahia e a Mangueira Têm Júlio Mattos Jamelão [60]
1987 Champion 1-A O Reino dos Palavras, Carlos Drummond de Andrade Júlio Mattos Jamelão [61]
1988 Vice Champion 1 Cem Anos de Liberdade, Realidade ou Ilusão? Júlio Mattos Jamelão [62]
1989 11th 1 Trinca de Reis Júlio Mattos Jamelão [63]
1990 8th Special
(first appearance)
Deu a Louca no Barroco Ernesto Nascimento and Cláudio Rodrigues Jamelão [64]
1991 12th Special As Três Rendeiras do Universo Ernesto Nascimento and Cláudio Rodrigues Jamelão [65]
1992 6th Special Se Todos Fossem Iguais a Você Ilvamar Magalhães Jamelão [66]
1993 5th Special Dessa Fruta Eu Como até o Caroço Ilvamar Magalhães Jamelão [67]
1994 11th Special Atrás da Verde-e-Rosa Só Não Vai Quem Já Morreu Ilvamar Magalhães Jamelão [68]
1995 6th Special A Esmeralda do Atlântico Ilvamar Magalhães Jamelão
1996 4th Special Os Tambores da Mangueria na Terra da Encantaria Oswaldo Jardim Jamelão
1997 3th Special O Olimpo é Verde e Rosa Oswaldo Jardim Jamelão
1998 Champion Special Chico Buarque da Mangueira Alexandre Louzada Jamelão
1999 7th Special O Século do Samba Alexandre Louzada Jamelão
2000 7th Special Dom Obá II, Rei dos Esfarrapados, Príncipe do Povo Alexandre Louzada Jamelão
2001 3th Special A Seiva da Vida Max Lopes Jamelão
2002 Champion Special Brazil com 'Z' é para Cabra da Peste, Brasil com 'S' é a Nação do Nordeste Max Lopes Jamelão
2003 Vice-Champion Special Os Dez Mandamentos: O Samba da Paz Canta a Saga da Liberdade Max Lopes Jamelão
2004 3th Special Mangueira Redescobre a Estrada Real…E Desse Eldorado Faz seu Carnaval Max Lopes Jamelão
2005 6th Special Mangueira Energiza a Avenida. O Carnaval é Pura Energia e a Energia é o Nosso Desafio Max Lopes Jamelão
2006 4th Special Das Águas do Velho Chico, Nasce um Rio de Esperança Max Lopes Jamelão
2007 3th Special Minha Pátria é Minha Língua, Mangueira Meu Grande Amor. Meu Samba Vai ao Lácio e Colhe a Última Flor Max Lopes Luizito
2008 10th Special 100 Anos do Frevo, é de Perder o Sapato. Recife Mandou me Chamar… Max Lopes Luizito
2009 6th Special A Mangueira Traz Os Brasis do Brasil Mostrando a Formação do Povo Brasileiro Roberto Szaniecki Luizito
2010 6th Special Mangueira é Música do Brasil Jaime Cezário and Jorge Caribé Luizito, Zé Paulo and Rixxah
2011 3th Special O Filho Fiel, Sempre Mangueira Mauro Quintaes and Wagner Gonçalves Luizito, Zé Paulo and Ciganerey
2012 7th Special Vou festejar! Sou Cacique, sou Mangueira Cid Carvalho Luizito, Zé Paulo and Ciganerey
2013 8th Special Cuiabá: Um paraíso no Centro da América Cid Carvalho Luizito, Zé Paulo, Ciganerey and Agnaldo Amaral
2014 8th Special A festança brasileira cai no samba da Mangueira Rosa Magalhães Luizito
2015 10th Special Agora chegou a vez vou cantar: Mulher de Mangueira, Mulher brasileira em primeiro Lugar Cid Carvalho Luizito
2016 Champion Special Maria Bethânia: A Menina dos Olhos de Oyá Leandro Vieira Ciganerey [69]
2017 Special Só com a ajuda do santo Leandro Vieira Ciganerey

References[edit]

  1. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1932". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  2. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1933". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  3. ^ a b CABRAL, Sérgio, As Escolas de Samba do Rio de Janeiro, Lumiar Editora, Rio de Janeiro, 1996
  4. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1934". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  5. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1935". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  6. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1936". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  7. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1937". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  8. ^ O site da Mangueira diz que o enredo foi Cinco continentes, no entanto esta fonte pode não ser correta, uma vez que a mesma contabiliza a colocação obtida pela Unidos de Mangueira como sendo sua.
  9. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1938". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  10. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1940". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  11. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1940". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  12. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1941". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  13. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1942". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  14. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1943". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  15. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1944". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  16. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1945". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  17. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1946". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  18. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1947". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  19. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1948". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  20. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1949". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  21. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1950". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  22. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1951". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  23. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1952". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  24. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1953". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  25. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1954". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  26. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1955". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  27. ^ Louise Peres, para o VEJA Rio (2012-02-19). "Dez sambas-enredo inesquecíveis". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  28. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1956". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  29. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1957". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  30. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1958". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  31. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1959". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  32. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1960". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  33. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1961". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  34. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1962". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  35. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1963". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  36. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1964". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  37. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1965". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  38. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1966". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  39. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1967". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  40. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1968". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  41. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1969". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  42. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1970". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  43. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1971". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  44. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1972". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  45. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1973". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  46. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1974". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  47. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1975". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  48. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1976". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  49. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1977". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  50. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1978". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  51. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1979". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  52. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1980". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  53. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1981". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  54. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1982". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  55. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1983". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  56. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1984 (segunda)". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  57. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1984 (segunda)". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  58. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1985". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  59. ^ http://www.sambariocarnaval.com/index.php?sambando=jamelao
  60. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1986". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  61. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1987". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  62. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1988". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  63. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1989". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  64. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1990". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  65. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1991". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  66. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1992". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  67. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1993". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  68. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "19991". Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  69. ^ "Maria Bethânia será homenageada pela Mangueira no Carnaval 2016". O Dia. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015. 

External links[edit]