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Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta
Protein GSK3B PDB 1gng.png
PDB rendering based on 1gng.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbol GSK3B
External IDs OMIM605004 MGI1861437 HomoloGene55629 ChEMBL: 262 GeneCards: GSK3B Gene
EC number,
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GSK3B 209945 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2932 56637
Ensembl ENSG00000082701 ENSMUSG00000022812
UniProt P49841 Q9WV60
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001146156 NM_019827
RefSeq (protein) NP_001139628 NP_062801
Location (UCSC) Chr 3:
119.82 – 120.09 Mb
Chr 16:
38.09 – 38.25 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, also known as GSK3B, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSK3B gene.[1][2] In mice, the enzyme is encoded by the GSK-3β gene.[3] Abnormal regulation and expression of GSK3β is associated with an increased susceptibility towards bipolar disorder.[4]


Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a proline-directed serine-threonine kinase that was initially identified as a phosphorylating and an inactivating agent of glycogen synthase. Two isoforms, alpha (GSK3A) and beta, show a high degree of amino acid homology.[1] GSK3B is involved in energy metabolism, neuronal cell development, and body pattern formation.[5][6]

Loss of function mutations[edit]

Homozygous disruption of the GSK-3β locus in mice results in embryonic lethality during mid-gestation.[3] This lethality phenotype could be rescued by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor.[3]


GSK3B has been shown to interact with:

Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in apoptosis.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Stambolic V, Woodgett JR (Nov 1994). "Mitogen inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in intact cells via serine 9 phosphorylation". The Biochemical Journal. 303 ( Pt 3) (Pt 3): 701–4. PMC 1137602. PMID 7980435. 
  2. ^ Lau KF, Miller CC, Anderton BH, Shaw PC (Sep 1999). "Molecular cloning and characterization of the human glycogen synthase kinase-3beta promoter". Genomics 60 (2): 121–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5875. PMID 10486203. 
  3. ^ a b c Hoeflich KP, Luo J, Rubie EA, Tsao MS, Jin O, Woodgett JR (2000). "Requirement for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in cell survival and NF-kappaB activation". Nature 406 (6791): 86–90. doi:10.1038/35017574. PMID 10894547. Closed access
  4. ^ Luykx JJ, Boks MP, Terwindt AP, Bakker S, Kahn RS, Ophoff RA (Jun 2010). "The involvement of GSK3beta in bipolar disorder: integrating evidence from multiple types of genetic studies". European Neuropsychopharmacology 20 (6): 357–68. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2010.02.008. PMID 20226637. 
  5. ^ Plyte SE, Hughes K, Nikolakaki E, Pulverer BJ, Woodgett JR (Dec 1992). "Glycogen synthase kinase-3: functions in oncogenesis and development". Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta 1114 (2-3): 147–62. doi:10.1016/0304-419X(92)90012-N. PMID 1333807. 
  6. ^ "Entrez Gene: GSK3B glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta". 
  7. ^ a b Tanji C, Yamamoto H, Yorioka N, Kohno N, Kikuchi K, Kikuchi A (Oct 2002). "A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent inhibition of GSK-3beta". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (40): 36955–61. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206210200. PMID 12147701. 
  8. ^ a b Mak BC, Takemaru K, Kenerson HL, Moon RT, Yeung RS (Feb 2003). "The tuberin-hamartin complex negatively regulates beta-catenin signaling activity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 (8): 5947–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200473200. PMID 12511557. 
  9. ^ Nakamura T, Hamada F, Ishidate T, Anai K, Kawahara K, Toyoshima K, Akiyama T (Jun 1998). "Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway, interacts with beta-catenin, GSK-3beta and APC and reduces the beta-catenin level". Genes to Cells 3 (6): 395–403. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.1998.00198.x. PMID 9734785. 
  10. ^ von Kries JP, Winbeck G, Asbrand C, Schwarz-Romond T, Sochnikova N, Dell'Oro A, Behrens J, Birchmeier W (Sep 2000). "Hot spots in beta-catenin for interactions with LEF-1, conductin and APC". Nature Structural Biology 7 (9): 800–7. doi:10.1038/79039. PMID 10966653. 
  11. ^ Schwarz-Romond T, Asbrand C, Bakkers J, Kühl M, Schaeffer HJ, Huelsken J, Behrens J, Hammerschmidt M, Birchmeier W (Aug 2002). "The ankyrin repeat protein Diversin recruits Casein kinase Iepsilon to the beta-catenin degradation complex and acts in both canonical Wnt and Wnt/JNK signaling". Genes & Development 16 (16): 2073–84. doi:10.1101/gad.230402. PMC 186448. PMID 12183362. 
  12. ^ Wang L, Lin HK, Hu YC, Xie S, Yang L, Chang C (Jul 2004). "Suppression of androgen receptor-mediated transactivation and cell growth by the glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta in prostate cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 (31): 32444–52. doi:10.1074/jbc.M313963200. PMID 15178691. 
  13. ^ Davies G, Jiang WG, Mason MD (Apr 2001). "The interaction between beta-catenin, GSK3beta and APC after motogen induced cell-cell dissociation, and their involvement in signal transduction pathways in prostate cancer". International Journal of Oncology 18 (4): 843–7. doi:10.3892/ijo.18.4.843. PMID 11251183. 
  14. ^ Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Hino S, Ikeda S, Kishida M, Kikuchi A (Jun 1999). "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein interactions and their ability to regulate beta-catenin stability". Molecular and Cellular Biology 19 (6): 4414–22. PMC 104400. PMID 10330181. 
  15. ^ Hong YR, Chen CH, Cheng DS, Howng SL, Chow CC (Aug 1998). "Human dynamin-like protein interacts with the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 249 (3): 697–703. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9253. PMID 9731200. 
  16. ^ Wu X, Shen QT, Oristian DS, Lu CP, Zheng Q, Wang HW, Fuchs E (Feb 2011). "Skin stem cells orchestrate directional migration by regulating microtubule-ACF7 connections through GSK3β". Cell 144 (3): 341–52. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.12.033. PMID 21295697. 
  17. ^ Li Y, Bharti A, Chen D, Gong J, Kufe D (Dec 1998). "Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and Cellular Biology 18 (12): 7216–24. PMC 109303. PMID 9819408. 
  18. ^ Li Y, Kuwahara H, Ren J, Wen G, Kufe D (Mar 2001). "The c-Src tyrosine kinase regulates signaling of the human DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen with GSK3 beta and beta-catenin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 (9): 6061–4. doi:10.1074/jbc.C000754200. PMID 11152665. 
  19. ^ Guo X, Ramirez A, Waddell DS, Li Z, Liu X, Wang XF (Jan 2008). "Axin and GSK3- control Smad3 protein stability and modulate TGF- signaling". Genes & Development 22 (1): 106–20. doi:10.1101/gad.1590908. PMC 2151009. PMID 18172167. 
  20. ^ Foltz DR, Santiago MC, Berechid BE, Nye JS (Jun 2002). "Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta modulates notch signaling and stability". Current Biology 12 (12): 1006–11. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00888-6. PMID 12123574. 
  21. ^ Espinosa L, Inglés-Esteve J, Aguilera C, Bigas A (Aug 2003). "Phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta down-regulates Notch activity, a link for Notch and Wnt pathways". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 (34): 32227–35. doi:10.1074/jbc.M304001200. PMID 12794074. 
  22. ^ Watcharasit P, Bijur GN, Zmijewski JW, Song L, Zmijewska A, Chen X, Johnson GV, Jope RS (Jun 2002). "Direct, activating interaction between glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and p53 after DNA damage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99 (12): 7951–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.122062299. PMC 123001. PMID 12048243. 
  23. ^ Dai F, Yu L, He H, Chen Y, Yu J, Yang Y, Xu Y, Ling W, Zhao S (May 2002). "Human serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-like kinase (SGKL) phosphorylates glycogen syntheses kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta) at serine-9 through direct interaction". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 293 (4): 1191–6. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00349-2. PMID 12054501. 
  24. ^ Inoki K, Ouyang H, Zhu T, Lindvall C, Wang Y, Zhang X, Yang Q, Bennett C, Harada Y, Stankunas K, Wang CY, He X, MacDougald OA, You M, Williams BO, Guan KL (Sep 2006). "TSC2 integrates Wnt and energy signals via a coordinated phosphorylation by AMPK and GSK3 to regulate cell growth". Cell 126 (5): 955–68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.055. PMID 16959574. 

Further reading[edit]