Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III
An artist's rendering of the GSLV Mk.III
|Function||Medium-lift launch vehicle|
|Manufacturer||Indian Space Research Organisation|
|Country of origin||India|
|Cost per launch||₹300-400 crore (approx. $46-62M) |
|Height||43.498 m (142.71 ft)|
|Diameter||4.0 m (13.1 ft)|
|Mass||640,000 kg (1,410,000 lb)|
|Payload to LEO(600km)||10,000 kg (22,000 lb)|
|Payload to GTO||4,000 kg (8,800 lb)|
|Family||Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle|
|Launch sites||Satish Dhawan Space Centre SLP, Andhra Pradesh, India|
|Last flight||5 June 2017|
|Boosters - S200|
|Length||25 m (82 ft)|
|Diameter||3.2 m (10 ft)|
|Empty mass||31,000 kg (68,000 lb) each|
|Gross mass||236,000 kg (520,000 lb) each|
|Propellant mass||205,000 kg (452,000 lb) each|
|Thrust||5,150 kN (525 tf) each|
|Total thrust||10,300 kN (1,050 tf)|
|Specific impulse||274.5 (vacuum)|
|Burn time||128 sec|
|Second stage - L110|
|Length||21.39 m (70.2 ft)|
|Diameter||4.0 m (13.1 ft)|
|Empty mass||9,000 kg (20,000 lb)|
|Gross mass||125,000 kg (276,000 lb)|
|Propellant mass||116,000 kg (256,000 lb)|
|Engines||2 Vikas engines|
|Thrust||1,598 kN (163.0 tf)|
|Specific impulse||293 sec|
|Burn time||203 sec|
|Fuel||UDMH / N2O4|
|Third stage - C25|
|Length||13.545 m (44.44 ft)|
|Diameter||4.0 m (13.1 ft)|
|Empty mass||5,000 kg (11,000 lb)|
|Gross mass||33,000 kg (73,000 lb)|
|Propellant mass||28,000 kg (62,000 lb)|
|Thrust||200 kN (20 tf)|
|Specific impulse||443 sec|
|Burn time||643 sec|
|Fuel||LOX / LH2|
The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (Hindi: भू-तुल्यकाली उपग्रह प्रक्षेपण वाहन एमके-३; IAST: Bhū-Tulyakāli Upagrah Prakṣepaṇ Vāhan MK-3, also referred to as the Launch Vehicle Mark 3, LVM3 or GSLV-III) is a launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). ISRO successfully launched the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III on 5 June 2017 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Andhra Pradesh.
It is intended to launch satellites into geostationary orbit and as a launcher for an Indian crew vehicle. The GSLV-III features an Indian cryogenic third stage and a higher payload capacity than the current GSLV.
- 1 History
- 2 Successful launch
- 3 Vehicle description
- 4 Launches
- 5 Future Improvement
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Development for the GSLV-III began in the early 2000s, with the first launch planned for 2009-2010. Several factors have delayed the program, including the 15 April 2010 failure of the ISRO-developed cryogenic upper stage on the GSLV Mk II.
A suborbital flight test of the GSLV-III launcher, with a passive cryogenic third stage, was successfully carried out on 18 December 2014, and was used to test a crew module on a suborbital trajectory. The first flight with a crew on board is planned to take place after 2020.
Indigenous cryogenic engine development
By 1987, Indian government approved the development of the second generation INSAT-2 series of satellites, weighing more than 2 tonnes. ISRO wanted to develop a 2.5-tonne class of satellites and put them into a geostationary transfer orbit at 36,000 km from Earth’s surface. There were three fuels options: earth storable, semi-cryogenic, and cryogenic. India approved an offer of procuring cryogenic engines from the Soviet Union’s Glavkosmos space agency in 1990, but the US was against the deal. According to ISRO, the engine CE-7.5 can be called an indigenous version, which works on a staged combustion cycle, with Russian design, while work to develop a high thrust CE-20 cryogenic engine began in 2002.
S200 static test
The S-200 solid rocket booster was successfully tested on 24 January 2010. The booster fired for 130 seconds and generated a peak thrust of about 500 tonnes. Nearly 600 ballistic and safety parameters were monitored during the test and indicated normal performance. A second successful static test was conducted on 4 September 2011.
L110 stage test
The Indian Space Research Organisation conducted the first static test of the L110 core stage at its Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) test facility at Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu on 5 March 2010. Originally targeted for a full 200 second burn, the test was terminated at 150 seconds after a leakage in a control system was detected. On 8 September 2010 ISRO successfully conducted a full 200 second test.
Suborbital flight test
The GSLV LVM-3 lifted off from the second launch pad, Sriharikota, at 9.30 am IST on 18 December 2014. The 630.5 tonne launch vehicle stacking was as follows : a functional S200 solid propulsion stage, a functional L110 liquid propulsion stage, a non-functional dummy stage (in lieu of CE-20 cryogenic propulsion engine) and finally the 3.7-tonne Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE) payload stage. Just over five minutes into the flight, the rocket ejected CARE at an altitude of 126 km. CARE then descended at high speed, controlled by its on-board motors. At an altitude of 80 km, the thrusters were shut down and the capsule began its ballistic re-entry into the atmosphere. CARE’s heat shield was expected to experience a temperature of around 1600 °C. ISRO downloaded launch telemetry during the ballistic coasting phase prior to the radio black-out to avoid data loss in the event of a splash-down failure. At an altitude of around 15 km, the module’s apex cover separated and the parachutes were deployed. CARE splashed down in the Bay of Bengal near the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
C25 stage test
The first hot test of the C25 cryogenic stage was conducted at ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC) facility at Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu on 25 January 2017. The stage was hot tested for a duration of 50 seconds demonstrating all stage operations. A longer duration test for 640 seconds was completed on Feb 18 2017.
The S200 solid motors are used as the first stage of the launch vehicle. Each booster has a diameter of 3.2 metres, a length of 25 metres, and carries 207 tonnes of propellant. These boosters burn for 130 seconds and produce a peak thrust of about 5,150 kilonewtons (525 tf) each.
A separate facility has been established at Sriharikota to make the S200 boosters. Another major feature is that the S200’s large nozzle has been equipped with a ‘flex seal.’ The nozzle can therefore be gimballed when the rocket’s orientation needs correction.
In flight, as the thrust from the S200 boosters begins to tail off, the decline in acceleration is sensed by the rocket’s onboard sensors and the twin Vikas engines on the ‘L110’ liquid propellant core stage are then ignited. Before the S200s separate and fall away from the rocket, the solid boosters as well as the Vikas engines operate together for a short period of time, similar to that of the American Titan III and Titan IV booster.
The second stage, designated L110, is a 4-meter-diameter liquid-fueled stage carrying 110 tonnes of UDMH and N2O4. It is the first Indian liquid-engine cluster design, and uses two improved Vikas engines, each producing a thrust of about 700 kilonewtons (70 tf). The improved Vikas engine uses regenerative cooling, providing improved weight and specific impulse compared to earlier rockets. The L110 core stage ignites 114 seconds after liftoff and burns for 203 seconds.
The cryogenic upper stage (designated as C25) is powered by the indigenously developed CE-20 engine. It burns LOX and LH2 and produces 200 kilonewtons (20 tf) of thrust. The C25 is 4 metres (13 ft) in diameter and 13.545 metres (44.44 ft) long, and contains 28 tonnes of propellant.
This engine was initially slated for completion and testing by 2015. ISRO crossed a major milestone in the development of CE-20 engine with the successful 640 secs hot test at ISRO Propulsion Complex, Mahendragiri on 19 February 2017. The test demonstrated the repeatability of the engine performance with all its sub systems like thrust chamber, gas generator, turbo pumps and control components for the full duration. All the engine parameters were closely matching with the pre-test prediction.
The first C25 stage was first used on the GSLV Mk.III D1 mission on June 5, 2017. This mission successfully put in orbit the GSAT-19E communication satellite. Work on the C25 stage and CE-20 engine for GSLV Mk.III upper stage was initiated in 2003, the project has had to face multiple delays due to problems with ISRO's smaller cryogenic engine, the CE-7.5 for GSLV MK-II upper stage.
The payload fairing has a diameter of 5 metres (16 ft) and a payload volume of 110 cubic metres (3,900 cu ft).
|Flight||Launch date/time (IST / UTC)||Variant||Launch Pad||Payload||Payload Mass||Result|
|X||18 December 2014
09:30 IST / 04:00 UTC
|LVM3-X||Second||Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE)||3,775 kg (8,322 lb)||Success|
|Sub-orbital development test flight with non-functional cryogenic stage|
|D1||5 June 2017
17:28 IST / 11:58 UTC
|Mk.III||Second||GSAT-19||3,136 kg (6,914 lb)||Success|
|First orbital test launch with a functional cryogenic stage|
- Comparison of orbital launchers families
- Comparison of orbital launch systems
- Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
- ISRO Orbital Vehicle
- Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
- Medium-lift launch vehicle, capable of lifting between 2,000 and 20,000 kg (4,400 to 44,100 lb) of payload into Low Earth orbit
- List of Indian satellites
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We will be checking the crew capsule for all parameters.
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