GWR 1000 Class

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GWR 1000 “County” class
Gloucester Locomotive Depot geograph-2895614-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg
1013 'County of Dorset' at Gloucester Eastgate railway station, 1963.
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer Frederick Hawksworth
Builder GWR Swindon Works
Order number Lots 354, 358
Build date August 1945 – April 1947
Total produced 30
Specifications
Configuration 4-6-0
UIC classification 2'C h2
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Leading wheel
diameter
3 ft 0 in (914 mm)
Driver diameter 6 ft 3 in (1,905 mm)
Minimum curve 8 chains (530 ft; 160 m) normal, 7 chains (460 ft; 140 m) slow
Length 63 ft 0 14 in (19.21 m)
Width 8 ft 11 18 in (2.72 m)
Height 13 ft 5 in (4.09 m)
Axle load 19 long tons 14 cwt (44,100 lb or 20 t) full
Weight on drivers 59 long tons 2 cwt (132,400 lb or 60 t) full
Locomotive weight 76 long tons 17 cwt (172,100 lb or 78.1 t) full
Tender weight 49 long tons 0 cwt (109,800 lb or 49.8 t) full
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity 7 long tons 0 cwt (15,700 lb or 7.1 t)
Water capacity 4,000 imp gal (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal)
Boiler GWR type 15
Boiler pressure 280 psi (1.93 MPa) later reduced to 250 psi (1.72 MPa)
Firegrate area 28.84 sq ft (2.679 m2)
Heating surface:
– Tubes and flues
1,545.0 sq ft (143.54 m2)
– Firebox 169.0 sq ft (15.70 m2)
Superheater area 254.0 sq ft (23.60 m2)
Cylinders Two, outside
Cylinder size 18.5 in × 30 in (470 mm × 762 mm)
Valve gear Stephenson
Valve type piston valves
Performance figures
Tractive effort 32,580 lbf (144.92 kN)
Career
Operator(s) Great Western Railway
British Railways
Class GWR: 1000
Power class GWR: D
BR: 6MT
Number(s) 1000–1029
Axle load class GWR: Red
Retired September 1962 – November 1964
Disposition All scrapped

The Great Western Railway 1000 Class or County Class was a class of 4-6-0 steam locomotive. Thirty examples were built between 1945 and 1947, but all were withdrawn and scrapped in the early 1960s. No examples were preserved but a replica locomotive is under construction.

Background[edit]

These locomotives were the final development of the two-cylinder Saint Class introduced in 1901 and included several features that had already been used on the successful Modified Hall class. [1] The Chief Mechanical Engineer of the GWR Frederick W. Hawksworth had hoped to design a new 4-6-2 (Pacific) express locomotive for post war traffic, when he took up office in 1941 but had been prevented by the war from doing so.[2] This scheme was not entirely dead in 1945 when he was given the authority to build another batch of mixed traffic 4-6-0s. Rather than build more examples of existing designs, Hawksworth introduced the County Class as a testbed for a number of the ideas he hoped to incorporate into the Pacific at a later date.[3] Unfortunately Hawksworth was not subsequently allowed to build his Pacific, as there was no need for further express passenger locomotives.

Design[edit]

In addition to the innovations already adopted for the Modified Hall class, the new class contained several further changes from usual Great Western practice including the use of double chimneys on certain members and a high boiler pressure of 280psi (although this was later lowered in an attempt to reduce maintenance costs). The boiler was a development that used the tooling for the LMS Stanier Class 8F boiler, Hawksworth being able to study this design closely when 8Fs were being built at Swindon as part of the war effort. [4] The class had a tractive effort of 32,580 lbf (144.92 kN), which was =1,000 lbf (4.45 kN) greater than a Castle Class locomotive. The class had continuous splashers over the driving wheels and, when named, straight nameplates, making them immediately recognisable from other 4-6-0 classes. They were also fitted with Hawksworth’s 4,000 imp gal (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal) slab-sided tenders, but the County tenders had a water tank six inches wider than the tenders built for the Modified Halls and retro-fitted to many earlier designs. There was talk of them at one point having outside Walschaerts valve gear which would have been a major break from traditional GWR designs. In the event the favoured inside Stephenson link motion of the GWR was used, but the GWR 1500 Class, also designed by Hawksworth, used outside Walschaerts – the only locomotive designed by the GWR to do so.

Production[edit]

The first batch of twenty were built at Swindon Works and delivered between August 1945 and March 1946 (Lot No. 354). They were originally unnamed and were planned to be numbered in the 9900 series, but this was changed to 1000-1019 before introduction. [5] A second batch of ten further locomotives (1020-1029) were built between April 1946 and April 1947 (Swindon Lot 358). The second batch were given names English and Welsh Counties previously used on the GWR 3800 Class of 4-4-0 tender locomotives that were part of George Jackson Churchward's locomotive standardisation programme in the early days of the 20th century:

Operation[edit]

1011 'County of Chester' at Bristol Temple Meads 1963

The Counties had a mixed reception: some traditionalists regarded them as ‘non-standard, expensive and unnecessary,’ [6] others considered them a successful, free steaming design, well suited to express or freight work and a fitting finale to GW two-cylinder 4-6-0 development. According to O.S. Nock ‘their best and really brilliant work was done north of Wolverhampton where they ran very heavy trains with conspicuous success.’[7]

1019 County of Merioneth at Bristol Temple Meads, 1960

British Railways[edit]

After the nationalisation of Britain's railways in 1948 all 30 Counties continued to do useful work throughout the Western Region of British Railways, working with Castles on expresses to and from Paddington as well as more menial freight and parcels tasks. BR gave the Counties the power classification 6MT. Speedometers were fitted to the class from 1950 and modified double from 1956.

Withdrawal and Preservation[edit]

Withdrawals of the class took place between September 1962 and November 1964 and none of the original locomotives survived. However a replica is being built at the Didcot Railway Centre, home of the Great Western Society. When completed it will take the name and number of No. 1014 County of Glamorgan in recognition of the late Dai Woodham's Barry Scrapyard in Glamorganshire from which many withdrawn steam locomotives were saved for preservation. Also Glamorganshire County Council donated the frames and boiler for the project. The replica is based around the frames from Modified Hall Class 7927 Willington Hall and the boiler from LMS Stanier 8F 48518. The boiler from the Hall will be used in the replica Grange project at the Llangollen Railway. It will also have a number of smaller original parts off scrapped County locomotives including the chimney from 1006 County of Cornwall.

Models[edit]

Hornby Railways manufacture a model of the 10xx in OO gauge.

Stock list[edit]

Number Name     Built        Withdrawn    Scrapped Notes
1000 County of Middlesex August 1945 July 1964 Cashmore, Newport
1001 County of Buckingham September 1945 May 1963 Cashmore, Newport
1002 County of Berks September 1945 September 1963 Ward, Sheffield
1003 County of Wilts October 1945 October 1962 Cashmore, Newport
1004 County of Somerset October 1945 September 1962 Cashmore, Newport
1005 County of Devon November 1945 June 1963 Cashmore, Newport
1006 County of Cornwall November 1945 September 1963 Cooper, Sharpness Chimney donated to replica 1014 County of Glamorgan project[8]
1007 County of Brecknock December 1945 October 1962 King, Norwich
1008 County of Cardigan December 1945 October 1963 Cashmore, Newport
1009 County of Carmarthen December 1945 February 1963 Swindon Works
1010 County of Caernarvon January 1946 July 1964 Cashmore, Newport Name originally spelled
County of Carnarvon
1011 County of Chester January 1946 November 1964 Cashmore, Newport
1012 County of Denbigh February 1946 April 1964 Cashmore, Newport
1013 County of Dorset February 1946 July 1964 Cashmore, Newport
1014 County of Glamorgan February 1946 April 1964 Cashmore, Newport Replica under construction
1015 County of Gloucester March 1946 December 1962 Cashmore, Newport
1016 County of Hants[9] March 1946 September 1963 Ward, Sheffield
1017 County of Hereford March 1946 December 1962 Ward, Sheffield
1018 County of Leicester March 1946 September 1962 King, Norwich
1019 County of Merioneth April 1946 February 1963 Cashmore, Great Bridge
1020 County of Monmouth December 1946 February 1964 Hayes, Bridgend
1021 County of Montgomery December 1946 November 1963 Hayes, Bridgend
1022 County of Northampton December 1946 October 1962 Ward, Sheffield
1023 County of Oxford January 1947 March 1963 Swindon Works
1024 County of Pembroke January 1947 April 1964 Swindon Works
1025 County of Radnor January 1947 February 1963 Cashmore, Great Bridge
1026 County of Salop January 1947 September 1962 Ward, Sheffield
1027 County of Stafford March 1947 October 1963 Cooper, Sharpness
1028 County of Warwick March 1947 December 1963 Birds, Risca
1029 County of Worcester April 1947 December 1962 Cashmore, Newport

References[edit]

  1. ^ le Fleming, H.M. (November 1960) [1953]. White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part eight: Modern Passenger Classes (2nd ed.). Kenilworth: RCTS. pp. H37. 
  2. ^ Nock, Oswald Stevens (1984). British Locomotives of the Twentieth Century. 2: 1930-1960. London: Book Club Associates. pp. 94–6. 
  3. ^ Nock (1984), p.97.
  4. ^ le Fleming, H.M. (November 1960) [1953]. White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part eight: Modern Passenger Classes (2nd ed.). Kenilworth: RCTS. pp. H37. 
  5. ^ le Fleming, H.M. (November 1960) [1953]. White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part eight: Modern Passenger Classes (2nd ed.). Kenilworth: RCTS. pp. H37. 
  6. ^ Marshall, John (1978). A biographical dictionary of railway engineers. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. p. 109. ISBN 0715374893. 
  7. ^ Nock (1984), p.98.
  8. ^ "Locomotive - Initial Progress (2005)" (PDF). 1014 The G.W. County Project. 2005. p. 1. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  9. ^ le Fleming 1960, p. H38.
  • le Fleming, H.M. (November 1960) [1953]. White, D.E., ed. Part 8: Modern Passenger Classes. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway (2nd ed.). Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-19-3. 
  • Whitehurst, Brian (1973). Great Western engines, names, numbers, types, classes: 1940 to preservation. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. pp. 16, 103, 124. ISBN 0-902888-21-8. OCLC 815661. 

External links[edit]