GWR 3031 Class
Dean Single No. 3050 Royal Sovereign in photographic grey livery.
The Dean Single, 3031 Class, or Achilles Class was a type of steam locomotive built by the British Great Western Railway between 1891 and 1899. They were designed by William Dean for passenger work. The first 30 members of the class were built as 2-2-2s of the 3001 Class.
The first eight members of the class (numbers 3021-3028, built April–August 1891) were built as convertible 7 ft 1⁄4 in (2,140 mm) broad gauge 2-2-2 locomotives, being converted to standard gauge in mid-1892, at the end of broad gauge running on the Great Western Railway. A further 22 were built in late 1891 and early 1892, this time as standard gauge engines.
Although the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) 3001 class were fitted with larger boilers than earlier GWR 2-2-2 classes, the diameter of the boiler was constrained by its position between the 7 ft 8 1⁄2 in (2.350 m) driving wheels. Thus boiler capacity could only be increased by making the boiler longer, not wider, bringing the smokebox and cylinders in front of the leading axle. The extra weight of the larger boilers was borne by the leading wheels, making the locomotives unstable, particularly at speed. On 16 September 1893 No. 3021 Wigmore Castle, hauling an express train, was derailed in Box Tunnel when the front axle broke. The cause of the accident was thought to be excessive weight being carried on the front axle, so it was decided to replace the leading pair of wheels in the 3001 class with a bogie.
In the 3001 class the steam chest was located underneath the cylinders, and contained two slide valves. The inverted placement of the valves allowed them to drop away from the face of the steam ports when steam was shut off, thus reducing wear. The steam chest and valves lay above the front carrying axle, and there was sufficient clearance to allow the steam chest cover to be removed over the axle for maintenance.
Replacing the axle with a bogie of conventional design would have obstructed access to the port faces. Dean instead used a suspension bogie, in which the weight of the locomotive was transferred upwards to the bogie by four bolts mounted on the inside frames. The centre pin of the bogie rotated in a spring-centred block mounted beneath the steam chest on cross beams. This setup gave sufficient clearance so that, when the bolts were undone, the front end of the locomotive raised, and the bogie was run out from underneath, the steam chest cover could be removed without hindrance.
No. 3021 was rebuilt as a 4-2-2 in March 1894. Between June and December 1894 the 28 remaining locomotives of the 3001 class were rebuilt. The first of a further 50 new bogie singles was also built in March 1894, the last of the class being outshopped in March 1899. These new locomotives differed from the rebuilds in having their cylinder diameter reduced from 20 to 19 inches (508 to 483 mm), and the springs for the trailing wheels located above the footplate and outside the cab, necessitating a reduced width for the latter. The rebuilds subsequently had their cylinders lined down to 19 inches (483 mm). The entire class, as they required it, had their driving wheels fitted with thicker tyres from 1898 onwards, increasing the wheel diameter by one-half inch (12.7 mm) to 7 ft 8 1⁄2 in (2.350 m).
In 1900, George Jackson Churchward replaced the boiler on number 3027 Worcester with a parallel Standard 2 boiler. Twelve further engines were similarly converted in 1905 and 1906.
Despite the locomotives' speed, the 4-2-2 design was soon found to be outdated and unsuitable for more modern operation. A proposal to improve their performance by fitting them with long-travel valves was found to be impracticable; the existing valves were directly driven from eccentrics mounted on the driving axle, and there was insufficient clearance to fit larger eccentrics. Churchward considered rebuilding the class as Armstrong Class 4-4-0s with 7 ft 2 in (2.184 m) coupled wheels. The cylinder centre line would then be 3.5 in (89 mm) above the driving centre, due to the 7 in (178 mm) difference in driving wheel diameter. This scheme was not carried through because the connecting rods would not clear the lower slide bar, and the valve gear would be out of alignment. An alternative proposal to drop the locomotive 3.5 in (89 mm), and raise the buffer beam and dragbox, was also rejected on the grounds of cost. The class were gradually withdrawn between 1908 and 1915, with the last survivor, no. 3074 Princess Helena, being withdrawn in December 1916. All of the originals were scrapped, but a non-working replica was built in the early 1980s.
Notable members of the class
3065 Duke of Connaught made a record-breaking run with the Ocean Mail on 9 May 1904, covering the distance from Bristol (Pylle Hill) to Paddington in 99 minutes 46 seconds as part of a run from Plymouth to Paddington in 227 minutes.
3041 The Queen, originally named James Mason, was an example of this class allocated to Royal Train duties.
Number 3046 Lord of the Isles has enjoyed a certain amount of celebrity, having been chosen as the prototype for a Tri-ang model locomotive. Since then the engine has also been modelled by Brio and Matchbox. In 2006, Hornby also produced a limited edition of the same model, this time bearing the name Lorna Doone.
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None of the original class survive, but a static replica of The Queen was commissioned by Tussauds for the Railways and Royalty exhibition at Windsor and Eton Central railway station. The replica loco was completed in December 1982 and displayed outside Steamtown in January 1983 (where it was constructed), before being transported by road to Windsor on 12 January 1983 and arriving on 14 January. The main frames, footplate, 'boiler', smokebox, cab and splashers were fabricated by Babcock's of Tipton. The tender was modified from an LBSCR C2x tender. Parts from a GWR tender, that came from the Dumbleton Hall Preservation Society, were used to provide the wheels for the front bogie and the real wheels. The top halves of the driving wheels do not exist, and were cast from 2 quarters, being bolted together to make a half, and the driving wheels also don't sit on the rail, so the loco could be wheeled into position on its front bogie and rear wheels. Some boiler fittings were obtained from the Great Western Society and sandblasted, and the dome and safety valve bonnet were made by Newcastle Metal Spinners. Tussaud's fitted smoke and steam generators, so steam was emitted from the cab, whistles, safety valves and smoke from the chimney. A sound unit was also fitted.
The engine remains there, but the tender was scrapped to make more space for the shopping centre occupying that station building. The Bluebell Railway Atlantic Group purchased the axleboxes, springs and the complete wheel sets from the tender for use in their newbuild Atlantic project.
|Number||Name||Built||4-2-2 rebuild||Withdrawn||Details and information|
|3001||Amazon||01/1892||10/1894||06/1908||Previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892; named after a nation of female warriors in Greek mythology.|
|3002||Atalanta||01/1892||06/1894||09/1908||Named after a character in Greek mythology.|
|3003||Avalanche||02/1892||05/1894||06/1909||Previously the name of a Banking Class locomotive withdrawn in 1865.|
|3004||Black Prince||02/1892||11/1894||10/1911||Named after the eldest son of Edward III.|
|3005||Britannia||02/1892||11/1894||02/1908||The Roman name for Britain.|
|3006||Courier||03/1892||06/1894||02/1914||Previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892.|
|3007||Dragon||03/1892||08/1894||03/1912||Previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892.|
|3008||Emperor||03/1892||10/1894||08/1912||Previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892.|
|3009||Flying Dutchman||03/1892||11/1894||08/1912||Named after the winner of the Derby in 1849.|
|3010||Fire King||03/1892||09/1894||09/1908||Previously the name of a Banking Class locomotive withdrawn in 1875.|
|3011||Greyhound||03/1892||01/1894||09/1911||Named after the breed of racing dog.|
|3012||Great Western||03/1892||06/1894||05/1909||Previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892.|
|3013||Great Britain||03/1892||11/1894||02/1914||Previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892.|
|3014||Iron Duke||04/1892||10/1894||06/1908||Previously the name of the Iron Duke Class and a locomotive of that class; in this case it was reused from a locomotive of the Rover Class withdrawn in 1892. One of two locomotives of the class named after the Duke of Wellington.|
|3015||Kennet||04/1892||08/1894||06/1908||Named after the river. The locomotive was involved in the Slough rail accident of 1900.|
|3016||Lightning||04/1892||11/1894||03/1911||Previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892.|
|3017||Prometheus||04/1892||09/1894||09/1908||Originally named Nelson; renamed 05/1895; previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892. Prometheus is a Titan in Greek mythology.|
|3018||Glenside||04/1892||08/1894||06/1913||Built as Racer (a term for fast trains from the mid-19th century); renamed 09/1911.|
|3019||Rover||04/1892||05/1894||09/1908||Previously the name of the Rover Class of locomotives, and of an Iron Duke Class locomotive withdrawn in 1871.|
|3020||Sultan||04/1892||09/1894||02/1908||Previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892.|
|3021||Wigmore Castle||04/1892||03/1894||05/1909||Built to broad gauge. Involved in an accident in Box Tunnel in 1893. Named after a ruined castle in Herefordshire.|
|3022||Bessemer||05/1892||07/1894||02/1909||Built to broad gauge and originally named Rougemont (previously the name of an Iron Duke Class locomotive withdrawn in 1879). Renamed in 1898, after Henry Bessemer, who invented the first process for mass-producing steel.|
|3023||Swallow||07/1891||09/1894||09/1912||Built to broad gauge; previously the name of an Iron Duke Class locomotive withdrawn in 1871.|
|3024||Storm King||07/1891||12/1894||02/1909||Built to broad gauge.|
|3025||Quicksilver||08/1891||10/1894||09/1908||Built to broad gauge and named St. George. Renamed 05/1907, after the element mercury; previously the name of a Saint Class locomotive, which was itself renamed The Abbott 03/1907.|
|3026||Tornado||08/1891||06/1894||02/1909||Built to broad gauge; previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892.|
|3027||Worcester||08/1891||11/1894||07/1914||Built to broad gauge and originally named Thames; renamed 12/1895.|
|3028||Wellington||08/1891||07/1894||02/1909||Built to broad gauge. Previously the name of an Ariadne Class locomotive withdrawn in 1873. One of two locomotives in the class named after Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington.|
|3029||White Horse||11/1891||07/1894||05/1909||During the first half of the 19th Century the West Country saw several hill figures carved by garrisoned troops, often in the form of a white horse; these were inspired by the original Uffington White Horse in the Vale of the White Horse, in Berkshire (Oxfordshire since 1974).|
|3030||Westward Ho||12/1891||10/1894||05/1909||Named after a brand of tobacco produced by W.D. & H.O. Wills; the workers on the gauge conversion in 1892 were issued with 2 ounces (57 g) each.|
|3031||Achilles||03/1894||07/1912||Name of the class of locomotives to which this locomotive belongs; previously the name of a Firefly Class locomotive withdrawn in 1867.|
|3032||Agamemnon||07/1894||10/1913||Agamemnon was a character in Greek mythology; HMS Agamemnon served in both the American Revolutionary War and Napoleonic Wars, and was Nelson's favourite battleship.|
|3034||Behemoth||07/1894||10/1908||Previously the name of a Pyracmon Class locomotive withdrawn in 1873.|
|3035||Beaufort||07/1894||05/1909||Originally named Bellerophon (previously the name of a Premier Class locomotive withdrawn in 1870); renamed 12/1895.|
|3037||Corsair||09/1894||10/1908||Previously the name of a Bogie Class locomotive withdrawn in 1873; named after the North African pirates.|
|3039||Dreadnought||09/1894||07/1915||An allusion to the power of a steam locomotive.|
|3040||Empress of India||09/1894||03/1912||A title of Queen Victoria.|
|3041||James Mason||10/1894||11/1912||Originally Emlyn; renamed The Queen 1897 (previously the name of a Prince Class locomotive, withdrawn 1870); renamed James Mason 06/1910.|
|3043||Hercules||01/1895||12/1913||Previously the name of a Hercules Class locomotive withdrawn in 1870.|
|3044||Hurricane||01/1895||10/1908||Named after the horse that won the 1,000 Guineas in 1862.|
|3045||Hirondelle||01/1895||05/1914||Previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1891; French for "swallow".|
|3046||Lord of the Isles||01/1895||10/1908||Previously the name of an Iron Duke Class locomotive withdrawn in 1884; a Scottish title of nobility.|
|3047||Lorna Doone||02/1895||11/1912||A novel by Richard Doddridge Blackmore set in 17th Century Devon, within the GWR region.|
|3048||Majestic||02/1895||06/1913||Named after HMS Majestic, a battleship launched the month prior to the locomotive's delivery.|
|3049||Nelson||02/1895||07/1913||Originally named Prometheus; renamed 05/1895. Previously the name of an Ariadne Class locomotive withdrawn in 1873.|
|3050||Royal Sovereign||02/1895||12/1915||Royal Sovereign was a contemporary term for Queen Victoria. This name was temporarily transferred to Atbara Class locomotive no. 3373 when it hauled the Royal Funeral Train from Paddington on 2 February, 1901.|
|3052||Sir Walter Raleigh||03/1895||09/1913||Named after the Elizabethan nobleman and explorer who was involved in the English settlement of Virginia, and popularized tobacco smoking in Europe.|
|3053||Sir Francis Drake||03/1895||09/1911||Named after the Elizabethan sea captain, navigator and slave-trader, famous for the defeat of the Spanish Armada and the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe.|
|3054||Sir Richard Grenville||03/1895||10/1911||Named after the Elizabethan privateer and explorer, involved with Raleigh in the settlement of North America, and with Drake's action against the Spanish Armada.|
|3055||Lambert||03/1895||02/1914||Built as Trafalgar (previously the name of an Ariadne Class locomotive withdrawn in 1871); renamed 07/1901. Lambert was a captain of the English navy during the Napoleonic Wars.|
|3056||Wilkinson||03/1895||10/1914||Built as Timour (previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892); renamed 07/1901.|
|3057||Walter Robinson||04/1895||09/1912||Built as Tartar (previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn in 1892); renamed 07/1901.|
|3058||Grierson||04/1895||02/1912||Built as Ulysses (previously the name of an Ariadne Class locomotive withdrawn in 1872); renamed 05/1895. James Grierson, was chief engineer of the GWR; his son William was also a civil engineer on the railway.|
|3059||John W. Wilson||04/1895||06/1913||Named after a Worcestershire Liberal Unionist politician.|
|3060||John G. Griffiths||04/1895||03/1915||Built as Warlock (previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn 1892); renamed 03/1908, after a Director of the GWR 1908–22; name removed 03/1914.|
|3061||George A. Wills||05/1897||12/1912||Built as Alexandra; name removed 11/1910; renamed 10/1911 after a GWR Director and chairman of Imperial Tobacco.|
|3062||Albert Edward||05/1897||04/1915||Named after the first son of Queen Victoria, the Prince of Wales and future King Edward VII.|
|3063||Duke of York||06/1897||01/1912||Named after George Frederick, the grandson of Queen Victoria who would later become King George V.|
|3064||Duke of Edinburgh||06/1897||09/1911||Named after Alfred, Queen Victoria's second son.|
|3065||Duke of Connaught||07/1897||10/1914||Named after Arthur, Queen Victoria's third son.|
|3066||Duchess of Albany||12/1897||10/1913||Named after Helena, the wife of Queen Victoria's youngest son Leopold.|
|3067||Duchess of Teck||12/1897||12/1914||Named after Queen Victoria's cousin (mother of May of Teck, who became Queen Mary as wife of King George V).|
|3068||Duke of Cambridge||01/1898||11/1912||Named after Queen Victoria's cousin, who was commander-in-chief of the British Army until 1895.|
|3069||Earl of Chester||01/1898||06/1912||A title given to Albert Edward when he became Prince of Wales.|
|3070||Earl of Warwick||02/1898||10/1914||Named after a Conservative politician who served in the House of Commons 1879–92 and the House of Lords until his death in 1924.|
|3071||Emlyn||02/1898||10/1914||Named after an area of South Wales, served by the GWR.|
|3072||Bulkeley||06/1898||08/1912||Built as North Star (previously the name of a Star Class locomotive withdrawn 1871); name removed early 1906; renamed 09/1906 (previously the name of a Sir Watkin Class locomotive withdrawn 1872).|
|3073||Princess Royal||06/1898||10/1912||Title of Queen Victoria's eldest daughter.|
|3074||Princess Helena||06/1898||12/1915||Named after Queen Victoria's third daughter.|
|3075||Princess Louise||07/1898||06/1912||Named after the eldest daughter of Albert Edward (granddaughter of Queen Victoria).|
|3076||Princess Beatrice||02/1899||07/1912||Named after Queen Victoria's fifth daughter.|
|3077||Princess May||02/1899||11/1912||Named after George Frederick's wife May of Teck.|
|3078||Eupatoria||02/1899||11/1911||Previously the name of a Rover Class locomotive withdrawn 1892; a battle in the Crimean War.|
|3080||Windsor Castle||03/1899||10/1913||Named after the residence of the Royal Family, in Berkshire.|
A model of the "Duke of Connaught" was produced by Lesney Products as Y-14 in the Models of Yesteryear range from 1959 to 1963.
The coat of arms of the old Borough of Swindon (1900–74) includes an image of 3029 White Horse on the shield. The coat of arms was displayed on the splashers of the last Castle Class built (No. 7037 Swindon). STEAM Museum of the Great Western Railway at Swindon acquired one of the splashers in 2012.
- Fryer 1993, p. 73.
- Holcroft 1971, p. 63.
- Fryer 1993, pp. 75-76.
- Holcroft 1971, p. 62.
- Russell 1999, p. 42.
- Fryer 1993, p. 76.
- Fryer 1993, pp. 77-78.
- Fryer 1993, p. 78.
- Holcroft 1971, p. 117.
- Daniel, John. "3001 'Dean Single' class introduction". The Great Western Archive. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
- "3041 GWR Dean 3031 Achillies Class 4-2-2". Preserved British Steam Locomotives. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
- Nock 1954, p. 32.
- Hinchcliffe 1983, pp. 91, 92.
- Jones, David. "Bluebell Railway Atlantic Group". Bluebell Railway. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
- Davies 1993, p. P121.
- Davies 1993, p. P127.
- Davies 1993, p. P141.
- Davies 1993, p. P156.
- Davies 1993, p. P154.
- Davies 1993, p. P114.
- Davies 1993, p. P117.
- Davies 1993, p. P126.
- Davies 1993, p. P133.
- Davies 1993, p. P143.
- le Fleming 1954, pp. G36, G37.
- Davies 1993, p. P105.
- Davies 1993, p. P122.
- Davies 1993, p. P155.
- Bryan, Salter & Smith 2008, p. 24.
- BBC News 2012.
- BBC News (17 November 2012). "STEAM museum buys 'rare' wheel guard from Swindon locomotive". Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Bryan, Tim; Salter, Jeff; Smith, Peter (2008). STEAM Museum of the Great Western Railway (2nd ed.). Peterborough, UK: Heritage House. ISBN 978-0-85101-898-0.
- Davies, Ken (April 1993). The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part fourteen: Names and their Origins - ... Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-75-4.
- Fryer, Charles (1993). Single Wheeler Locomotives: The Brief Age Of Perfection. Sparkford: Haynes Publishing Group. ISBN 0-86093-506-X.
- Hinchcliffe, G (March 1983). "Gentlemen- 'The Queen'". The Railway Magazine. 129 (983).
- Holcroft, Harold (1971) . An Outline of Great Western Locomotive Practice 1837-1947 (2nd ed.). Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0228-2.
- le Fleming, H.M. (October 1954). White, D.E. (ed.). The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part seven: Dean's Larger Tender Engines. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-18-5.
- Nock, O.S. (1954). 60 years of Western Express Running. Ian Allan Ltd.
- Nock, O.S. (1977). Standard Gauge Great Western 4-4-0s: Part 1: Inside Cylinder Classes 1894-1910. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7411-7.
- Russell, J.H. (1999) . A Pictorial Record of Great Western Engines: Volume One:Gooch, Armstrong & Dean Locomotives. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-86093-398-9.
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