Globalization and World Cities Research Network

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The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank based in the Geography department at Loughborough University in England, that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.

GaWC was founded by Peter J. Taylor in 1998,[1] Together with Jon Beaverstock and Richard G. Smith, they create the GaWC's bi-annual categorization of world cities into "Alpha", "Beta" and "Gamma" tiers, based upon their international connectedness.[2]

The GaWC examines cities worldwide to narrow them down to a roster of 307 world cities, then ranks these based on their connectivity through four "advanced producer services": accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law.[3] The GaWC inventory ranks city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors. Beyond the categories of "Alpha" world cities (with four sub-categories), "Beta" world cities (three sub-categories) and "Gamma" world cities (three sub-categories), the GaWC cities include additional cities at "High sufficiency" and "Sufficiency" level.

The following is a general guide to the rankings as of the most recent (2012) update:[3]

Alpha++ cities are vastly more integrated with the global economy than all other cities.[4]

Alpha+ cities are the eight cities that complement London and New York City by filling advanced service niches for the global economy.[4]

Alpha and Alpha- cities are the 13 and 22 cities, respectively, that link major economic regions into the world economy.[4]

Alpha++ Alpha+ Alpha Alpha-
London Beijing Amsterdam Milan Atlanta Johannesburg Stockholm
New York Dubai Brussels Moscow Bangkok Melbourne Taipei
Hong Kong Chicago Mumbai Barcelona Miami Vienna
Paris Frankfurt Sao Paulo Boston Munich Warsaw
Shanghai Kuala Lumpur Toronto Buenos Aires New Delhi Washington
Singapore Los Angeles Dublin Prague Zurich
Sydney Madrid Istanbul San Francisco
Tokyo Mexico City Jakarta Seoul

Beta level cities are the 78 cities that link moderate economic regions into the world economy.[4]

Beta+ Beta Beta-
Athens Dallas Manila Auckland Ho Chi Minh City Amman Cleveland Lyon Quito
Bangalore Düsseldorf Montreal Bogota Karachi Antwerp Denver Manama Riga
Budapest Guangzhou Philadelphia Brisbane Manchester Abu Dhabi Detroit Minneapolis Rotterdam
Copenhagen Hamburg Rome Caracas Montevideo Almaty Edinburgh Monterrey San Diego
Beirut Houston Santiago Casablanca Oslo Belgrade Guatemala City Nairobi San Jose
Berlin Kiev Tel Aviv Chennai Rio De Janeiro Birmingham (UK) Hanoi Nicosia Seattle
Bucharest Lima Doha Riyadh Bratislava Hyderabad Perth Shenzhen
Cairo Lisbon Geneva Stuttgart Calcutta Kuwait City Port Louis Sofia
Cape Town Luxembourg Helsinki Vancouver Calgary Lagos Panama City Tunis

Gamma level cities are the 59 cities that link smaller economic regions into the world economy.[4]

Gamma+ Gamma Gamma-
Adelaide Osaka Ankara Muscat Accra Malmö
Baltimore Phoenix Baku Raleigh (North Carolina) Ahmedabad Managua
Bristol San Salvador Belfast San Jose (Ca) Algiers Nantes
Charlotte (North Carolina) Santo Domingo Cincinnati San Juan Ascunsión Orlando
Cologne St Louis Colombo Tallinn Columbus (Ohio) Portland
Durban St Petersburg Glasgow Valencia (Sp.) Dar Es Salaam Porto
Georgetown (Cayman) Tampa Guadalajara Vilnius Gothenburg Pune
Guayaquil Zagreb Leeds Kansas City Seville
Islamabad Ljubljana Krakow Tianjin
Jeddah Marseille La Paz Turin
Lahore Milwaukee Leipzig Utrecht

High Sufficiency level cities are the 41 cities that have a high degree of accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law services so as not to be dependent on world cities.[4]

High Sufficiency
Abidjan Douala Lausanne Porto Alegre Tegucigalpa
Austin Dresden Lille Poznan Tijuana
Belo Horizonte Edmonton Lusaka Qingdao Tirana
Bilbao Gabarone Nanjing Queretaro Wellington
Chengdu The Hague Nassau Richmond (Virginia) Wroclaw
Chongqing Hangzhou Newcastle Salt Lake City
Curitiba Hartford (Connecticut) Nürnberg Skopje
Dakar Indianapolis Ottawa Southampton
Dhaka Kampala Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) Strasbourg

Sufficiency level cities are the 84 cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as not to be obviously dependent on world cities.[4]

Sufficiency
Aberdeen Cebu Halifax Liverpool Nice San Antonio
Abuja Ciudad Juarez Hamilton Luanda Nottingham Santa Cruz
Alexandria Chisinau Hannover Ludwigshafen Penang Sheffield
Arhus Christchurch Harare Macao Phnom Penh Surabaya
Bern Cordoba Izmir Madison (WI) Port of Spain Tashkent
Birmingham (AL ) Dalian Jacksonville Maputo Pretoria Tbilisi
Bologna Dammam Jerusalem Medellin Providence (RI) Toulouse
Bordeaux Des Moines Johor Bahru Memphis (TN) Puebla Tulsa
Brasilia Florence Kaohsiung Minsk Pusan Windhoek
Bremen Fukuoka Kingston Montpellier Recife Winnipeg
Cali Genoa Labuan Nagoya Reykjavik Wuhan
Campinas Graz Las Vegas Naples Rochester (NY) Xiamen
Canberra Greensboro Leon Nashville (TN) Sacramento Xi'An
Cardiff Haifa Linz New Orleans Salvador Yerevan

References[edit]

  1. ^ Taylor, Peter J. (2004). World city network: a global urban analysis. Routledge. p. ix. ISBN 0-415-30249-8. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  2. ^ Donald, Stephanie; Gammack, John G. (2007). Tourism and the branded city. London: Ashgate Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 0-7546-4829-X. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  3. ^ a b "The World According to GaWC". GaWC. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "The World According to GaWC 2012". GaWC. Retrieved 5 February 2016. 

External links[edit]