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Gabriel Maria Roschini, OSM (December 19, 1900 – September 12, 1977), was a Roman Catholic Italian priest and professor of Mariology, who published over 900 titles on the subject. During the pontificate of Pope Pius XII, he worked closely with the Vatican on Marian publications. In light of the encyclopedic accuracy of his work, Roschini is considered one of the top two Mariologists of the 20th century. His first major work, a four volume Mariology, Il Capolavoro di Dio, is judged to be the most comprehensive mariological presentation in the 20th century. Several theologians called him "one of the most profound mariologists" and "irreplaceable".
Life and contributions
Roschini was born in Castel Sant'Elia (Viterbo, Italy) in 1900. Upon entering Servites, he changed his name to Gabriel Maria (or Gabriele Maria) from his given name of Alessandro. In 1924, he received his ordination as a priest. Additionally, Roschini was a doctor in philosophy and a master in sacred theology. He founded the journal Marianum in 1939 and directed it for thirty years. In 1950 during the reign of Pope Pius XII he founded the Marianum Theological Faculty, which is now a pontifical institute, and served as its rector. He was also instrumental in reviving the Marian Library, which was transferred to the International College of Saint Alexis Falconieri in 1946. Other roles included professor at the Lateran Pontifical University and the Marianum Pontifical Theology Faculty, as well as advisor for the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and the Sacred Congregation for the Causes of the Saints.
Impact on Mariology
During the pontificate of Pius XII, “the most Marian Pope in Church history”. Roschini worked closely with the Pontiff, arranging his own publications parallel to Papal mariological promulgations. During and after Vatican II, Roschini tried to adjust to the colder mariological spirit in his 1973 publication Il mistero di Maria considerato alla luce del mistero di Cristo e della Chiesa, an updated four volume handbook of mariology. This largely explains the animosity of Dominican theologian Yves-Marie Congar, strongly opposed to such perceived mariological excesses; indeed, in his journal, Congar once called the eminent Mariologist "Trouduc Roschini" ("Asshole Roschini").
Altogether he published over 900 titles, mostly on Mariology, in addition to his encyclopedic works, reviewing the mariological contributions of saints like Bernard of Clairvaux and Anthony of Padua. In 1950 he explained the mariology of Saint Thomas Aquinas. He detailed his mariology in a major work in the year 1952.
Earlier, Roschini had contributed with a new interpretation to the Mariological theology of the Co-redemptrix, which was not universally accepted. In his 1946 publication Compendium Mariologiae he explained that Mary not only participated physically in the life of Jesus by giving birth to him but also, when she conceived her divine Son, she entered into a spiritual union with him. The divine salvation plan, being not only material, includes permanent spiritual unity with Christ. Most mariologists agree with this position. Roschini entered new theological territory, when he defined the spiritual unity of Mary and Christ to form a "salvation pair", in which Mary is a true helper of her son. However, in this salvation duo, Mary is clearly subordinated to her son, according to Roschini, who, not wanting of course to elevate Mary to the level of divinity, insisted that Mary needed salvation through Christ like all other people. But, because she is the mother of God, the only mother of God among all women, Mary is someone unique. Sharing with all other people their human nature, she is different. She belongs to Christ, with whom she is spiritually united. 
- Il Capolavoro di Dio, Mariology in IV volumes, Roma 1933
- Compendium Mariologiae, Roma, 1946
- La Mariologia di Sant'Antonio da Padova, in Marianum, Roma, 1946
- La Madonna secondo la fede e la Teologia, Roma, 1950
- La Mariologia di San Tommaso, Roma, 1950
- Mariologia, Roma, 1952
- La Madonna secondo la fede e la teologia IV volumes, Roma 1953 1954
- Il dottore Mariano, Studio sulla dottrina di San Bernardo di Chiaravalle, Roma 1953
- The Virgin Mary in the Writings of Maria Valtorta, Kolbe's Publications ISBN 2-920285-08-4
- Dizionario di Mariologia, Roma, 1957
- Il misteri di Maria considerato alla luce del mistero di Cristo e della Chiesa, Roma 1973
- " Summa MAriologiae en 4 vol. 1948 (latín)
- Catecismo mariano 1944, Compendium Mariologiae 1946, Vida de la Virgen María 1948, la mariología di san tommaso (1950), La mariología di san Lorenzo da Brindisi 1951, Il dottore mariano (San Bernardo) 1953, la Madonna del Santisimo Sacramento 1953, Instrucciones marianas (1953), su excelente diccionario de Mariología 1957, Maria Santissima nella storia della salvezza (1969)
- Bäumer 547
- Remigius Bäumer , R Laurentin in Bäumer, Marienlexikon,St.Ottilien, 1994 547
- Publisher’s Notice in the Second Italian Edition (1986), reprinted in English Edition, Gabriel Roschini, O.S.M. (1989). The Virgin Mary in the Writings of Maria Valtorta (English Edition). Kolbe's Publication Inc. ISBN 2-920285-08-4
- Bäumer, Marienlexikon, 247,
- Y. Congar, Journal d'un théologien (1946-1956), Paris, Cerf, 2000, p. 293.
- Schmaus, Mariologie, München, 1955, 328.
- Schmaus, 329.
- Pietro Parrotta, The Role of the Virgin Mary in Redemption in the Writings of Gabriele Maria Roschini , Varese, Italy: Eupress-FTL, 2002, ISBN 88-88446-01-X
- Remigius Bäumer, Gabriel Roschini, in Marienlexikon, St. Ottilien, 1994
- Publisher's Notice in the Second Italian Edition (1986), reprinted in English Edition, Gabriel Roschini, O.S.M. (1989). The Virgin Mary in the Writings of Maria Valtorta (English Edition). Kolbe's Publication Inc. ISBN 2-920285-08-4