|Exterior and cross-sectional interior of gac|
The Vietnamese word gấc (pronounced [ɣək˦˥]) should more completely be called quả gấc (quả being a classifier for a fruit). It is known as red melon, baby jackfruit, spiny bitter gourd, sweet gourd, or cochinchin gourd in English.
The fruit itself becomes a dark orange color upon ripening, and is typically round or oblong, maturing to a size of about 13 cm (5.1 in) in length and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Its exocarp, or exterior skin, is covered in small spines. Its mesocarp is dense, light-orange in color, and has a mild taste with flavor similar to that of cucumber. The edible seeds are brown or black in color, surrounded by dark red membraneous sacs, and have a mild, nutty flavor.
Because it has a relatively short harvest season (which peaks in December and January), making it less abundant than other foods, gấc is typically served at ceremonial or festive occasions in Vietnam, such as Tết (the Vietnamese new year) and weddings. It is most commonly prepared as a dish called xôi gấc, in which the aril and seeds of the fruit are cooked in glutinous rice, imparting both their color and flavor. In the early 21st century, marketing of the fruit as juice, fruit powder, and dietary supplements featuring its rich carotenoid content grew inside and outside Asia, necessitating optimal cultivation practices to maintain the desired phytochemical properties.
Propagation and cultivation
Gấc grows on dioecious vines, meaning male and female flowers grow on separate plants. The vine is usually collected from fence climbers or from wild plants, and can be commonly seen growing on lattices at the entrances to rural homes or in gardens. The vine can grow up to 20 m (66 ft) in length and the bark is a pale color. It only fruits once a year, and is found seasonally in local markets.
Rooted vine cuttings are more reliable than production from seeds. Germination by seed can be difficult due to many environmental factors such as dormancy, climate, or plant age. A successful alternative method is grafting female scion material onto the main shoot of an unwanted male plant, therefore making it productive.
About two to three months after planting a gấc vine, flowering typically occurs, with pollination carried out by insects or hand pollination which produces a higher fruit yield. One plant can produce 30 to 60 fruits in one season although environmental factors can affect that. Characteristics of high‐quality ripe fruit on the tree include completely orange or red skin color with yellow pulp, red arils, and soft feel when picking.
Historically, gấc has been used as both food and traditional medicine. Its fruit and leaves are used in Vietnamese culinary dishes. In traditional Chinese medicine, the seeds of gấc, known in Mandarin Chinese as mù biē zǐ (Chinese: 木鱉子, meaning 'wooden turtle seed'), are employed for a variety of internal and external purposes.
Nutrients and phytochemicals
Typical of orange-colored plant foods, gấc fruit and seed oil contain high contents of carotenoids, particularly provitamin A beta-carotene and lycopene. Fatty acids in the seed oil may facilitate absorption of fat-soluble nutrients, including provitamin A beta-carotene.
Marketed on its high content of beta-carotene and lycopene, gấc extracts may be sold as a dietary supplement in soft capsules or included in a juice blend. Vietnamese children fed a rice dish containing gấc had higher blood levels of beta-carotene than those not fed gac.
- Tran, X. T.; Parks, S. E.; Roach, P. D.; Golding, J. B.; Nguyen, M. H. (2015). "Effects of maturity on physicochemical properties of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.)". Food Science and Nutrition. 4 (2): 305–314. doi:10.1002/fsn3.291. PMC 4779482. PMID 27004120.
- "Momordica cochinchinensis". Flora Malesiana. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Gac Research University of Newcastle, Australia". Weebly. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "Momordica cochinchinensis". Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- Chuyen, Hoang; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul; Golding, John; Parks, Sophie (Spring 2015). "Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Soreng,): a rich source of bioactive compounds and its potential health benefits". Food Science and Technology. 50: 567–577. doi:10.1111/ijfs.12721.
- Ishida BK, Turner C, Chapman MH, McKeon TA (2004). "Fatty Acid and Carotenoid Composition of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) Fruit". J. Agric. Food Chem. 52 (2): 274–9. doi:10.1021/jf030616i. PMID 14733508.
- Mai, H. C.; Truong, V; Debaste, F (2014). "Carotenoids concentration of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit oil using cross-flow filtration technology". Journal of Food Science. 79 (11): E2222–31. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.12661. PMID 25367308.
- Phan-Thi, H.; Waché. Y. (2014). "Isomerization and increase in the antioxidant properties of lycopene from Momordica cochinchinensis (gac) by moderate heat treatment with UV–Vis spectra as a marker". Food Chemistry. 156 (1): 58–63. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.040.
- Maoka, T; Yamano, Y; Wada, A; Etho, T; Terada, Y; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H (2015). "Oxidative metabolites of lycopene and γ-carotene in gac (Momordica cochinchinensis)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 63 (5): 1622–30. doi:10.1021/jf505008d. PMID 25633727.
- Burke DS, Smidt CR, Vuong LT (2005). "Momordica cochinchinensis, Rosa roxburghii, Wolfberry, and Sea Buckthorn - Highly Nutritional Fruits Supported by Tradition and Science" (PDF). Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research. 3 (4): 259–66.
- Lawrence Goodman (August 2015). "The Next Big Fruit Juice?". Brown Alumni Magazine. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- Vuong LT, Dueker SR, Murphy SP (2002). "Plasma β-Carotene and Retinol Concentrations of Children Increase After a 30-d Supplementation with the Fruit Momordica cochinchinensis (Gac)". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 75 (5): 872–9. PMID 11976161. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Media related to Momordica cochinchinensis at Wikimedia Commons