Gad Horowitz

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Gad Horowitz
Born 1936 (age 79–80)
Nationality Canadian
Occupation Political scientist
Known for Red Tory theory

Gad Horowitz (born 1936 in Jerusalem) is a Canadian political scientist. He is a professor emeritus at the University of Toronto.


Horowitz was born in Jerusalem and immigrated to Canada with his parents at the age of 2. He grew up in Calgary, Winnipeg, and Montreal.[1]

Horowitz earned his BA from the University of Manitoba. He earned his MA from McGill University in 1959, writing his thesis on "Mosca and Mills: Ruling Class and Power Elite".[1][2] He earned his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1965, writing his thesis on "Canadian Labor in Politics: The trade unions and the CCF-NDP, 1937-62",[3] with Sam Beer as his advisor.[1]

Horowitz has specialised in labour theory, and most notably coined the appellation "Red Tory" in his application of Louis Hartz's "fragment theory" to Canadian political culture and ideological development, in his essay "Conservatism, Liberalism and Socialism in Canada: An Interpretation" (in the Canadian Journal of Political Science, 32, 2 (1966): 143–71).[4][5][6] The use of this appellation differentiates traditional Canadian Toryism from the powerful classical liberal elements that began to emerge in the Conservative Party after World War II, but it has applications to conservative parties in other countries where "Tory" acceptance of state enterprises, the welfare state, and other institutions seen as expressions of national character conflicts with "liberal" or "neoliberal" rejection of state intervention in the economy.

Horowitz was a member of the editorial board of Canadian Dimension in its early days, and a frequent contributor to that magazine.[7]

Horowitz teaches a class at the University of Toronto entitled "The Spirit of Democratic Citizenship" which revolves around general semantics, a non-Aristotelian educational discipline first theorized by Polish engineer Alfred Korzybski.

Selected bibliography[edit]



  1. ^ a b c Campbell, Colin (29 October 2003). "On Intellectual Life, Politics and Psychoanalysis: A conversation with Gad Horowitz". Ctheory. Retrieved 6 September 2011. 
  2. ^ Mosca and Mills: Ruling class and power elite. McGill University. 1959. 
  3. ^ Canadian labor in politics: The trade unions and the CCF-NDP, 1937-62. Harvard University. 1965. 
  4. ^ Forbes, Hugh Donald (2007). George Grant: A guide to his thought. University of Toronto Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-8020-4318-4. 
  5. ^ Canadian Political Science Association (1981). "Unknown". Canadian Journal of Political Science. University of Toronto Press. 14: 150. 
  6. ^ Leuprecht, Christian (2003). "The Tory Fragment in Canada: Endangered Species?". Canadian Journal of Political Science. 36 (2): 401–416. doi:10.1017/s000842390377869x. 
  7. ^ "Gad Horowitz: Canadian Intellectual". Canadian Dimension. 12 June 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2011. 

External links[edit]