The Tomb of Sheikh Samaroon
|Regions with significant populations|
|Somali and Arabic|
|Islam (Sunni, Sufism)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Issa, Surre, Biimaal, Gurgura, Bursuuk, other Dir clans, Isaaq, Hawiye and other Somali clans. Saho people(Gadafur)|
They are geographically spread out across (3) countries; Somaliland, Ethiopia and Djibouti. In Somaliland, the Gadabuursi are the pre-dominant clan in the Awdal region and they also inhabit parts of Waqooyi Galbeed. In Djibouti: Where they are one of the main clan groups and the clan who founded the name "Cote francaise des Somalis". Among all the Gadabuursi inhabited regions of the Horn of Africa, Ethiopia is the region where majority of the clan reside. In Ethiopia, the Gadabuursi mainly live in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, but also live in Ethiopia's Afar region and Oromia region.
The etymology of the name Gadabursi, as described by writer Ferrand in Ethnographic Survey of Africa refers to Gada meaning people and Bur meaning mountain, hence Gadabursi is believed to mean people of the mountains.
As a Dir sub-clan, the Gadabuursi have immediate lineal ties with the Issa, the Surre (Abdalle and Qubeys), the Biimaal (who the Gaadsen also belong too), the Bajimal, the Bursuk, the Madigan, the Gurgura, the Garre (the Quranyow sub-clan to be precise as they claim descent from Dir), Gurre, Gariire, other Dir sub-clans and they have lineal ties with the Hawiye (Irir), Hawadle, Ajuraan, Degoodi, Gaalje'el clan groups, who share the same ancestor Samaale.
The vast majority of Gadabuursi clan members claim descent from Sheikh Samaroon. It should be noted that all members of the Samaroon sub-clan are a part of the larger Gadabuursi clan family, rather not all members of the Gadabuursi clan family are members of the Samaroon sub-clan.
The Gadabuursi in particular, is the only clan with a longstanding tradition of sultan. The Gadabursi use the title Ugaas which means sultan and/or king. Ughaz or Ugas.
The Gadabuursi are mainly pastoral nomads, but a section have started agro-pastoralism.
Based on research done by the Eritrean author 'Abdulkader Saleh Mohammad' in his book 'The Saho of Eritrea, the Gadafur Saho is said to have Somali origins from the Gadabursi.
The Gadabuursi are concentrated in northwestern Somaliland and are the pre-dominant clan of the Awdal region. They also partially inhabit the neighboring region of Woqooyi Galbeed. However most of the Gadabuursi inhabit the Somali Region of Ethiopia (also known as Region 5). They are also found in Djibouti, where they form one of the major clan groups and live in the Oromia region reaching the town of Metehara along with the Afar region.
The Gadabuursi are the second largest clan by population within the Somaliland territory. Also the Gadabuursi is the second largest sub-clan within the borders of the Somali region of Ethiopia based on the Ethiopian population census. Today, the clan holds vice-presidency in both these regions.
In the Somali Region of Ethiopia they exclusively inhabit both the Awbere district in the Faafan Zone and the Dembel district in the Sitti Zone, the Gursum woreda where they are the majority and the Jigjiga woreda where they make up a large part of the Faafan Zone. The Gadabuursi, along with the Issa represent the most native and indigenous Somali tribes in Harar. The Gadabuursi also partially inhabit Ayesha, Shinile, Erer and Afdemworeda's.
They also reside along the northeastern fringe of the chartered city-state of Dire Dawa, which borders the Dembel district, but also in the city itself. The 2014 Summary and Statistical report of the Population and Housing Census of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia has shown that Awbere is the most populated district in the Somaliregion of Ethiopia.
The Gadabuursi of Ethiopia have also expressed a desire to combine the clan's traditional territories to form a new region-state called Harawo State.
"I.M Lewis gives an invaluable reference to an Arabic Manuscript on the history of to the Gadabursi Somal. “This Chronicle opens”, Lewis tells us, ‘with an account of the wars of Imam ‘Ali Si’id (1392), from whom the Gadabursi today trace their descent, and who is described as the only Muslim leader fighting on the western flank in the armies of Se’ad ad-Din, ruler of Zeila.’ Se’ad ad-Din was the joint founder of the Kingdom of Adal along with his brother Haqedin II" So not only did the Gadabuursi clan contribute to the Adal Wars, Conquest of Abyssinia, but their predecessors were also fighting wars way before the establishment of the Adal Sultanate.
The Gadabursi Kingdom was established more than 600 years ago, and consisted of a King (Ugaas) and many elders.
Hundreds of elders used to work in four sections consisting of 25 elders each:
- Social committee
- Defense - policing authorities consisting of horsemen (referred to as fardoolay), foot soldiers and spear-men, but also askaris or soldiers equipped with poison arrows.
- Economy and collection of taxes
- Justice committee
The chairmen of the four sections were called Afarta Dhadhaar, and were selected according to talent and personnel abilities.
A constitution, Xeer Gadabursi, had been developed, which divided every case as to whether it was new or had precedents (ugub or curad).
The Gadabursi King and the elders opposed the arrival of the British at the turn of the twentieth century, but they ended up signing an agreement with them. Later, as a disagreement between the two parties both arose and intensified, the British installed some people against the Ugaas in hopes of overthrowing him. This would eventually bring about the collapse of the kingdom.
'The law of the King and the 100 men 'heerka boqorka iyo boqolka nin'
"When a new Ugaas or Ughaz was appointed amongst the Gadabuursi, a hundred elders, representatives of all the lineages of the clan, assembled to form a parliament to promulgate new heer agreements, and to decide what legislation they wished to retain from the reign of the previous Ugaas or King. The compensation rates for delicts committed within the clan were revised if necessary, and a corpus of Gadabuursi law, as it were, placed on the statutes for the duration of the new Ugaas's rule.
This was called 'the law of the King and the 100 men' (heerka boqorka iyo boqolka nin).
Traditional Gadabuursi Installation Ceremony
The pastoral Somali have few large ceremonies and little ritual. for its interest, therefore I reproduce here a summary of a very full account of traditional Gadabuursi installation ceremony given me by Sheikh 'Abdurahman Sheikh Nur, the present governor kadi of Borama, God bless his soul.
Clansmen gather for the ceremony in well wooded and watered place. There is singing and dancing, then stock are slaughtered for feasting and sacrifice. The stars are carefully watched to determine a propitious time and then future Ughaz is chosen by divination. Candidates must be sons or brothers of the former Ughaz and the issue of woman who has been only married once. She should not be a women who has been divorced or a widow. Early on a monday morning a man of the Rer Nur (the laandeer of the Gadabuursi) plucks a flower or leaf and throws it upon the Ughaz. Everyone else then follows his example. The man who starts the 'aleemasaar acclamation must be a man rich in livestock, with four wives and many sons. Men of the Mahad Muuse lineage then brings four vessels of milk. One contains camels' milk, one cows' milk, one sheeps' milk and the last goats' milk. These are offered to the Ughaz who selects one and drinks a little from it. If he drinks the camels' milk, camels will be blessed and prosper, if he drinks the goats' milk, goats will prosper, and so on. After this, a large four-year-old ram is slaughtered in front of him. His hair is cut by a man of the Gadabuursi and he casts off his old clothes and dons new clothes as Ughaz. A man of Rer Yunis puts a white turban round his head and his old clothes are carried off by men of the Jibra'iin. The Ughaz then mounts his best horse and rides to a well called bugay, near garis, towards the coast. The well contains deliciously fresh water. Above the well are white pebbles and on these he sits. He is washed by a brother or other close kinsman as he sits on top of the stones. Then he returns to the assembled people and is again acclaimed and crowned with leaves. dancing and feasting recommence. The Ughaz makes a speech in which he blesses his people and asks god to grant peace, abundant milk and rain- all symbols of peace and prosperity (nabad iyo 'aano). If rain falls after this, people will know that his reign will be prosperous. That the ceremony is customarily performed during the karan rainy season makes this all more likely. The Ughaz is given a new house with entirely new effects and furnishings and a bride is sought for him. She must be of good family, and the child of a woman who has had only one husband. Her bride-wealth is paid by all the Gadabuursi collectively, as they thus ensure for themselves successors to the title. Rifles or other fire-arms are not included in the bride-wealth. Everything connected with accession must be peaceful and propitious
The largest portion of the Gadabursi reside in the borders of Ethiopia. It is said that at Waraf, a location near Hardo Galle a great battle took place between the Gadabuursi and infidels (Galla) in the 14th century according to traditional Gadabursi history
According to a Max Planck research paper, one branch of the Ughaz family (rer Ughaz) on the borders of Ethiopia rose to the rank of dejazmach (ደጃዝማች ), (‘Commander of the Gate’). A military title meaning commander of the central body of a traditional Ethiopian armed force composed of a vanguard, main body, left and right wings and a rear body.
List of Sultans of the Gadabuursi Sultanate
The Gadabuursi gave their sultan the title of "Ughaz". It's an authentic Somali term for "Sultan", "King" or "Chief". The Gadabursi in particular is the only clan with a longstanding tradition of having a Sultan.
The first Ughaz of the Gadabuursi Sultanate was Ughaz Ali Makahildere Muse.
Ughaz Ali Makahildere Muse based on an Arabic manuscript on the Gadabuursi or Samaroon clan of Somalis, is said to be born in 1575 in Dobo, an area north of the present town of Borama in north-western Somalia He is recorded as having inflicted a heavy defeat on Galla forces at Nabadid
|1||Ughaz Ali Makahildere Muse||1607||1639||1575|
|2||Ughaz Abdi I Ughaz Ali Makahildere||1639||1664|
|3||Ughaz Husein Ughaz Abdi Ughaz Ali||1664||1665|
|4||Ughaz Abdillah Ughaz Abdi Ughaz Ali||1665||1698|
|5||Ughaz Nur I Ughaz Abdi Ughaz Ali||1698||1733|
|6||Ughaz Hirab Ughaz Nur Ughaz Abdi||1733||1750|
|7||Ughaz Shirdon Ughaz Nur Ughaz Abdi||1750||1772|
|8||Ughaz Samatar Ughaz Shirdon Ughaz Nur||1772||1812|
|9||Ughaz Guleid Ughaz Samatar Ughaz Shirdon||1812||1817|
|10||Ughaz Roble I Ughaz Samatar Ughaz Shirdon||1817||1835|
|11||Ughaz Nur II Ughaz Roble Ughaz Samatar||1835||1888|
|12||Ughaz Roble II Ughaz Nur Ughaz Roble||1888||1898|
|13||Ughaz Olmi-Warfa "Olmi-Dheire" Ughaz Roble Ughaz Samatar||1898||1938||1835|
|14||Ughaz Abdi II Ughaz Roble Ughaz Nur||1938||1948|
|15||Ughaz Dodi Ughaz Abdi Ughaz Roble||1948||1952|
|16||Ughaz Roble III Ughaz Dodi Ughaz Abdi||1952||1960|
|17||Ughaz Jama Muhumed Ughaz Olmi-Warfa||1960||1985|
|18||Ughaz Abdilrashid Ughaz Roble Ughaz Dodi||1985||-|
Currently Abdrashid is the Ughaz of the Gadabuursi.
For more about Ughaz Nur II visit the following:
For more about Ughaz 'Elmi Warfaa visit the following:
The Gadabursi clan according to the Peoples of the Horn of Africa, Nuova Antologia(1890) and many more sources are divided into 2 divisions:
- Habar Makidor(Makidor)
- Abdalleh (Bahabr Abdalleh)
- Hassan (Bahabr Hassan)
- Afgudud(Gibril Muse)
- Habr Sanayo
- Rer Yūnus
- 'Ali Yūnus
- Gibril Yūnus
- Rer Ahamad
- Rer Mahamoud
- Rer Dudub
- Kaba Harag
- Osman Gula
- Rer Hamud
- Rer Shirdon
- Rer Farah
- Adan Yūnus
- Nur Yūnus (Rer Nur)
- Rer Mohamoud Nur
- Rer Farah Nur
- Mahad 'Ase
- Bahabr Abokr
- Bahabr Muse
- Habr Musa
- Bahabr Aden
- Hababr 'Eli
- Rer Mohamed
- Habar 'Affan
- Ali Ganun
- Habar Yusif
- Rer issa
- Rer Zuber
- Makahil (Makayl)
- Hassan Sá'ad
- Rer Hamud
- Habar Makidor(Makidor)
There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.
In the south central part of Somalia the World Bank shows the following clan tree:
- Aden Isaq Ahmed, Minister and Politician of the Somali Republic
- Ahmed Gurey
- Col. Muse Rabile Ghod, a Somali military leader and statesman of the Somali Democratic Republic.
- Djama Rabile Ghod, a Somali statesman of the former Somali Republic and Somali Democratic Republic.
- Yuusuf Talan, General of the Somali National Army.
- Djama Ali Moussa. First Senator of Djibouti or French Somaliland
- Ato Hussein Ismail. Ethiopian longserving Statesman and first Somali to become a member of the Ethiopian Parliament
- Mohamed Sheikh Hassan, part of the prominent Ambassadorial Brothers, and former ambassador for Somalia.
- Ismail Sheikh Hassan, part of the prominent Ambassadorial Brothers, and former Ethiopian ambassador
- Aden Sheikh Hassan, part of the prominent Ambassadorial Brothers, and former Djiboutian ambassador and current adviser to the President of Djibouti
- Abdirahman Aw Ali Farah, first Somaliland Vice President, 1993–1997.
- Mawlid Hayir, current Vice-president and minister of education and former governor of Jigjiga zone of the Somali region of Ethiopia.
- Haji Ibrahim Nur, minister, merchant and politician of former British Somaliland Protectorate
- Hibo Nuura, Somali singer
- Abdi Hassan Buni, politician, minister of British Somaliland and first deputy prime minister of the Somali Republic.
- Abdi Ismail Samatar, Somali scholar, writer and professor.
- Ahmed Ismail Samatar, Somali writer, professor and former dean of the Institute for Global Citizenship at Macalester College. Editor of Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
- Abdirahman Duale Beyle, former Foreign Affairs Minister of Somalia an economist
- Abdisalam Omer, Foreign Affairs Minister of Somalia; former Governor of the Central Bank of Somalia
- Sheikh 'Abdurahman Sh. Nur, religious leader, qādi and the inventor of the Borama script.
- Dahir Rayale Kahin, third President of Somaliland
- Ahmed Gerri of the Habar Maqdi(Makadi)/Makadur of the Conquest of Abyssinia 
- Sultan Mahomed Haji Dideh, sultan of Zeila,prosperous merchant and built first mosque in Djibouti. He also proposed the name "Cote francaise des Somalis" to the French
- Yussur A.F. Abrar, former governor of the Central Bank of Somalia.
- Ughaz Nur II, 11th Malak(King) of the Gadabursi.
- Ughaz 'Elmi Warfa, 13th Malak(King) of the Gadabursi.
- Ato Shemsedin Ahmed Roble, Somali Ethiopian Politician, previous Ethiopian ambassador to Djibouti, Kenya, Deputy Minister of Mining and Energy and first Vice Chairman and one of the founders of ESDL
- Ayanle Souleiman, Djiboutian athlete
- Hassan Mead, American distance runner
- Abdirahman Sayli'i, current Vice-president of Somaliland
- Abdi Sinimo, a Somali singer and songwriter,noted for having established the balwo genre of Somali music.
- KHADIIJA CIYE DHARAAR, a Somali singer and first Female Vocalist in Somalia,and nicknamed Khadijo balwo and sang her own songs, including early Somali song notably on the song Balwo
- Hassan Sheikh Mumin, author of Shabeel Naagood or (Leopard among the Women)
- Khadija Qalanjo, a popular Somali singer
- Suleiman Ahmed Guleid - President of Amoud University
- Omar Osman Rabeh, Somali scholar, writer, professor, politician and pan-Somalist.
- Barkhad Awale Adan, Somali journalist and director of Radio Hurma
- Mohamed Omar Dubad, Somali politician, serverd as member of Somalia parliament and Charge D'Affaires in the United Nations
- Mohamed Aden Waberi, Somali politician, serverd as member of Somalia parliament
- Lewis, I. M. (1999-01-01). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. pp. P. 109. Gadabuursi in the region of Gebile/Gabilay (Woqooyi Galbeed). ISBN 9780852552803.
- Dostal, Walter; Kraus, Wolfgang (2005-04-22). Shattering Tradition: Custom, Law and the Individual in the Muslim Mediterranean. I.B.Tauris. p. 296. ISBN 9780857716774.
- Rayne, Henry a (2015-08-08). Sun, Sand and Somals; Leaves from the Note-Book of a District Commissioner in British Somaliland. BiblioLife. ISBN 9781297569760.
- Farah, Rachad (2013-09-01). Un embajadoren el centro de los acontecimientos (in Spanish). Editions L'Harmattan. p. 17. ISBN 9782336321356.
- As indicated in Morin (2005:640) the name of “Cote francaise des Somalis” itself is said to have been proposed by hağğiDiideh (Mahad-Ase clan of Gedebursi. He was Prosperous merchant of Zayla who built the first Mosque in Djibouti Ğamiar-Rahma in 1891) to the French administration in imitation of British Somaliland. page 92
- Negatu, Workneh; Research, Addis Ababa University Institute of Development; Center, University of Wisconsin--Madison Land Tenure; Foundation, Ford (2004-01-01). Proceedings of the Workshop on Some Aspects of Rural Land Tenure in Ethiopia: Access, Use, and Transfer. IDR/AAU. p. 43.
Page:43 : Somali Settlers Gadabursi in Karrayu territory(Oromia region)
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Its nickname is Gadabursi, i.e. mountain people.
- Lewis, I. M. (1998-01-01). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. Red Sea Press. p. 25. ISBN 9781569021057.
- Lewis, I. M. (1998-01-01). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. Red Sea Press. ISBN 9781569021057.
At the end of the book "Tribal Distribution of Somali Afar and Saho"
- Verdier, Isabelle (1997-05-31). Ethiopia: the top 100 people. Indigo Publications. p. 13. ISBN 9782905760128.
- Hayward, R. J.; Lewis, I. M. (2005-08-17). Voice and Power. Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 9781135751753.
- The Quranyo section of the Garre claim descent from Dirr, who are born of the Irrir Samal. UNDP Paper in Keyna http://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/Amani%20Papers/AP_Volume1_n2_May2010.pdf
- Adam, Hussein Mohamed; Ford, Richard (1997-01-01). Mending rips in the sky: options for Somali communities in the 21st century. Red Sea Press. p. 127. ISBN 9781569020739.
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- Countries That Aren't Really Countries. PediaPress. p. 22.
The second largest clan of the region, and that of the current president, is the Gadabuursi.
- Vries, F. W. T. Penning de (2005-01-01). Bright spots demonstrate community successes in African agriculture. IWMI. p. 67. ISBN 9789290906186.
Gadabursi, the second largest clan in Somaliland, was peacefully elected as president.
- Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency Population of Ethiopia for All Regions At Wereda Level from 2014 p. 21 Somali region Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Vice President Saylici (whose Gadabursi)"
- "Shinile Agropastoral Livelihood Zone" (PDF). Save the Children. 2001. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- "IL-DUUFKA WEYN EE LALA BEEGSADAY DAD-WEYNAHA GOBOLKA HARAWO". Harawo.org (in Somali). Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- "United Nations Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia, Field Trip to Jijiga (22-29 April, 1994)" (PDF). p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
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- A report for the BRIDGES Project The Role of Education in Livelihoods in the Somali Region of Ethiopia Elanor Jackson. June 2011 http://fic.tufts.edu/assets/Education-Somali-Ethiopia.pdf “In the Afdem in 1989–91 there was also a clan clash between the Issa and Gedabiersay(Gadabursi)" p. 92
- An HEA Baseline Study By SC‐UK, DPPB and Partners February 2002 Sponsored by USAID/OFDA and ECHO, with additional financial support from SC‐Canada and WFP http://www.dppc.gov.et/livelihoods/somali/Downloadable/Livelihood%20Baselines/LZ%202%20Shinile%20Pastoral.pdf[permanent dead link] "Shinile Pastoral Livelihood Zone (Shoats, Cattle, Camel) The inhabitants of Shinile Zone are Somali peoples, most of who are from the Issa clan. Other Somali groups, Gurgura, and Gadabursi also occupy the Zone."p. 9
- Lewis, I. M. (1998-01-01). Saints and Somalis: Popular Islam in a Clan-based Society. The Red Sea Press. p. 100. ISBN 9781569021033.
- H arawo State Petition, March 2011
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- Britain), Royal Geographical Society (Great (1891-01-01). Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography. Edward Stanford.
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- LEWIS, I. M. (1961-01-01). "NOTES ON THE SOCIAL ORGANISATION OF THE ʿĪSE SOMALI". Rassegna di Studi Etiopici. 17: 80.
- "Gadabuursi Somali subgroup, largely resident in Ethiopia (Samarron) p. 5" http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/EAE/vol2.pdf
- Feyissa and Hoehne, Dereje, Markus (2007). "Resourcing State Borders and Borderlands in the Horn of Africa" (PDF). Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology.
- Lewis, I. M. (1961-01-01). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 204. ISBN 9783825830847.
- LEWIS, I. M. (1959-01-01). "THE GALLA IN NORTHERN SOMALILAND". Rassegna di Studi Etiopici. 15: p. 31. JSTOR 41299539.
- Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (2003-02-25). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810866041.
- A list of the Gadabuursi Sultans
- Protonotari, Francesco (1890-01-01). Nuova antologia (in Italian). Direzione della Nuova Antologia. p. 343.
- CLANSHIP, CONFLICT AND REFUGEES: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOMALIS IN THE HORN OF AFRICA, Guido Ambroso
- Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p. 55 Figure A-1
- Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., p. 43
- Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p. 56 Figure A-2
- Abdirahman Aw Ali (Gadabursi) selected to serve as Vice President January–May 1993. p. 9 DEVELOPMENTAL LEADERSHIP PROGRAM Policy and Practice for Developmental Leaders, Elites and Coalitions Political Settlements and State Formation: The Case of Somaliland Sarah Phillips, University of Sydney December 2013 http://publications.dlprog.org/Political%20Settlements%20and%20State%20Formation%20-%20the%20Case%20of%20Somaliland.pdf
- http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00KQB9.pdf, Page 27 "7 Mawlid Hayir Hassan" "Regional Vice president"
- https://www.africaintelligence.com/ION/politics--power/2016/11/11/rise-of-spdp-in-addis-gives-green-light-for-internal-purge,108189345-ART ""including the Vice President of SNRS, Mawlid Hayir"
- https://www.africaintelligence.com/ION/politics--power/2016/07/29/pm-desalegn-picks-his-candidate-to-head-igad,108177322-BRE "Abdirahman Duale Beyle, a former Somali Foreign Minister" "an economist who hails from the Gadabursi community"
- "Nominated Ministers and Their Clans". Goobjoog. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Lewis, I. M. (1958-01-01). "The Gadabuursi Somali Script". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 21 (1/3): 134–156. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00063278. JSTOR 610496.
- ʻArabfaqīh, Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn ʻAbd al-Qādir (2003-01-01). The conquest of Abyssinia: 16th century. The Habar Makadur, underneath the page as a note [I.M. Lewis] by Richard Pankhurst. Tsehai Publishers & Distributors. p. 27.
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There are two main fractions, the Habr Afan and Habr Makadur, formerly united under a common hereditary chief (ogaz).
- As indicated in Morin (2005:640) the name of “Cote francaise des Somalis” itself is said to have been proposed by hağği Diideh (Mahad-Ase clan of Gedebursi. He was Prosperous merchant of Zayla who built the first Mosque in Djibouti Ğami ar-Rahma in 1891) to the French administration in imitation of British Somaliland, p. 92
- Yussur Abrar (Dir/Gadabursi), who hails from Borama in Somaliland
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- p. 210
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- Abdullahi, p.172
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