Gadabuursi

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"Makahil" redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Makahil, Iran.
Main article: Somali clan
Gadabuursi
غادابوورسي سمرون
The Tomb of Sheikh Samaroon.jpg
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Somali and Arabic
Religion
Islam (Sunni)
Related ethnic groups
Issa, Surre, Isaaq, Biimaal , Hawiye, Darood and other Somali clans.

The Gadabuursi or Gadabursi (Somali: Gadabuursi, Reer Sheikh Samaroon and Reer Sheikh Maxamuud, Arabic: غادابورسي, سمرون‎‎), also known as Samaroon or Samaroon Said, is a large and one of main principal northern Somali clans.

Members of this clan inhabit Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Somalia: in the Awdal region, which they dominate and Waqooyi Galbeed, which they make a large part of. Djibouti: Where they are one of the main clan groups and the clan who founded the name "Cote francaise des Somalis".[1][2][3] Ethiopia: Where the greatest part of the clan resides: for the most part in the Somali region, but also in the Afar and Oromia region.[4][5]

The etymology around the name Gadabursi is described by the writer "Ferrand" in "Ethnographic Survey of Africa " as Gada (people) and Bur(mountain), thus Gadabursi being "The people of the mountains".[6][7]

Overview[edit]

Most Gadabuursi members are descendants of Sheikh Samaroon.

However, Samaroon does not necessarily mean Gadabuursi, but rather represents only a sub-clan of the Gadabuursi clan family.

The Gadabursi is the only clan with a longstanding tradition of Sultan. The Gadabursi gave their sultan the title of "Ugaas".[8]

The former president of the northwestern Somaliland region of Somalia, Dahir Rayale Kahin, also hails from the Gadabuursi clan.

As Dir sub-clan, the Gadabuursi have immediate lineal ties with the Issa , the Surre (Abdalle and Qubeys) , the Biimaal(who the Gaadsen also belong too), the Bursuk, the Gurgura, Garre(The Quranyow sub-clan to be precise as they claim descent from Dir) and they have lineal ties with the Hawiye clan groups, who claim descent from Irir Samaale.[9]

The Gadabuursi are mainly pastoral nomads, but a section have started agro-pastoralism along with other clans such as the Habar Awal, Geri and Jarso at the turn of the previous century.[10][11][12][13]

Distribution[edit]

The Gadabuursi are concentrated in northwestern Somalia and are the main and pre-dominant clan of the Awdal region and are partially found in the neighboring region of Woqooyi Galbeed (in the Gabilay District), but most of the Gadabuursi inhabit the Somali Region of Ethiopia(the so called region 5).[4][14][15]

The Gadabuursi are also found in Djibouti.

In the Somali Region in Ethiopia, where they almost exclusively inhabit both the Awbere district in the Jijiga Zone and the Dembel district in the Shinile Zone.[16][17][18]

They also reside along the northeastern fringe of the chartered city state of Dire Dawa, which borders the Dembel district.[19] The 2007 Summary and Statistical report of the Population and Housing Census of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia has shown that Awbere is the most populated district in the region.[20]

The Gadabuursi of Ethiopia have expressed a desire to combine the clan's traditional territories of Awbere and Dembel to form a new region-state called Harawo State.[21]

History[edit]

The Tomb of Sheikh Samaroon

"I.M Lewis gives an invaluable reference to an Arabic Manuscript on the history of to the Gadabursi Somal. “This Chronicle opens”, Lewis tells us, ‘with an account of the wars of Imam ‘Ali Si’id(1392), from whom the Gadabursi today trace their descent, and who is described as the only Muslim leader fighting on the western flank in the armies of Se’ad ad-Din, ruler of Zeila.’ Se’ad ad-Din was the joint founder of the Kingdom of Adal along with his brother Haqedin II" So not only did the Gadabuursi clan contribute to the Adal Wars, Conquest of Abyssinia, but their predecessors were also fighting wars way before the establishment of the Adal Sultanate.[22]

The Gadabursi Kingdom was established more than 600 years ago, and consisted of many elders and a King (Ugaas).

Hundreds of elders used to work in four sections consisting of 25 elders each:

  • Social committee
  • Defence - policing authorities consisting of horsemen (referred to as fardoolay) and foot soldiers
  • Economy and collection of taxes
  • Justice committee

The chairmen of the four sections were called Afarta Dhadhaar, and were selected according to talent and personnel abilities.

The Adal Sultanate which was largely on part of the Gadabuursi territory and the conquest of Abyssinia which they contributed too.

A constitution, Xeer Gadabursi, had been developed, which divided every case as to whether it was new or had precedents (ugub or curad).

The Gadabursi King and the elders opposed the arrival of the British at the turn of the twentieth century, and subsequently signed an agreement with the latter. Later, as a disagreement between the two parties both arose and intensified, the British installed some people against the Ugaas in hopes of overthrowing him. This would eventually bring about the collapse of the kingdom.

A 1867 Abyssinia Map from Bombay featuring the Somali clan of the Gadabursi.

Clan tree[edit]

There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.[23][24]

  • Dir
    • Gadabuursi (Gadabursi)
    • Biimaal (or Bimal)
    • Issa

In the south central part of Somalia the World Bank shows the following clan tree:[25]

  • Dir
    • Isaac
      • Garhajis
    • Gadabursi
    • Isse
    • Biyomal
    • Gadsan
    • Qubeys

The Gadabursi clan according to the Peoples of the Horn of Africa , Nuova Antologia(1890) and many more sources are divided in 2 divisions:[9][26]

  • Gadabursi
    • Habar Makador
      • Makahil
      • Mahad 'Ase
    • Habar 'Affan

Notable figures[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rayne, Henry a (2015-08-08). Sun, Sand and Somals; Leaves from the Note-Book of a District Commissioner in British Somaliland. BiblioLife. ISBN 9781297569760. 
  2. ^ a b Farah, Rachad (2013-09-01). Un embajador en el centro de los acontecimientos (in Spanish). Editions L'Harmattan. p. 17. ISBN 9782336321356. 
  3. ^ As indicated in Morin (2005:640) the name of “Cote francaise des Somalis” itself is said to have been proposed by hağği Diideh [Mahad-Ase clan of Gedebursi. He was Prosperous merchant of Zayla who built the first Mosque in Djibouti Ğami ar-Rahma in 1891] to the French administration in imitation of British Somaliland. http://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2011/5127/pdf/Yas_Diss_2010.pdf page 92
  4. ^ a b Dostal, Walter; Kraus, Wolfgang (2005-04-22). Shattering Tradition: Custom, Law and the Individual in the Muslim Mediterranean. I.B.Tauris. p. 296. ISBN 9780857716774. 
  5. ^ Negatu, Workneh; Research, Addis Ababa University Institute of Development; Center, University of Wisconsin--Madison Land Tenure; Foundation, Ford (2004-01-01). Proceedings of the Workshop on Some Aspects of Rural Land Tenure in Ethiopia: Access, Use, and Transfer. IDR/AAU. p. 43. Page:43 : Somali Settlers Gadabursi in Karrayu territory(Oromia region) 
  6. ^ Ethnographic Survey of Africa. International African Institute. 1969-01-01. p. 26. 
  7. ^ "Toward a New Country in East Africa". www.freenation.org. Retrieved 2016-08-18. Its nickname is Gadabursi, i.e. mountain people. 
  8. ^ Westermann, Diedrich; Smith, Edwin William; Forde, Cyril Daryll (2007-01-01). Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 230. 
  9. ^ a b Lewis, I. M. (1998-01-01). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. Red Sea Press. p. 25. ISBN 9781569021057. 
  10. ^ Horn of Africa. Horn of Africa Journal. 1997-01-01. p. 133. 
  11. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1999-01-01). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. ISBN 9780852552803. 
  12. ^ Allen, Tim (1996-01-01). In Search of Cool Ground: War, Flight & Homecoming in Northeast Africa. Africa World Press. p. 131. ISBN 9780865435254. 
  13. ^ "Toward a New Country in East Africa". www.freenation.org. Retrieved 2016-08-18. The nomadic tribe which has been living in this valley for the past few centuries is called "Samaron," after its founder. Its nickname is Gadabursi, 
  14. ^ "Somaliland: The Myth of Clan-Based Statehood". Somalia Watch. 2002-12-07. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  15. ^ Battera, Federico (2005). "Chapter 9: The Collapse of the State and the Resurgence of Customary Law in Northern Somalia". Shattering Tradition: Custom, Law and the Individual in the Muslim Mediterranean. Walter Dostal, Wolfgang Kraus (ed.). London: I.B. Taurus. p. 296. ISBN 1-85043-634-7. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  16. ^ "Shinile Agropastoral Livelihood Zone" (PDF). Save the Children. 2001. p. 8. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  17. ^ "IL-DUUFKA WEYN EE LALA BEEGSADAY DAD-WEYNAHA GOBOLKA HARAWO". Harawo.org (in Somali). Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  18. ^ "United Nations Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia, Field Trip to Jijiga (22-29 April, 1994)" (PDF). p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 04-03-2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  19. ^ [1] United Nations Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia, Field Trip to Jijiga (22–29 April 1994), p. 2 (accessed 3 April 2011)
  20. ^ Ethiopia Population Census Statistics, [2], p.72 November 2007,
  21. ^ Harawo State Petition, [3], March 2011
  22. ^ Fage, J. D.; Oliver, Roland (1975-01-01). The Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780521209816. 
  23. ^ Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.55 Figure A-1
  24. ^ Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure, p. 43
  25. ^ Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.56 Figure A-2
  26. ^ Protonotari, Francesco (1890-01-01). Nuova antologia (in Italian). Direzione della Nuova Antologia. p. 343. 
  27. ^ ʻArabfaqīh, Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn ʻAbd al-Qādir (2003-01-01). The conquest of Abyssinia: 16th century. Probably the Habar Makadur , underneath the page as a note [I.M. Lewis]. Tsehai Publishers & Distributors. p. 27. 
  28. ^ Lewis, I.M. (1998). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. The Gadabursi .There are two main fractions, the Habr Afan and Habr Makadur, formerly united under a common hereditary chief (ogaz). Red Sea Pr; Subsequent edition (August 1998): Red Sea Pr; Subsequent edition (August 1998). p. 25. ISBN 978-1569021040. 
  29. ^ As indicated in Morin (2005:640) the name of “Cote francaise des Somalis” itself is said to have been proposed by hağği Diideh [Mahad-Ase clan of Gedebursi. He was Prosperous merchant of Zayla who built the first Mosque in Djibouti Ğami ar-Rahma in 1891] to the French administration in imitation of British Somaliland. http://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2011/5127/pdf/Yas_Diss_2010.pdf page 92
  30. ^ Yussur Abrar (Dir/Gadabursi), who hails from Borama in Somaliland http://www.africaintelligence.com/ION/politics-power/2013/11/08/yussur-abrar-did-not-last-long,107993799-ART
  31. ^ Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (2003-02-25). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. p. 247. ISBN 9780810866041. 
  32. ^ https://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/bitstream/id/1299/vaughanphd.pdf/ page 210
  33. ^ geeskadmin (2014-12-10). "Kenya: Ethiopia Replaced Ambassador Shemsedin Ahmed for security reasons - Geeska Afrika Online". Retrieved 2016-08-18. 

References[edit]