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The Growth Arrest and DNA Damage or gadd45 genes, including GADD45A (originally termed gadd45) GADD45B (originally termed MyD118), and GADD45G (originally termed CR6), are implicated as stress sensors that modulate the response of mammalian cells to genotoxic/physiological stress, and modulate tumor formation. Gadd45 proteins interact with other proteins implicated in stress responses, including PCNA, p21, Cdc2/CyclinB1, MEKK4, and p38 kinase.[1][2]


  • Gadd45a was discovered and characterized in the laboratory of Dr. Albert Fornace Jr. in 1988.[3]
  • Gadd45b (MyD118) was discovered and characterized in the laboratories of Drs. Dan A. Liebermann and Barbara Hoffman in 1991.[4]
  • Gadd45g (CR6) was discovered and characterized in the laboratories of Drs. Kenneth Smith, Dan A. Liebermann, and Barbara Hoffman in 1993 and 1999.[5][6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Fornace, A.J.; Jackman, J.; Hollander, M.C.; Hoffman-Liebermann, B.; Liebermann, D.A. (1992). "Genotoxic-stress-response genes and growth-arrest genes: gadd, MyD, and other genes induced by treatments eliciting growth arrest". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 663: 139–53. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1992.tb38657.x. PMID 1482047. 
  2. ^ Liebermann, D.A.; Hoffman, B. (2002). "Myeloid differentiation (MyD)/growth arrest DNA damage (GADD) genes in tumor suppression, immunity and inflammation". Leukemia. 16 (4): 527–41. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2402477. PMID 11960329. 
  3. ^ Fornace, A.J.; Alamo, I.; Hollander, M.C. (1988). "DNA damage-inducible transcripts in mammalian cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 85 (23): 8800–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.23.8800. PMC 282594Freely accessible. PMID 3194391. 
  4. ^ Abdollahi, A.; Lord, K.A.; Hoffman-Liebermann, B.; Liebermann, D.A. (1991). "Sequence and expression of a cDNA encoding MyD118: a novel myeloid differentiation primary response gene induced by multiple cytokines". Oncogene. 6 (1): 165–7. PMID 1899477. 
  5. ^ Zhang, W.; Bae, I.; Krishnaraju, K.; Azam, Naiyer; et al. (1999). "CR6: A third member in the MyD118 and Gadd45 gene family which functions in negative growth control". Oncogene. 18 (35): 4899–907. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202885. PMID 10490824. 
  6. ^ Beadling, C.; Johnson, K.W.; Smith, K.A. (1993). "Isolation of interleukin 2-induced immediate-early genes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 90 (7): 2719–23. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.7.2719. PMC 46167Freely accessible. PMID 7681987. 

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