Gadjah Mada University

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Gadjah Mada University
Universitas Gadjah Mada
Gadjah Mada University Logo.gif
University emblem[1]
MottoMengakar Kuat, Menjulang Tinggi
Motto in English
Locally Rooted, Globally Respected
TypePublic university
RectorProf. Ir. Panut Mulyono[2]
Academic staff
2,707 (as of 2020)[3]
Students56,110 (as of 2020)[3]
Undergraduates33,133 (as of 2016)
Postgraduates15,637 (as of 2016)
2,693 (as of 2018)[3]
Location, ,
Coordinates: 7°46′10″S 110°22′44″E / 7.76944°S 110.37889°E / -7.76944; 110.37889
CampusUrban, 360 acres (150 ha)
ColorsLight khaki  
AffiliationsASAIHL, AUN, AACSB Accredited, FUIW,[4] ASEA-UNINET[5]
Logo UGM 2017.png

Gadjah Mada University (Javanese: ꦈꦤꦶꦥ꦳ꦼꦂꦱꦶꦠꦱ꧀ꦓꦗꦃꦩꦢ; Indonesian: Universitas Gadjah Mada, abbreviated as UGM) is a public research university located in Sleman, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Officially founded on 19 December 1949, Gadjah Mada University is one of the oldest and largest institutions of higher education in the country.[6][7] It is widely known as the largest and the first state university in the nation. It has been credited as one of the best universities in Indonesia. In the 2021 QS World Universities Ranking, UGM is ranked 1st in Indonesia and 254th in the world.[8][9][10]

When the university was established in the 1940s under Dutch rule, it was the first medicine faculty freely open to native Indonesians,[11][12] at a time when native education was often restricted.[13]

Comprising 18 faculties and 27 research centers, UGM offers 68 undergraduate, 23 diploma, 104 master and specialist, 43 doctorate and 4 clusters of post doctoral study programs. The university has enrolled approximately 55,000 students, 1,187 foreign students, and has 2,500 faculty members.[14][15] UGM maintains a campus of 360 acres (150 ha),[6] with facilities that include a stadium and a fitness center.[16]

The university is named after Gajah Mada, a 14th-century leader of the Majapahit Empire of Java, considered by some historians to be the nation's first unifier;[17][18] the university's name still reflects the old Dutch-era spelling.[18] The seventh and current President of Indonesia, Joko Widodo, earned his degree in forestry at UGM in 1985.[19]


Dies Natalis celebrations in 1950

UGM was the first state university in Indonesia, established as Universiteit Negeri Gadjah Mada (UNGM) when Indonesia was still facing threats from the Netherlands, who wanted to regain control. At the time, the capital of Indonesia had moved from Jakarta to Yogyakarta.[20]

UGM was established through Government Regulation (PP) No. 23 of 1949, regarding the merger of colleges to form a university. Although the regulations were dated 16 December, UGM's inauguration took place on 19 December, intentionally chosen to coincide with the anniversary of the Dutch invasion of Yogyakarta, exactly one year prior on 19 December 1948. The intentional date was meant to show that one year after the Netherlands had invaded the city, the government would establish a nationwide university there.[20]

When it was founded, UGM had six faculties: Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy; Law, Social and Political Sciences; Engineering; Letters, Pedagogy and Philosophy; Agriculture; and Veterinary Medicine.

From 1952 until 1972, the Faculty of Law, Social and Political Sciences was split into two faculties: the Surabaya branch of the Faculty of Law, Social, and Political Sciences; and the Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, which was integrated into IKIP Yogyakarta (now Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta).[21]

During its initial years of Dutch resistance, the university taught literature and law in the buildings and other facilities belonging to the palace of Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, who volunteered his palace for the university's use.[22] UGM gradually established a campus of its own in Bulaksumur, on the northern side of Yogyakarta, and now occupies an area of three square kilometres.[21]

Main buildings[edit]

Balairung, home of the university's central administration offices

The UGM main building is called the Balairung, a rectorate building, in Sleman. Nearby is the Graha Sabha Pramana, a large building utilized for graduation ceremonies, with an adjoining square used for sport and recreation.[23] There is also a university library and a sports center, consisting of a stadium, tennis court, and basketball field.

Most of the main campus is located in Sleman, with the small parts (such as part of the Vocational School and part of the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences) is located within Yogyakarta city.

Faculties and schools[edit]

The UGM administration is divided into 18 faculties, offering study programs from the undergraduate to post doctoral level.[14] There is also a vocational school offering vocational study programmes.[24]


Undergraduate programmes[edit]

International undergraduate programmes[edit]

  • Chemistry
  • Tourism
  • Accounting, Business, Economics
  • Law
  • International Relations
  • Computer Science
  • English
  • Medicine[25]

Computer Science International Undergraduate Programme[edit]

CSIUP began in the 2012 academic year. It offers undergraduate computer science classes in English. It teaches algorithm and software design, intelligent systems, programmable logic and embedded systems, and mobile computing. The Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences has been teaching Computer Science courses since 1987 (BSc), 2000 (MSc), and 2003 (PhD), organized jointly by the Department of Mathematics and the Department of Physics, which has also offered courses in Electronics and Instrumentation since 1987 (BSc). In 2010, the Department of Computer Science and Electronics (DCSE) was formed by merging Computer Science resources within the Department of Mathematics with the Electronics and Instrumentation group within the Department of Physics. Students of DCSE have won gold medals in robotics competitions both nationally and internationally (in Korea in 2012 with a humanoid robot, and in the US in 2013 with a legged robot).

Medicine International Undergraduate Programme[edit]

In 2002, UGM began offering an English-language-based medicine programme for overseas and Indonesian students to study medicine with an international standard curriculum.[26] The International Medicine Programme is over five years, with the first three and a half years being study and a further one and a half years of clinical rotations. The programme is designed around a problem based learning approach, making use of small study groups.


  • UGM Graduate School
  • UGM Vocational School

Business school[edit]

In 1988, UGM opened a master's programme in management (MM-UGM), to train students in business practices. The program is a collaboration with the University of Kentucky and Temple University. The Faculty of Economics and Business UGM is ranked among 5% of world best business schools after it received an international Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation.[27]

Medical school[edit]

The Faculty of Medicine UGM is one of the oldest medical schools in Indonesia, having been established on 5 March 1946. It is ranked number 72 by the Times Higher Education Supplement 2006 for biomedicine.[28]

Post Doctoral Programmes[edit]

  • Cluster of Social & Humanity Sciences
  • Cluster of Medical & Health Sciences
  • Cluster of Science & Technology
  • Cluster of Agro Complex / Life & Agro Sciences

Research centers[edit]

UGM has 24 university-level research and study centers:[29]

  • Center for Agroecology and Land Resources Studies
  • Center for Asia - Pacific Studies
  • Center for Disaster Studies
  • Research Center for Biotechnology
  • Center for Economic and Public Policy Studies
  • Center for Economic Democracy Studies
  • Center for Energy Studies
  • Center for Clinical Pharmacology Studies and Drug Policy
  • Center for Security and Peace Studies.
  • Center for Cultural Studies
  • Center for Population and Policy Studies
  • Center For Environmental Studies
  • Center for Pancasila Studies
  • Center for Pharmaceutical Industry and Health Technology Studies
  • Center for Food and Nutrition Studies
  • Center for Tourism Studies
  • Center for Rural and Regional Development Studies
  • Research Center for Management of Biological Resources
  • Center for World Trade Studies
  • Center for Studies in Regional Development Planning
  • Center for Southeast Asian Social Studies
  • Center For Marine Resource Development and Technology
  • Center For Transportation and Logistics Studies
  • Center For Women Studies

UGM maintains the Integrated Research and Testing Laboratory (LPPT), which is the university's central laboratory.[30]


In 2013, the chemistry undergraduate program received accreditation from the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) in the United Kingdom, the largest European-based international organization devoted to the advancement of chemical science. The first such international accreditation received by the university, it is effective from 5 March 2013 until March 2018.[31]


University rankings
Global – Overall
QS World[32]254 (2021)
QS Employability[33]301-500 (2020)
THE World[34]1001+ (2020)
Regional – Overall
QS Asia[35]57 (2021)
THE Asia[34]301-350 (2020)

The university was ranked 254th in the world be QS World University Rankings for 2021.[32]

In 2022, UGM was ranked in the top 50 in the world, according to Times Higher Education (THE) Impact Ranking, using seven criteria of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). THE Impact Ranking this year included 1406 prestigious institutions throughout the world. In the overall assessment this year, UGM ranked 87th in the world. UGM ranked 10th under the No Poverty indicator, 12th under Decent Work & Economic Growth, 20th under Zero Hunger, 50th under the Peace, Justice, and Strong Institution indicators.

In 2021, UGM ranks 16th in the world for Zero Hunger, 24th in the Partnership for the Goals indicator, 25th in the world for No Poverty indicators, and 26th in the world for the indicator for Mainland Ecosystems (Life on Land). For the Clean Water and Sanitation indicator, UGM ranks 34th in the world, the Decent Work and Economic Growth indicator rank 41st in the world. For the Reduced Inequalities indicator, it ranks 49th in the world.

UGM also ranks 51–100 in the world for 5 SDGs, 101-200 for the 2 SDGs, and 201-300 for the other three SDGs.[36]

Student achievement[edit]

eSemar Xperimental

Student life[edit]

Student orientation[edit]

Every year UGM welcomes new students by holding a one-week student orientation session called PPSMB Palapa (Pelatihan Pembelajar Sukses bagi Mahasiswa Baru Palapa, "Training for New Students to be Successful Learners", named after Palapa oath),[44] which involves a short course introducing UGM's common knowledge, values, rules, and soft-skill education. On the last day of the program, there is a closing ceremony where students make a formation of a symbol or logo. In 2018, the students created a formation called Bersatu Nusantara Indonesia ("United Indonesian Archipelago") with the Indonesian national flag, to encourage a spirit of unity across differences in the country.

Community service[edit]

UGM organizes a community service called KKN-PPM (short for Kuliah Kerja Nyata-Pembelajaran Pemberdayaan Masyarakat or "Student Community Service-Community Empowerment Learning", in English), which is obligatory for undergraduate students. KKN-PPM is a research-based community service offered three times each academic year, in the middle of both the odd semester and even semester and between these two semesters. Not only local students joining the KKN, but also international academicians, including lecturers and students, are involved in KKN-PPM UGM. In 2011, 150 international students participated in KKN-PPM, coming from many countries, such as South Korea, Australia, France, the US, and Norway.[45]

Other activities[edit]

The Sports Activities Unit is coordinated by the Secretariat of Joint Sports, and the Arts Unit is coordinated by the Joint Secretariat of Arts.[46]

Sports activities include swimming, diving, inkai karate, kenpō, the Indonesian martial art pencak silat (including the variants of pencak silat merpati putih, self periasi pencak silat, pencak silat pro patria, and pencak silat setia hati terate), taekwondo, judo, hockey, soccer, softball, volleyball, basketball, athletics, equestrian, bridge, badminton, chess, and tennis.

Arts activities include Arts Style Yogyakarta (Swagayugama), Art Style Surakarta, Balinese dance, creative dance, photography, fine arts, Gamma Band, marching band, ‘’keroncong’’, student choir, theatre, and others arts.

Other activities include Publisher Student Press Agency, Mapagama, Student Health Unit, Scout, Satmenwa, Cooperative Students "Kopma UGM", and AIESEC.

Spirituality activities include the Unit of Islamic Spirituality (Jama'ah Shalahuddin), Unit of Catholic Spirituality, Christian Spirituality Unit, Hindu Spirituality Unit, Buddhism and Spiritual Unit.

Reasoning activities include the Interdisciplinary Unit of Scientific Reasoning, Gama Scholar Reasoning Unit, and English Debating Society.


There are sepeda kampus (campus bike) service available inside UGM, with 8 stations and 5 substations across the campus.

UGM campus is also served by Trans Jogja bus stations in several locations, notably near the Faculty of Medicine, Vocational School and lecturer's eastern housing.

Other facilities[edit]

UGM Campus Mosque is a mosque owned by UGM and situated within its campus. It was designed entirely by the students of UGM Architecture Engineering department. It holds maximum capacity of 10,000 pilgrims, making it one of the largest mosques in Southeast Asia.

Madya Stadium, the softball/baseball field, and the tennis courts are located in the valley of UGM. The stadium can be used for football, athletics, hockey, and other activities. These facilities are available to UGM students, staff and the public.[47]

The Student Center Hall is used for sports activities such as basketball, volleyball, badminton, and martial arts, and for exhibitions and artistic performances.

The open field in the valley of UGM can be used for musical performances or other student activities that require a wide open space.

UGM also has several student dormitories across Yogyakarta


Yogyakarta Principles[edit]

The Yogyakarta Principles—a set of principles set forth at Geneva, Switzerland, which were intended to apply international human rights law guidelines in support of the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people—were developed at Gadjah Mada University.[48][49][50]

However, the Yogyakarta communities, civil societies, and the Sultanate of Yogyakarta have not subscribed to these principles. The principles were deemed as being against the Constitution of Indonesia and Pancasila ideology by the Regional People's Representative Council (DPRD),[who?] Islamic and religious groups, and civil prosecutors, who attacked the LGBT community as being suspect in "promoting communism or westernization", although the Yogyakarta Principles merely address ending violence, abuse, and discrimination of LGBT people.[50][51][52]

2016 student demonstration[edit]

In 2016, more than 1000 of UGM's student and staff flocked to the university's headquarters for a demonstration[53] that was said to be the biggest after the 1998 national demonstration. The demonstration went peacefully, with no damage reported by the university, although it got a bit heated when the university's rector, Mrs. Dwikorita Karnawati, claimed that the demonstration was a simulation officially held by UGM.[54][55][56] There were three factors that led to this demonstration: tuition (uang kuliah tunggal) that was deemed too expensive; the university's status as a "state university with corporation status" (PTNBH), which led to the tuition fee rate ruling by the university; and to stop the relocation of so-called "bonbin" canteen located between Faculty of Cultural Sciences and Faculty of Psychology.[53][55]

2017 refusal to report alleged sexual assault[edit]

On 5 November 2018, UGM's student publication body BPPM Balairung through its online portal published an article containing the account, from a female student ("Agni"), of an alleged rape she experienced at the hands of a male fellow student ("HS") while doing a student work experience (Kuliah Kerja Nyata – KKN) program in Seram Island, Maluku in June 2017.[57] However, the case is still under investigation.

When learning of the rape allegation, UGM–KKN officials chose not to forward Agni's accusation to the police. Instead, they were skeptical of Agni's account. Regardless, HS was pulled from the KKN program about a week later because he was deemed to be "incompatible" with other KKN participants.[58]

After Agni returned to Yogyakarta in September 2017, she received a C-grade for the program, apparently in retaliation for the shame her allegation had brought upon an official. Agni then filed a formal complaint about her alleged rape to higher-ranking officials at the university, who raised her grade to A/B but still did not report HS to law enforcement. Instead, the university agreed to pay for the counseling Agni had been seeking to deal with her trauma, as well as requiring HS to go to counseling as well. HS was allowed to take part in another KKN program the semester after the alleged rape, and he is expected to graduate soon.[59]

UGM Spokesperson Iva Ariani confirmed the account as told in Balairung Press and says that the university is now taking further steps to investigate the rape allegation.[60]

"The case as told in Balairung Press did indeed happen. UGM has extraordinary empathy for the victim, we are also concerned about the incident", she told Kompas.[61][62]

Notable alumni[edit]

University rectors[edit]

  • Sukadji Ranuwihardjo – Rector of Gadjah Mada University (1973–1981)
  • Pratikno – Rector of Gadjah Mada University (2012–2014), current Minister of State Secretariat



  • Adrianus Mooy - former Governor of the Central Bank of Indonesia (1988–1993)
  • J Soedrajad Djiwandono – former Governor of the Central Bank of Indonesia (1993–1998), Junior Minister of Trade (1988–1993)
  • Perry Warjiyo – Governor of the Central Bank of Indonesia




Arts and culture[edit]

Science and technology[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Meaning of the Symbol". Universitas Gadjah Mada. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  2. ^ "The Board of Executive". Universitas Gadjah Mada. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  3. ^ a b c "Profil Perguruan Tinggi – Universitas Gadjah Mada" [College Profile – Gadjah Mada University]. Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (in Indonesian). 2020. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  4. ^ Archived 27 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Members - ASEA-UNINET". ASEA-UNINET Universities. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Introducing UGM". Universitas Gadjah Mada. 26 March 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  7. ^ "Top Universities in Indonesia". Top Universities. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  8. ^ Richter, Max (2012). Musical Worlds in Yogyakarta. Leiden, Netherlands: KITLV Press (Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde – Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies). p. 160. ISBN 978-90-6718-390-1. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  9. ^ "ITB, UGM, UI named top three universities in Indonesia". The Jakarta Post. News Desk. 17 August 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  10. ^ "UGM Ranks First in Indonesia and 53rd in Asia". Southeast Asian University Consortium for Graduate Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources. 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  11. ^ Lock, Stephen; Last, John M.; Dunea, George (2001). The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine. Oxford University Press. p. 765. ISBN 0-19-262950-6.
  12. ^ Forest, James J. F.; Altbach, Philip G. (2006). Volume 18 of Springer International Handbooks of Education: International Handbook of Higher Education, Volume 1. Springer. p. 772. ISBN 1-4020-4011-3.
  13. ^ Suratno, Tatang (12 June 2014). "The education system in Indonesia at a time of significant changes". Revue internationale d'éducation de Sèvres. doi:10.4000/ries.3814. S2CID 142805391. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  14. ^ a b "Faculty". Universitas Gadjah Mada. 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  15. ^ "Research and Community Service". Universitas Gadjah Mada. 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  16. ^ "Campus Map". Universitas Gadjah Mada. 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  17. ^ Syahreza, Andre (2012). "The topicality of pre-colonial Indonesian heroes". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. 168 (1): 12. doi:10.1163/22134379-90003573. hdl:20.500.11755/2f3453d4-90c1-47bb-83d7-ac1342119fa7. JSTOR 41494544.
  18. ^ a b Frederick, William H.; Worden, Robert L. (1992). Indonesia: A Country Study. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Some Indonesian historians have considered Gajah Mada as the country's first real nation-builder. It is significant that Gadjah Mada University (using the Dutch-era spelling of Gajah Mada's name), established by the revolutionary Republic of Indonesia at Yogyakarta in 1946, was--and remains--named after him.
  19. ^ Bland, Ben (25 June 2014). "Indonesia: The political outsider". Financial Times. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  20. ^ a b Suwarni; Santoso, Heri (2009). 60 Tahun Sumbangsih UGM Bagi Bangsa [60 Years of Contributions by UGM to the Nation] (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada. ISBN 978-979-420-089-6.
  21. ^ a b "Gadjah Mada University: History (Logo and Philosophy)". Universitas Gadjah Mada. 22 January 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  22. ^ Tesoro, José Manuel (2004). The Invisible Palace: The True Story of a Journalist's Murder in Java (First ed.). Jakarta: Equinox Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 978-9799796479. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  23. ^ "Graha Sabha Pramana Map". Maplandia. 2005. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  24. ^ "Vocational School". Universitas Gadjah Mada. 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  25. ^ "International Undergraduate Program" (PDF). Universitas Gadjah Mada. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  26. ^ "Online Application | Universitas Gadjah Mada". Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  27. ^ "Akreditasi". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  28. ^ "THES – QS World University Rankings 2007 – Top 400 Universities". Archived from the original on 20 July 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  29. ^ "Research". Universitas Gadjah Mada. Universitas Gadjah Mada. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  30. ^ "LPPT". Universitas Gadjah Mada. 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  31. ^ "UGM receives international accreditation". The Jakarta Post. 9 March 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  32. ^ a b "QS World University Rankings 2021". QS Top Universities. 15 June 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
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  36. ^ "UGM Enters Top 50 World Universities".
  37. ^ Syafputri, Ella (26 April 2012). "UGM meraih emas di Robogames Amerika". Antara News (in Indonesian). Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  38. ^ "FH UGM Raih 3rd Best Memorial Award Asia Cup 2012". Gres News (in Indonesian). 1 September 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  39. ^ "Result & Announcement | Hong Kong Red Cross". Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  40. ^ Endah, Sri Wahyu (18 July 2011). "Strategy of UGM To Become the Best in Technical Innovation in Shell Eco-marathon (SEM) Asia 2011" (Press release). Shell Indonesia. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  41. ^ "Departemen Teknik Geologi". Universitas Gadjah Mada (in Indonesian). 11 June 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  42. ^ "Pakai Bahan Daur Ulang, Mahasiswa UGM Raih Penghargaan Olimpiade Robot". De Tik News (in Indonesian). 5 January 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  43. ^ "7th Student CM Award". Gatsby. 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  44. ^ "Coming Soon: Pelatihan Pembelajar Sukses bagi Mahasiswa Baru (PPSMB) UGM 2019". Gadjah Mada University (in Indonesian). 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  45. ^ Oleh (6 October 2017). "SCS-CEL History". Universitas Gadjah Mada. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  46. ^ "Student Activity Unit". Universitas Gadjah Mada. 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  47. ^ "Student Facilities". Universitas Gadjah Mada. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  48. ^ Corrêa, Sonia Onufer; Muntarbhorn, Vitit. "Introduction to the Yogyakarta Principles". Yogyakarta Principles. Retrieved 8 August 2017. A distinguished group of human rights experts has drafted, developed, discussed and refined these Principles. Following an experts' meeting held at Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta, Indonesia from 6 to 9 November 2006, 29 distinguished experts from 25 countries with diverse backgrounds and expertise relevant to issues of human rights law unanimously adopted the Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity.
  49. ^ Narrain, Arvind; Patel, Pooja (2 November 2016). "The Yogyakarta Principles on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Establishing the Universality of Human Rights". International Service for Human Rights. Retrieved 8 August 2017. Ten years ago, a distinguished group of human rights experts from around the world came together at Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. They met to provide victims of human rights violations based on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) an authoritative legal tool with which to seek justice and protection. The outcome is perhaps the most significant international legal development in SOGI history.
  50. ^ a b "'Yogyakarta Principles' a Milestone for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights". Human Rights Watch. 26 March 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  51. ^ "Intolerance stains Yogya's melting pot image". Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  52. ^ "Mimin Dwi Hartono: Pidana LGBT dan Hak Asasi" [Mimin Dwi Hartono: LGBT and Human-Rights Crime]. (in Indonesian). 3 February 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  53. ^ a b Kurniawan, Bagus (2016). "1.000-an Mahasiswa UGM Demo Menolak UKT dan Relokasi Kantin Bonbin". Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  54. ^ Indrawan, Aditya (2016). "Ini Penjelasan UGM Terkait Demo Mahasiswa Kemarin". Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  55. ^ a b Reza, Khaerur (2016). "Rektor UGMmasih Dikepung Mahasiswa, Gara-gara Ucapan Soal Demo". Tribunnews. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  56. ^ Kusuma, Wijaya (2016). "Demonstrasi Disebut Cuma Simulasi, Ribuan Mahasiswa UGM Tuding Rektor Bohong". Kompas. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  57. ^ "Nalar Pincang UGM atas Kasus Perkosaan | Balairungpress". Balairungpress (in Indonesian). 5 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  58. ^ "Mahasiswi UGM Diperkosa Sesama Mahasiswa saat KKN di Maluku, Jadi Polemik Setelah Korban Buka Suara". (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 14 November 2018 – via MSN News.
  59. ^ "Student Journalists Expose Alleged Sexual Assault Cover-Up at Indonesian University". Vice. 7 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  60. ^ "A Year-Old UGM Rape Case finally Investigated by National Police". Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  61. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (6 November 2018). "Ini Tanggapan UGM Terkait Dugaan Pelecehan Seksual Saat KKN -". Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  62. ^ "Student newspaper exposé on sexual assault puts prestigious Indonesian university at center of scandal | Coconuts Jakarta". 7 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018.

External links[edit]