Gadsden, Alabama

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Gadsden, Alabama
City
Aerial photo of downtown Gadsden
Aerial photo of downtown Gadsden
Motto: "City of Champions"
Location in Etowah County and the state of Alabama
Location in Etowah County and the state of Alabama
Coordinates: 34°0′36″N 86°0′37″W / 34.01000°N 86.01028°W / 34.01000; -86.01028
Country United States
State Alabama
County Etowah
Government
 • Type Mayor-Council (w. seven councilmen)
 • Mayor Sherman Guyton
Area
 • City 38.3 sq mi (99.2 km2)
 • Land 37.1 sq mi (96.2 km2)
 • Water 1.1 sq mi (2.9 km2)
Elevation 541 ft (165 m)
Population (2010)
 • City 36,856
 • Estimate (2014) 36,295
 • Density 977/sq mi (377.1/km2)
 • Metro 103,931 (US: 345th)
Time zone Central Time (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code 35901-35907
Area code(s) 256, 938
FIPS code 01-28696
GNIS feature ID 0157961
Website www.cityofgadsden.com

Gadsden is a city in and the county seat of Etowah County in the U.S. state of Alabama. It is located on the Coosa River about 56 miles (90 km) northeast of Birmingham and 90 miles (140 km) southwest of Chattanooga, Tennessee. It is the primary city of the Gadsden Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 103,931. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 36,856,[1] with an estimated population of 36,295 in 2014.[2] Gadsden and Rome, Georgia, are the largest cities in the triangular area defined by the Interstate highways between Atlanta, Birmingham, and Chattanooga.

Gadsden was at one time in the 19th century Alabama's second most important center of commerce and industry, trailing only the seaport of Mobile. The two cities were important shipping centers: Gadsden for riverboats and Mobile for international trade. Through the 1980s, Gadsden was a center of heavy industry, including the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and the Republic Steel Corporation.

More than a decade after the sharp decline in industry, in 1991 Gadsden was awarded the honor of All-America City by the National Civic League, an award that honored the way Gadsden's citizens, government, businesses, and voluntary organizations work together to address critical local issues.

History[edit]

The first substantial white settlement in what is now Gadsden was a village called "Double Springs". It was founded in about 1825 by John Riley, a mixed-race American Indian and European-American settler who built his house near two springs. Riley used his house for a stagecoach stop on the Huntsville-to-Rome route. The original building still stands as the oldest in Gadsden.

The house was purchased by brothers Gabriel and Asenath Hughes in 1840. The Hughes brothers purchased much of the land between Lookout Mountain, the Coosa River, and the mouth of Wills Creek. The brothers proposed constructing a railroad from Savannah to Nashville through their land.[3] The original 120 acres (49 ha) survey of Gadsden included the Hughes brothers' land, plus that of John S. Moragne and Lewis L. Rhea.

On July 4, 1845, Captain James Lafferty piloted the steamboat Coosa to the settlement, landing near the site of the current Memorial Bridge. The Hughes brothers suggested renaming the town as "Lafferty's Landing", but instead "Gadsden" was adopted in honor of Colonel James Gadsden of South Carolina, later to become famous for negotiating the United States' Gadsden Purchase from Mexico.[4][5]

In 1867, with the organization of Baine County, Gadsden was incorporated and made the county seat. Baine County was dissolved in 1868 and Etowah County created in its place and Gadsden retained its standing as county seat.[6]

After most of Gadsden's major industries closed in the 1970s and 1980s, the city began to decline. A Rand McNally article in 1989 listed Gadsden as one of the "Seven Worst Cities to Live in the United States".[citation needed] The city government was spurred to action by these reports.

Redevelopment efforts such as the Cultural Arts Center and downtown revitalization earned Gadsden first place in the 2000 City Livability Awards Program.[7] Underemployment continues to be a severe problem, as indicated by the economic data presented below.

Geography and climate[edit]

Gadsden is located in central Etowah County at 34°0′37″N 86°0′37″W / 34.01028°N 86.01028°W / 34.01028; -86.01028 (34.010147, −86.010356),[8] on both sides of the Coosa River. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 38.3 square miles (99.2 km2), of which 37.1 square miles (96.2 km2) is land and 1.1 square miles (2.9 km2), or 2.96%, is water.[1] The southern end of Lookout Mountain rises to the north of the city center.

Typical of the Deep South, Gadsden experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinct seasons.

Winter lasts from early December to late-February; the daily average temperature in January is 41.3 °F (5.2 °C). On average, the low temperature falls to the freezing mark or below on 60 days a year, and to or below 20 °F (−7 °C) on 6.9 days.[9] While rain is abundant (January and February are on average the wettest months), measurable snowfall is rare, with most years receiving none. Summers are hot and humid, lasting from mid-May to mid-September, and the July daily average temperature is 80.6 °F (27.0 °C). There are 60–61 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs annually and 2.1 days of 100 °F (38 °C)+ highs.[10] The latter part of summer tends to be drier. Autumn, which spans from mid-September to early-December, tends to be similar to spring in terms of temperature and precipitation, although it begins relatively dry.

With a period of record dating only back to 1953, the highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on June 30, 2012, while the lowest recorded temperature was −6 °F (−21 °C) on January 20–21, 1985.[10]

Climate data for Gadsden, Alabama (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 51.8
(11)
56.5
(13.6)
65.9
(18.8)
74.2
(23.4)
81.4
(27.4)
87.7
(30.9)
90.7
(32.6)
90.4
(32.4)
84.6
(29.2)
75.1
(23.9)
64.5
(18.1)
54.8
(12.7)
73.1
(22.8)
Average low °F (°C) 30.7
(−0.7)
34.2
(1.2)
41.3
(5.2)
48.8
(9.3)
58.1
(14.5)
66.5
(19.2)
70.5
(21.4)
69.6
(20.9)
63.1
(17.3)
51.2
(10.7)
41.0
(5)
33.7
(0.9)
50.7
(10.4)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.95
(125.7)
5.01
(127.3)
5.10
(129.5)
4.73
(120.1)
4.79
(121.7)
4.41
(112)
4.98
(126.5)
3.72
(94.5)
3.88
(98.6)
3.66
(93)
4.99
(126.7)
4.32
(109.7)
54.55
(1,385.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.3 9.3 9.0 8.9 8.9 9.2 9.8 7.8 6.7 7.1 8.6 9.6 104.2
Source: NOAA[10]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 1,697
1890 2,901 70.9%
1900 4,282 47.6%
1910 10,557 146.5%
1920 14,737 39.6%
1930 24,042 63.1%
1940 36,975 53.8%
1950 55,725 50.7%
1960 58,088 4.2%
1970 53,928 −7.2%
1980 47,565 −11.8%
1990 42,523 −10.6%
2000 38,978 −8.3%
2010 36,856 −5.4%
Est. 2015 36,084 [11] −2.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]

As of the census of 2000, there were 38,978 people, 16,456 households, and 10,252 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,083.6 people per square mile (418.4/km2). There were 18,797 housing units at an average density of 522.6 per square mile (201.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 62.69% White, 34.00% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.22% from other races, and 1.17% from two or more races. 2.67% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Perspective map of Gadsden in 1887

There were 16,456 households out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 18.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.7% were non-families. 33.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.91.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 20.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 85.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,823, and the median income for a family was $31,740. Males had a median income of $29,400 versus $19,840 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,610. About 18.1% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.9% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census[edit]

As of the census of 2010, there were 36,856 people, 15,171 households, and 9,183 families residing in the city. The population density was 990.8 people per square mile (382.7/km2). There were 17,672 housing units at an average density of 475.1 per square mile (183.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 57.3% White, 36.3% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 3.2% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. 5.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 15,171 households out of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.9% were married couples living together, 19.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.5% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, and 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.3 years. For every 100 females there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $28,386, and the median income for a family was $34,643. Males had a median income of $33,827 versus $27,342 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,610. About 20.2% of families and 24.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.9% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over.

Employment[edit]

The Spirit of American Citizenship Monument on Rainbow Drive (US 411), just before the Broad Street Bridge. The Coosa River and East Gadsden are visible in the background.

Citing statistics from the Alabama Department of Industrial Relations and the Center for Business and Economic Research at the University of Alabama, the Gadsden-Etowah County Industrial Development Authority reports that approximately 12,000 residents of Etowah County were underemployed and 2,179 residents were unemployed as of 2008.[13]

Education[edit]

The Gadsden City Board of Education oversees fourteen schools: eight elementary schools, three middle schools, one high school, and two specialty schools (one alternative center and one technical center).

A new high school, Gadsden City High School, replaced the three former city high schools (Emma Sansom High School, Gadsden High School, and Litchfield High School) via merger for the 2006-2007 school year.

Gadsden is home to Gadsden State Community College, the second largest of the 27 two-year institutions in the Alabama Community College System, initiated by former Governor George Wallace. Small satellites of Jacksonville State University and the University of Alabama also offer college courses in Gadsden.

Gadsden is home of the first statewide day treatment program for juvenile offenders. The Community Intensive Treatment for Youth Program (C.I.T.Y.) was founded in January 1981 by Edward E. Earnest (1943-2005). With the assistance and support of the Honorable Judge Robert E. Lewis (1927-1993), the city of Gadsden, and the Gadsden City Board of Education, the C.I.T.Y. Program began enrolling students on February 1, 1981. C.I.T.Y. is designed to be a multidimensional program emphasizing habilitation (i.e., equipping at-risk youth on juvenile probation with skills needed to meet the demands of modern society). Its objectives are: 1. to identify the at-risk youth’s individual strengths and weaknesses, 2. to provide an individualized environment in which the at-risk youth can develop skills, and 3. to alter the natural environment of the at-risk youth so that new acquired skills are nurtured and encouraged. To achieve these objectives, C.I.T.Y. offers academic remediation in reading, math, language; intensive counseling that involves behavior modification, consumer education, and job readiness training. After all objectives have been met, C.I.T.Y. provides GED preparation, return to public school, and placement into technical school, college, job, or military service. In 1983, C.I.T.Y. Program of Etowah County (Gadsden) received the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Unique and Innovative Project Award. On October 1, 2009, C.I.T.Y.’s name was changed to Special Programming for Achievement Network (S.P.A.N.) and presently functions under the directorship of the Alabama Department of Youth Services. There are eleven programs in the state of Alabama.[14]

Religion[edit]

Gadsden was home to Congregation Beth Israel, a Reform synagogue founded in 1908. In a 1960 attack, the synagogue was fire-bombed, its windows smashed, and two members wounded with a shotgun by a Nazi sympathizer.[15] The congregation ceased operations in 2010.

Gadsden also houses churches of Christ, Methodist, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Lutheran, Baptist, Pentecostal, Mormon, and Catholic faiths.

Points of interest[edit]

Media[edit]

Gadsden is located in the Birmingham DMA (Designated Market Area) for television stations.

Newspapers

Television

AM radio

FM radio

Health care[edit]

Law enforcement[edit]

Gadsden is served by a municipal police department that includes a bomb squad and a tactical unit. In May 2010, the Gadsden Police Department acquired two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) under the auspices of a $150,000 federal grant. The drones are equipped with video cameras and wireless transmitters, designed to be used for aerial surveillance.[18]

Transportation[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Further information: List of Gadsden, Alabama people

References[edit]

  • Goodson, Mike. Gadsden: City of Champions. Illustrated by Brock Cole. Arcadia, 2002; ISBN 0-7385-2375-5. Part of the "Making of America" series.
  1. ^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Gadsden city, Alabama". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 21, 2016. 
  2. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  3. ^ Lawrence, James. A Study of the Origins of Gadsden, Alabama. 2005.
  4. ^ Gadsden-Etowah Tourism Board: Early Gadsden History (archived)
  5. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 133. 
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ "Gadsden Receives First Place in 2000 City Livability Awards Program." The United States Conference of Mayors, Accessed December 9, 2005.
  8. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  9. ^ "Station Name: AL GADSDEN". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-03-09. 
  10. ^ a b c "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-03-09. 
  11. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016. 
  12. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  13. ^ Gadsden-Etowah County Industrial Authority website
  14. ^ Alabama Department of Youth Services, Etowah County Juvenile Probation Office, Gadsden City Board of Education
  15. ^ Webb, Clive. Fight Against Fear: Southern Jews and Black Civil Rights, University of Georgia Press, 2001, pp. 142-143. ISBN 0-8203-2555-4
  16. ^ [2] Archived November 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ [3] Archived January 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ [4], KTRK Television
  19. ^ Jake Adam York "A Field Guide to Northeast Alabama", Southern Spaces, 7 March 2008

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 34°00′37″N 86°00′37″W / 34.010147°N 86.010356°W / 34.010147; -86.010356