|President of the European Parliament|
|Preceded by||Hans Furler|
|Succeeded by||Jean Duvieusart|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
19 September 1954 – 6 May 1957
|Prime Minister||Mario Scelba,
|Preceded by||Attilio Piccioni|
|Succeeded by||Giuseppe Pella|
|Minister of Public Education|
10 February 1954 – 19 September 1954
|Prime Minister||Mario Scelba|
|Preceded by||Egidio Tosato|
|Succeeded by||Giuseppe Ermini|
|Member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies|
8 May 1948 – 21 July 1967
25 November 1900|
|Died||21 July 1967
|Political party||Italian Liberal Party|
|Spouse(s)||Alberta Stagno d'Alcontres|
|Children||Three sons, including Antonio|
|Alma mater||Sapienza University of Rome|
Early life and medicine
Gaetano Martino was born in 1900 in Messina, Sicily, son of Mayor Antonino Martino. He graduated in medicine to the Sapienza University of Rome in 1923. He worked as physician for Saint-Antoine Hospital in Paris. In 1934, he became teacher to the University of Messina, and later was also dean of the University from 1943 to 1954. From 1966 to 1967, Martino was also dean of the Sapienza University of Rome.
Martino was a prominent Liberal politician. He was elected in 1948 to the Chamber of Deputies, becoming briefly Minister of Public Education in 1954, under Christian Democrat Mario Scelba. In the late 1954, Martino became Minister of Foreign Affairs after the replacement of Attilio Piccioni, involved in the Montesi Affair. He maintained his Ministry also during the Antonio Segni's Cabinet (1954-1957), but was finally removed from office by new Prime Minister Adone Zoli.
As Minister of Foreign Affairs, Martino promoted a better European integration and internationalism, first with the Messina Conference in 1955. In 1956, he obtained the Italian acceptance to the United Nations. In the same year Martino, along with Halvard Lange from Norway and Lester Pearson from Canada, became a "sage" of the NATO, promoting its involvement in civil areas. Martino also attended the Treaty of Rome in 1957, establishing the European Economic Community.
In 1956, the newspaper La Repubblica published an article where Martino said that investigations on the German war crimes in Italy during the World War 2 would have a negative impact on the Germany's integration in Europe, like an internal disapprove of the NATO. In 1994, with discovery in a military base of an armoire with secret documents on Nazi war crimes in Italy, nickname "Armoire of Shame" ("Armadio della Vergogna"), emerged that Martino blocked the investigations to avoid a German isolation during Cold War.
For his role in the European integration, Martino was elected President of the European Parliament in 1962. He also continued to serve as Deputy in the Italian Chamber until his death on July 1967.
- Marcello Saija; Angela Villani (2011). Gaetano Martino 1900-1967. Rubbettino. p. pag. 30.
- Christiane Kohl (29 October 1999). "Parla il boia di Sant'Anna "Così uccidevamo gli italiani"". La Repubblica.
|Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs
|Italian Minister of Public Instruction
|President of the European Parliament
Jean Pierre Duvieusart
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