Gaia

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Gaia
Personification of the Earth
Anselm Feuerbach: Gaea (1875). Ceiling painting, Academy of Fine Arts Vienna
Other namesGe
Gaea
GreekΓαῖα, Γῆ
ParentsNone (Hesiod)[1]
ConsortUranus, Pontus, Tartarus
OffspringUranus, Pontus, the Ourea, the Hecatonchires, the Cyclopes, the Titans, the Gigantes, Nereus, Thaumus, Phorcys, Ceto, Eurybia, Tritopatores, Typhon
Equivalents
Roman equivalentTerra

In Greek mythology, Gaia (/ˈɡə, ˈɡə/;[2] Ancient Greek: Γαῖα, romanizedGaîa, a poetic form of Γῆ (), meaning 'land' or 'earth'),[3] also spelled Gaea (/ˈə/),[2] is the personification of Earth.[4] Gaia is the ancestral mother—sometimes parthenogenic—of all life. She is the mother of Uranus (Sky), from whose sexual union she bore the Titans (themselves parents of many of the Olympian gods), the Cyclopes, and the Giants; as well as of Pontus (Sea), from whose union she bore the primordial sea gods. Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Terra.[5]

Etymology[edit]

Part of the Gigantomachy frieze. Gaia pleads to spare her sons. Pergamon Altar, Pergamon museum, Berlin.l

The Greek name Γαῖα (Gaia Ancient Greek: [ɡâi̯.a] or [ɡâj.ja]) is a mostly epic, collateral form of Attic Γῆ ( [ɡɛ̂ː]), and Doric Γᾶ (Ga [ɡâː]),[3] perhaps identical to Δᾶ (Da [dâː]),[6] both meaning "Earth". Some scholars believe that the word is of uncertain origin.[7]Beekes suggested a probable Pre-Greek origin.[8] M.L.West derives the name from the Indo-European form *dʰéǵʰōm (earth). Greek: gaia (<*gm-ya), chamai (χαμαί) on the earth, Hittite : tekan, Tocharian: tkam, Albanian: dhe, Phrygian zemelo, Proto-Slavonic :*zem-yã, Avestan: za (locative: zemi), Vedic: ksam, Latin: hum-us.[9]

In Mycenean Greek Ma-ka (probably transliterated as Ma-ga, "Mother Gaia") also contains the root ga-.[8][10]

Description[edit]

The Greeks invoked Gaia in their oaths, and she should be aware if one broke his oath. In the Homeric poems she appears usually in forms of oath. In Iliad the sacrifice of a black lamb is offered to Gaia and she is invoked in the formula of an oath.[11][12] Homer considers her a physical distinct existence not clearly conceived in anthropomorphic form. Gaia does not seem to have any personal activity. In Iliad Alpheia beats with her hands the bountiful ("polyphorbos") earth, but she calls Hades and Persephone to avenge her against her son [13] In the poems of Hesiod she is personified. Gaia has a significant role in the evolution of the world.[14] She is the nurse of Zeus, and she has the epithet "Kourotrophos". Kourotrophos was the name of an old goddess who was subordinate to Ge. Dieterich believed that Kourotrophos and Potnia theron construct precisely the mother goddess. Ge is also personified in the myths of Erichthonius and Pluto.[15] Erichthonius is early mentioned in the Catalogue of ships. He is born by the Homeric earth which produces fruits and cereals (zeidoros arura). The name of Erichthonius includes chthon which is not the underground kingdom of the dead, but the Homeric earth.[16][17][18]

In ancient times the earth was considered a plane or a flat disk with a wide extent.[12] The earth-goddess can be identified with the nymph "Plataia" (broad one) in Plataea of Boeotia as the spouse of Zeus.[19] Homer uses the form "eureia chthon" (broad earth). Hesiod speaks for the broad-breasted earth, ("eurysternos") the sure seat of all immortals.[20] The same epithet appears in her cults at Delphi and Aegae in Achaea. In the Homeric hymn her conception is more clear and detailed. She is the Mother of the Gods, the goddess that brings forth life and blesses men with children. She is called "pammе̄tōr", the all-mother who nourishes everything. This conception is closer to the to popular belief.[21][12] In the hymn to Apollo she is called "pheresvios" (life giving) [22] The "mother of the gods" is a form of Gaia. According to Pausanias an epithet of Ge in Athens is "the Great goddess", which is an apellation of the "Mother of the gods". She is related to the mystery cult of Phlya which seems to be original. At Athens Gaia had the cult-title Themis. In the Ashmolean Museum a vase shows Pandora (all-giving) rising from the earth and according to some scholars she may be identified with Gaia . "Anesidora" (sending up gifts) on a vase in the British Museum is an epithet of Gaia.[23][24]

Traditionally "gaia" means "earth" and chthon, "under or "beneath the earth" however chthon has occasionally the same meaning with the earth. Pherecydes uses the name Chthonie for the primeval goddess who later became Ge and Musaeus the same name for the oracular goddess of Delphi.[19] Homer uses the for chthon the epithets "euryodeia" (broad-seated) and "polyvoteira" (all-nourishing) which can also be used for the earth.[20] In some plays of Aeschylus "chthon" is the earth-goddess Gaia.[19][25][26]

The tragic poets usually describe Gaia as mother of all, all-nourishing and all-productive who must be honoured. In Promitheus of Aeschylus Gaia is the mother mother of all ("pammetor") and in a fragment of Euripides chthon has the same epithet.[27] In Persai of Aeschylus offerings are recommended to Ge and the spirit of the departed. She is called "pamphoros", (all bearing).[20][28] In Choephori, Electra in her prayer describes Gaia as an avenger of wrong.[29] Sophocles in Philoctetes calls Gaia "pamvōtis" (all nourishing) [20][30] A famous fragment of Danaides describes the sacred marriage between heaven and earth. Ouranos and Gaia are cosmic powers and natural processes.[31] In Chrysippus of Euripides Gaia is the mother of all in a philosophical poetic thought. "Gaia receives the drops of rain bearing the mortals and bearing food and beasts, therefore she is rightly called "mother of all". Aether of Zeus bears men and gods. Everything which is born by the earth returns to the earth, and everything born from aether returns to the sky. Nothing is destroyed, but it is transformed to another form.".[32][29] An inscription on a gravestone in Potidaia mentions: " Aether receives the souls and "chthon" receives the bodies". According to Plutarch: " The name of Ge is beloved to every Greek and she is traditionally honoured like any other god":[29]

Mythology[edit]

Hesiod[edit]

Birth of Gaia, Uranus, and the Titans[edit]

Hesiod's Theogony tells how, after Chaos, "wide-bosomed" Gaia (Earth) arose to be the everlasting seat of the immortals who possess Olympus above.[33] And after Gaia came "dim Tartarus in the depth of the wide-pathed Earth", and next Eros the god of love.[34] Hesiod goes on to say that Gaia brought forth her equal Uranus (Heaven, Sky) to "cover her on every side".[35] Gaia also bore the Ourea (Mountains), and Pontus (Sea), "without sweet union of love" (i.e., with no father).[36]

Afterward, with Uranus, her son, she gave birth to the Titans, as Hesiod tells it:

She lay with Heaven and bore deep-swirling Oceanus, Coeus and Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus, Theia and Rhea, Themis, and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoebe and lovely Tethys. After them was born Cronos (Cronus) the wily, youngest, and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire.[37]

Other offspring and the castration of Uranus[edit]

According to Hesiod, Gaia conceived further offspring with her son, Uranus, first the giant one-eyed Cyclopes: Brontes ("Thunder"), Steropes ("Lightning"), and Arges ("Bright");[38] then the Hecatonchires: Cottus, Briareos, and Gyges, each with a hundred arms and fifty heads.[39] As each of the Cyclopes and Hecatonchires were born, Uranus hid them in a secret place within Gaia, causing her great pain. So Gaia devised a plan. She created a grey flint (or adamantine) sickle. And Cronus used the sickle to castrate his father Uranus as he approached his mother, Gaia, to have sex with her. From Uranus' spilled blood, Gaia produced the Erinyes, the Giants, and the Meliae (ash-tree nymphs). From the testicles of Uranus in the sea came forth Aphrodite.[40]

By her son, Pontus, Gaia bore the sea-deities Nereus, Thaumas, Phorcys, Ceto, and Eurybia.[41]

Titanomachy[edit]

Because Cronus had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overthrown by one of his children, he swallowed each of the children born to him by his Titan older sister, Rhea. But when Rhea was pregnant with her youngest child, Zeus, she sought help from Gaia and Uranus. When Zeus was born, Rhea gave Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling-clothes in his place, which Cronus swallowed, and Gaia took the child into her care.[42]

With the help of Gaia's advice,[43] Zeus defeated the Titans. But afterwards, Gaia, in union with Tartarus, bore the youngest of her sons Typhon, who would be the last challenge to the authority of Zeus.[44]

Other sources[edit]

According to the Roman mythographer Hyginus, Terra (Earth, the Roman equivalent of Gaia), Caelus (Sky, the Roman equivalent of Uranus) and Mare (Sea) are the children of Aether and Dies (Day, the Roman equivalent of Hemera).[45] With Aether, Terra produces Dolor (Pain), Dolus (Deception), Ira (Anger), Luctus (Mourning), Mendacium (Lying), Iusiurandum (Oath), Vltio (Vengeance), Intemperantia (Self-indulgence), Altercatio (Quarreling), Oblivio (Forgetfulness), Socordia (Sloth), Timor (Fear), Superbia (Arrogance), Incestum (Incest), Pugna (Fighting), Oceanus (Ocean), Themis, Tartarus, Pontus, the Titans, Briareus, Gyges, Steropes, Atlas, Hyperion, Polus, Saturn, Ops, Moneta, Dione, and the Furies (Alecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone).[46] By Tartarus, Terra then becomes the mother of the Giants, which are listed as Enceladus, Coeus, Ophion, Astraeus, Pelorus, Pallas, Emphytus, Rhoecus, Ienios, Agrius, Palaemon, Ephialtes, Eurytus, Theomises, Theodamas, Otos, Typhon, Polybotes, Menephiarus, Abseus, Colophomus, and Iapetus.[47] According to the mythographer Apollodorus, however, Gaia and Tartarus were the parents of Echidna.[48]

The god Hephaestus once attempted to rape Athena, but she pushed him away, causing him to ejaculate on her thigh. Athena wiped off the semen and threw it on the ground, which impregnated Gaia. Gaia then gave birth to Erichthonius of Athens, whom Athena adopted as her own child.[49]

Nonnus describes a similar myth, in which Aphrodite fled from her lustful father Zeus, who was infatuated with her. As Zeus was unable to catch Aphrodite, he gave up and dropped his semen on the ground, which impregnated Gaia. This resulted in the birth of the Cyprian Centaurs.[50]

Gaia resented the way Zeus had treated her children, the Titans, so she brought forth the Gigantes to fight Zeus. It was prophesied that the Gigantes, who were born from Uranus's blood, could not be killed by the gods alone, but they could be killed with the help of a mortal. Hearing this, Gaia sought for a certain plant that would protect the Gigantes even from mortals. Before Gaia or anyone else could get it, Zeus forbade Eos (Dawn), Selene (Moon) and Helios (Sun) to shine, harvested all of the plant himself, and had Athena summon the mortal Heracles, who assisted the Olympians in defeating the Gigantes.[51]

Gaia hands her newborn, Erichthonius, to Athena as Hephaestus watches – an Attic red-figure stamnos, 470–460 BC

According to Hesiod, in his lost poem Astronomia,[52] Orion, while hunting with Artemis and her mother Leto, claimed that he would kill every animal on earth. Gaia, angered by his boasting, sent a giant scorpion to kill him, and after his death, he and the scorpion were placed among the stars by Zeus.[53] According to Ovid, Gaia for some reason sent the scorpion to kill Leto instead, and Orion was killed trying to protect her.[54]

When Boreas, the god of the north wind, killed Pitys, an Oread nymph, for rejecting his advances and preferring Pan over him, Gaia pitied the dead girl and transformed her into a pine tree.[55]

According to little-known myth, Elaea was an accomplished athlete from Attica who was killed by her fellow athletes, because they had grown envious of her and her skills; but Gaia turned her into an olive tree as a reward, for Athena's sake.[56] Gaia also turned the young Libanus into rosemary when he was killed by impious people.[57]

Zeus hid Elara, one of his lovers, from Hera by stowing her under the earth. His son by Elara, the giant Tityos, is therefore sometimes said to be a son of Gaia, the earth goddess.[58]

Gaia also made Aristaeus immortal.[59]

Cult[edit]

It seems that the worship of the "earth" was indigenous in Greece.[60] However it is doubtful if the mother-religion is rooted to the Pre-Greek population.[61] In classical times Ge was not an important deity and she didn't have any festivals. She was usually honoured together with other gods or goddesses.[12] Local cults of Gaia are rare and only some of them can be mentioned from the existing evidence.

Elements of a primitive cult of Gaia appear at Dodona in Epirus. It seems that in an old religion the earth goddess was worshipped together with the sky-god (Zeus).[62] At Thebes there was cult of "Gaia Makaira Telesforos". Telesforos means "bringing fruits to perfection".[63] The earth goddess had powers over the ghosts and the dreams which come from the underworld, therefore she acquired oracular powers. These conceptions are evident in her cults at Delphi, Athens and Aigai of Achaea. An inscription "ieron eurysternou" (sunctuary of the broad-bossomed), is mentioned at Delphi by Mnaseas.[64] A temple of Ge was built to the south of the temple of Apollo. "Eutysternos" is a surname of Ge and it had an earlier use by Hesiod. It was also given to her in her worship at the Achaean Aegai.[64]

In Eumenides the priestess announced her first prayers to "Gaia the first prophetess". At Aegai there was a very old image of the earth-goddess, and the service was in the hands of a virgin woman. The serpent represented the earth deity and was related to the chthonic oracular cult. This is evident at Delphi. Traditionally the oracle belonged originally to Poseidon and Ge and the serpent Python represents the earth spirit. Ge was probably present at the oracle of Trophonius at Livadeia.[64] The prophecies were usually given by the priestesses and not by the goddess. At Olympia her altar was called "Gaios".The altars were given the name of a deity in primitive stages of religion. At Olympia like in Dodona it seems that she was honoured together with the sky-god Zeus. At Aigai she had an oracular power. According to Pliny the priestess drank a small quantity of the blood of a bull before entering the secret cave. At Patras in the oracle of "Ge", a sacred well was used for predicting the cause of diseases.[65] At Athens Ge acquired the cult-title Themis. Themis was an oracular goddess related to Ge and she was not originally interpreted as goddess of rightneousness.[65]

The cult of Gaia was probably indigenous in Attica. In the cult of Phlya, Pausanias reports that there were altars to Dionysos , certain nymphs and to Ge, whom they called the "great goddess". The Great goddess is interpreted as "Mother of the gods" who is a form of Gaia. It seems that a mystery-cult was related to the Great-goddess.[66] An inscription on the Acropolis of Athens refers to the practice of service in honour of "Ge-Karpophoros" (bringer of fruits) in accordance with the oracle. The oracle was probably Delphic. A sanctuary on the Acropolis was the "Kourotrophion", and the earlier inscriptions mentions simply "The Kourotrophos" (nourisher of children). Pausanias mentions a double shrine of "Ge-Kourotrophos" and "Demeter-Chloe" on the Acropolis.[67][68] Near the Olympieion of Athens there was the temenos of Ge-Olympia. Thucydides mentions that it was among the oldest sanctuaries built in Athens, where the Deucalion flood took place.[69] A chthonic ritual was performed in Athens in honour of Ge. The Genesia was a mourning festival in the month Broedromion. A sacrifice was performed to Ge, and the citizents brought offerings to the graves of the dead.[70]

An ancient Gaia cult existed at the "Marathonian Tetrapolis" near Athens . In the month Poseideon a pregnant cow was sacrificed to "Ge in the acres" and in Gamelion a sheep to" Ge-near the oracle". Both sacrifices were followed by rituals and the second was related to Daeira a divinity connected with the Eleusinian mysteries. At Eleusis Ge received a premilinary offering among other gods.[69] Ge was associated with the dead at Mykonos. Seven black lambs were offered to "Zeus Chthonios" and "Ge-Chthonia" in the month Lenaion. The worshippers were offered to feast at the place of worship.[70] At Sparta Gaia was worshipped together with Zeus. There was a double shrine of "Ge" and "Zeus Agoraios" (of the market place).[12][71]

Epithets[edit]

Gaia has several epithets and attributes. In poetry chthon frequently has the same meaning with gaia.[72] Some of her epithets are similar in some Indo-European languages. The universitality of the goddess is expressed by the prefix pan,(πάν).[73][74] Some of the epithets of Gaia and Demeter are similar showing the identity of their nature.

  • Anēsidora (ἀνησιδώρα) , sending up gifts.[75][76][77]
  • Chthonia (χθονία) in Myconos.[78]Pherecydes uses the name Chthonie, for the primeval goddess who became Ge:.[79]
  • Eurysternos (εὐρύστερνος): broad breasted.[69] Earth is the broad seat of all immortals (Hesiod).[74][80]
  • Euryedeus (εὐρυεδεύς): broad seated.[74]
  • Karpophoros (καρποφόρος), bringer of fruits.[69]
  • Kalligeneia (καλλιγένεια),born beautiful.[81]
  • Kourotrophos (κουροτρόφος) :protector of young children, in Athens.[69][82]
  • Megali theos (Μεγάλη θεός) : Great goddess, in the mysteries of Phlya.[69][83]
  • Melaina (μελαίνα): black ,in epic poetry.[74][84]
  • Olympia near the Olympeion of Athens.[69][85]
  • Pamphoros, (πάμφορος):all-bearing. The offspring of all.[74][86]
  • Pammētōr(παμμήτωρ) :mother of all [74][87]
  • Pammēteira(παμμήτειρα) :mother of all.[74]
  • Pamvōtis (παμβώτις) : all-nurturing.[74][88]
  • Pandōros (πάνδωρος) :plentiful, giver of all.[89][90]
  • Pheresvios (φερέσβιος)bringing forth life.[74][91]
  • Polivoteira (πουλυβότειρα): much nurturing.[74][92]
  • Themis (Θέμις) in Attica.[93]
  • Vathykolpos (βαθύκολπος): with deep, full breasts.[94][95]

Temples[edit]

Gaia entrusts Erichthonios to Athena. From left to right: Hephaestus, Athena, Erichthonios, Gaia, Aphrodite. Said to come from the temple of Hephaestus in Athens. Pentelic marble. 100-150 AD. Louvre

Gaia is believed by some sources[96] to be the original deity behind the Oracle at Delphi. It was thus said: "That word spoken from tree-clad mother Gaia's (Earth's) navel-stone [Omphalos]."[97] Depending on the source, Gaia passed her powers on to Poseidon, Apollo, or Themis. Pausanias wrote:

Many and different are the stories told about Delphi, and even more so about the oracle of Apollo. For they say that in the earliest times the oracular seat belonged to Earth, who appointed as prophetess at it Daphnis, one of the nymphs of the mountain. There is extant among the Greeks an hexameter poem, the name of which is Eumolpia, and it is assigned to Musaeus, son of Antiophemus. In it the poet states that the oracle belonged to Poseidon and Earth in common; that Earth gave her oracles herself, but Poseidon used Pyrcon as his mouthpiece in giving responses. The verses are these: "Forthwith the voice of the Earth-goddess uttered a wise word, And with her Pyrcon, servant of the renowned Earth-shaker." They say that afterwards Earth gave her share to Themis, who gave it to Apollo as a gift. It is said that he gave to Poseidon Calaureia, that lies off Troezen, in exchange for his oracle.[98]

Apollo is the best-known as the oracle power behind Delphi, long established by the time of Homer, having killed Gaia's child Python there and usurped the chthonic power.[99] Hera punished Apollo for this by sending him to King Admetus as a shepherd for nine years.[citation needed] Gaia or Ge had at least three sanctuaries in Greece which were mentioned by Pausanias. There was a temple of Ge Eurusternos on the Crathis near Aegae in Achaia with "a very ancient statue":[100]

It is a journey of about thirty stades [from the stream of Krathis (Crathis) near the ruins of Aigai (Aegae) in Akhaia] to what is called the Gaion (Gaeum), a sanctuary of Ge (Earth) surnamed Eurysternos (Broad-bossomed), whose wooden image is one of the very oldest. The woman who from time to time is priestess henceforth remains chaste and before her election must not have had intercourse with more than one man. The test applied is drinking bull's blood. Any woman who may chance not to speak the truth is immediately punished as a result of this test. If several women compete for the priesthood, lots are cast for the honor.

Pausanias also mention the sanctuary of Ge Gasepton in Sparta,[101] and a sanctuary of Ge Kourotrophe (Nurse of the Young) at Athens.[82] Aside from her temples, Gaia had altars as well as sacred spaces in the sanctuaries of other gods. Close to the sanctuary of Eileithyia in Tegea was an altar of Ge;[102] Phlya and Myrrhinos had an altar to Ge under the name Thea Megale (Great goddess);[83] as well as Olympia which additionally, similar to Delphi, also said to have had an oracle to Gaia:

On what is called the Gaion (Gaeum, Sanctuary of Ge) [at Olympia] is an altar of Ge (Earth); it too is of ashes. In more ancient days they say that there was an oracle also of Ge (Earth) in this place. On what is called the Stomion (Mouth) the altar to Themis has been built.[103]

Her statues were naturally to be found in the temples of Demeter, such as the Temple of Demeter in Achaia: "They [the Patraians of Akhaia (Achaea)] have also a grove by the sea, affording in summer weather very agreeable walks and a pleasant means generally of passing the time. In this grove are also two temples of divinities, one of Apollon, the other of Aphrodite . . . Next to the grove is a sanctuary of Demeter; she and her daughter [Persephone] are standing, but the image of Ge (Earth) is seated."[104]

Gaia (bottom-right) rises out of the ground, detail of the Gigantomachy frieze, Pergamon Altar, Pergamon museum, Berlin.

The Temple of Zeus Olympios in Athens reportedly had an enclosure of Ge Olympia:

[Within the sanctuary of Zeus Olympios in the lower town of Athens:] Within the precincts are antiquities: a bronze Zeus, a temple of Kronos (Cronus) and Rhea and an enclosure of Ge (Earth) surnamed Olympia. Here the floor opens to the width of a cubit, and they say that along this bed flowed off the water after the deluge that occurred in the time of Deukalion, and into it they cast every year wheat mixed with honey . . . The ancient sanctuary of Zeus Olympios the Athenians say was built by Deukalion (Deucalion), and they cite as evidence that Deukalion lived at Athens a grave which is not far from the present temple.[85]

In Athens, there was a statue of Gaia on the Acropolis depicting her beseeching Zeus for rain[105] as well as an image of her close to the court of the Areopagos in Athens, alongside the statues of Plouton and Hermes, "by which sacrifice those who have received an acquittal on the Areopagos".[106]

Interpretations[edit]

Aion and Tellus Mater with infant deities of the fruit of the seasons, in a mosaic from a Roman villa in Sentinum, first half of the third century BC, (Munich Glyptothek, Inv. W504)

Some modern sources, such as Mellaart, Gimbutas, and Walker, claim that Gaia as Mother Earth is a later form of a pre-Indo-European Great Mother, venerated in Neolithic times. Her existence is a speculation and controversial in the academic community. Some modern mythographers, including Kerenyi, Ruck, and Staples, interpret the goddesses Demeter the "mother", Persephone the "daughter", and Hecate the "crone", as aspects of a former great goddess identified by some[who?] as Rhea or as Gaia herself. In Crete, a goddess was worshipped as Potnia Theron (the "Mistress of the Animals") or simply Potnia ("Mistress"), speculated[by whom?] as Rhea or Gaia; the title was later applied in Greek texts to Artemis. The mother goddess Cybele from Anatolia (modern Turkey) was partly identified by the Greeks with Gaia, but more so with Rhea.

Modern paganism[edit]

Beliefs and worship amongst modern pagans (also known as neopagans) regarding Gaia vary, ranging from the belief that Gaia is the Earth to the belief that she is the spiritual embodiment of the earth or the goddess of the Earth.[107]

Family[edit]

Olympian descendants[edit]

Offspring[edit]

Gaia is the personification of the Earth, and these are her offspring as related in various myths. Some are related consistently, some are mentioned only in minor variants of myths, and others are related in variants that are considered to reflect a confusion of the subject or association.

Offspring and fathers (Other sources)
Offspring Father
The Autochthons: Cecrops, Palaechthon, Pelasgus, Alalcomeneus, Dysaules, Cabeirus, Phlyus (father of Celaenus), and Leitus.[119] No father
The Curetes[i][ii]

The Elder Muses: Mneme, Melete, and Aoide

The Telchines: Actaeus, Megalesius, Ormenus, and Lycus

Aetna[120]

Aristaeus[121]

Uranus
Echidna[122][iii]

Giants: Enceladus, Coeus, Astraeus, Pelorus, Pallas, Emphytus, Rhoecus, Agrius, Ephialtes, Eurytus, Themoises, Theodamas, Otus, Polybotes, and Iapetus.

Tartarus
The Telchines Pontus

Dolor (Pain), Dolus (Deception), Ira (Anger), Luctus (Mourning), Mendacium (Lying), Iusiurandum (Oath), Vltio (Vengeance), Intemperantia (Self-indulgence), Altercatio (Quarreling), Oblivio (Forgetfulness), Socordia (Sloth), Timor (Fear), Superbia (Arrogance), Incestum (Incest), Pugna (Fighting), Oceanus (Ocean), Themis, Tartarus, Pontus, the Titans, Briareus, Gyges, Steropes, Atlas, Hyperion, Polus, Saturn, Ops, Moneta, Dione, the Furies (Alecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone)

Aether[46]
Antaeus,[123] Charybdis,[124] Laistrygon Poseidon
Achelous,[125][126] Acheron,[127] Bisaltes,[128] Tritopatores[129] Helios
Agdistis, Manes,[130] Cyprian Centaurs Zeus
Triptolemos[131] Oceanus
Erichthonius of Athens[132] Hephaestus
Unknown

List notes:

  1. ^ a b c d Some said they were born from Uranus' blood when Cronus castrated him.
  2. ^ The Kouretes were born from rainwater (Uranus [peacefully] fertilizing Gaia).
  3. ^ Echidna was more commonly held to be child of Phorcys and Ceto.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 116–122 states that Gaia, Tartarus and Eros come after Chaos, but this does not necessarily mean they the offspring of Chaos. Gantz, pp. 4–5 Archived 2023-09-24 at the Wayback Machine writes that, "[w]ith regard to all three of these figures—Gaia, Tartaros, and Eros—we should note that Hesiod does not say they arose from (as opposed to after) Chaos, although this is often assumed". Hard 2004, p. 23 says that "[a]lthough it is quite often assumed that all three are born out of Chaos as her offspring, this is not stated by Hesiod nor indeed implied, governed by the same verb geneto ('came to be'). Gaia, Tartaros and Eros are best regarded as being primal realities like Chaos that came into existence independently of her". Similarly, Caldwell, pp. 3, 35 says that the Theogony "begins with the spontaneous appearance of Chaos, Gaia, Tartaros, and Eros (116–122). By their emergence from nothing, without sources or parents, these four are separated from everything that follows."
  2. ^ a b Wells, John (3 April 2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  3. ^ a b γῆ, γᾶ, γαῖα. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  4. ^ Smith, "Gaea".
  5. ^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215.
  6. ^ δᾶ in Liddell and Scott.
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas. "gaia". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  8. ^ a b Robert S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, pp. 269–270 (s.v. "γῆ").
  9. ^ M.L.West (2007). Indoeuropean poetry and myth, pp.173-174 .Oxford University Press, p.174
  10. ^ "Paleolexicon". Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  11. ^ [Sacrifices to the gods as witnesses of an oath:] Bring two lambs : let one be white and the other black for Gaia (Earth) and Helios (Sun). [N.B. Chthonic Gaia receives a black animal, celestial Helios a white one.]:Iliad 3.104
  12. ^ a b c d e Hard: "The Rootledge handbook of Greek mythology", p.32 Hard p.32
  13. ^ Iliad 9.568: Farnell, Cults III, p.5-6.
  14. ^ Farnell, Cults III, p.5-6.
  15. ^ Nilsson, Geschichte, Vol I, p. 456-457
  16. ^ Nilsson,Geschichte, Vol. I: 317-318
  17. ^ Iliad 2.548
  18. ^ Iliad 2.548
  19. ^ a b c M.L.West (2007). Indoeuropean poetry and myth, pp.174,175,.Oxford University Press p.174
  20. ^ a b c d M.L.West (2007). Indoeuropean poetry and myth, pp.178,179,.Oxford University Press, p.178
  21. ^ Farnell, Cults III, p.1-4.
  22. ^ Homeric Hymn to Apollo 3.341 : H.Hymn 3.341
  23. ^ Farnell Cults III, 25-26
  24. ^ Birds 971
  25. ^ Promitheus 207
  26. ^ Eumenides 6
  27. ^ Aesch. Prometheus V88, Euripides Antiope fr.195: Nilsson, Geschichte, Vol I, 460
  28. ^ Persai 618
  29. ^ a b c Farnell, Cults III, p.7-8
  30. ^ Philoktetes 391
  31. ^ Aesch. Danaid. Fr.44 :Nilsson 450
  32. ^ Eurip.Chrysip. fr 839: Nilsson, Vol I p.460
  33. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 116–118; Hard 2004, p. 23.
  34. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 119–120; Hard 2004, p. 23.
  35. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 126–128.
  36. ^ Hesiod, Theogony, 129–132: Gantz, p. 10; Hard 2004, p. 31; Fowler, p. 5; Caldwell, p. 6; Grimal, s.v. Gaia; Tripp, s.v. Gaea.
  37. ^ Hesiod, Theogony, 132–138; cf. Apollodorus, 1.1.3.
  38. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 139–146; cf. Apollodorus, 1.1.2.
  39. ^ Hesiod, Theogony, 147–153; cf. Apollodorus, 1.1.1.
  40. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 154–200.
  41. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 233–239; Gantz, p. 16; Grimal, s.v. Gaia; Smith, s.v. Gaea; Apollodorus, 1.2.6. For a genealogical table of the descendants of Gaia and Pontus, see Gantz, p. 805.
  42. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 453–491; Hard 2004, p. 68.
  43. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 626; Oxford Classical Dictionary, s.v. Gaia; Hard 2004, p. 68.
  44. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 820–880; Gantz, p. 48; Brill's New Pauly, s.v. Typhoeus; Oxford Classical Dictionary, s.v. Gaia. Hard 2004, p. 84: "Hesiod does not explain why Gaia, who was otherwise well-disposed toward Zeus, should have wished to give birth to this threatening monster, nor does he state that she did so with hostile intent."
  45. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae Theogony 2 (Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 95; Latin text).
  46. ^ a b Hyginus, Fabulae Theogony 3 (Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 95; Latin text).
  47. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae Theogony 4 (Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 95; Latin text). In addition to these figures, there are two Giants listed whose names are unintelligible.
  48. ^ Apollodorus, 2.1.2; Smith, s.v. Echidna.
  49. ^ Burkert, p. 143.
  50. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca 14.193
  51. ^ Apollodorus, 1.6.1
  52. ^ See Gantz, p. 271.
  53. ^ Hard 2004, p. 564; Gantz, p. 272; Hesiod fr. 7 Diels, p. 196 [= Eratosthenes, Catasterismi 32 (Hard 2015, p. 101; Olivieri, pp. 37–8)]; cf. Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.26.2.
  54. ^ Hard 2004, p. 564; Ovid, Fasti 5.537–544.
  55. ^ Libanius, Progymnasmata, 1.4
  56. ^ Forbes Irving, Paul M. C. (1990). Metamorphosis in Greek Myths. Clarendon Press. p. 278. ISBN 0-19-814730-9.
  57. ^ Nicolaus Sophista, Progymnasmata 2.4
  58. ^ Hard 2004, pp. 147–148.
  59. ^ Floyd, Edwin (1968). "The Première of Pindar's Third and Ninth Pythian Odes". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 99. The Johns Hopkins University press: 181–202. doi:10.2307/2935839. JSTOR 2935839.
  60. ^ Farnell, Cults III, p.1.
  61. ^ Nilsson, Geschichte, Vol I 456-458
  62. ^ "Zeus was and is and will be hail great Zeus. Earth brings forth fruits, wherefore call on mother earth" Farnell, Cults III, p.8
  63. ^ Farnell, Cults III, p.8.
  64. ^ a b c Farnell, Cults III, 8-10.
  65. ^ a b Farnell, Cults III, 11-14.
  66. ^ Farnell, Cults III, 15-16
  67. ^ Nilsson, Geschichte Vol I, 457-458
  68. ^ Farnell, Cults III, 16-18.
  69. ^ a b c d e f g Nilsson Vol I, p.457-460
  70. ^ a b Farnell, Cults III, 23.
  71. ^ Pausanias 3.11.9
  72. ^ Nilsson Vol I, 460.
  73. ^ πάς
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h i j M.L.West (2007). Indoeuropean poetry and myth, pp.179 .Oxford University Press, p.179
  75. ^ ανησιδώρα
  76. ^ Hesychius of Alexandria s.v.
  77. ^ Scholiast on Theocritus, 2.12
  78. ^ Nilsson Vol I, p.458
  79. ^ M.L.West (2007). Indoeuropean poetry and myth, pp.174 .Oxford University Press, p.174
  80. ^ Pausanias 7.25.13
  81. ^ Aristoph. Thesm. 300, with the Schol.; Hesych. s. v.; Phot. Lex. s. v.
  82. ^ a b Pausanias 1.22.3
  83. ^ a b Pausanias 1.31.4
  84. ^ μέλαινα
  85. ^ a b Pausanias 1.18.7
  86. ^ πάμφορος
  87. ^ παμμήτωρ
  88. ^ παμβώτωρ
  89. ^ πανδώρα
  90. ^ Homeros. Epigr. 7. 1; Stob. Eclog. i. p. 165, ed. Heeren.
  91. ^ φερέσβιος
  92. ^ πολυβοτειρα
  93. ^ Inscription :ἰερίας Γῆς Θέμιδος,"Οf the priestess of Ge-Themis":Nilsson Vol. I ,p.458
  94. ^ Pindar: βαθυκόλπου Γᾱς ἀέθλοις, "The prizes of the deep-breasted earth ":Nilsson Vol. I ,p.458
  95. ^ βαθύκολπος
  96. ^ Joseph Fontenrose 1959
  97. ^ Pindar, Pythian Odes 4.76
  98. ^ Pausanias, 10.5.5 ff
  99. ^ Hansen, William F.; Hansen, Randall (2004). Handbook of Classical Mythology (1 ed.). ABC-CLIO, LLC. pp. 109–112. ISBN 9781851096343.
  100. ^ Pausanias, 7.25.13 ff.
  101. ^ Pausanias, 3.12.8 ff
  102. ^ Pausanias, 8.48.8 ff
  103. ^ Pausanias, 5.14.10
  104. ^ Pausanias, 7.21.11
  105. ^ Pausanias, 1.24.3 ff.
  106. ^ Pausanias, 1.28.6 ff.
  107. ^ Compare: Pike, Sarah M. (13 August 2013). New Age and Neopagan Religions in America. Columbia University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-231-50838-4. For some New Agers and Neopagans divine power is personified by a great goddess or the planet Gaia [...].
  108. ^ This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony, unless otherwise noted.
  109. ^ According to Homer, Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
  110. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 927–929, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
  111. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena "from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
  112. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
  113. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
  114. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 126–8
  115. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 131–2
  116. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 129–30
  117. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 233–9
  118. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 820–2
  119. ^ Euripides, Iphigenia in Aulis 259
  120. ^ Alcimus, ap. Schol. Theocrit. i. 65; Ellis, p. l.
  121. ^ Probably a Giant
  122. ^ Apollodorus, 2.1.2.
  123. ^ Apollodorus, 2.5.11
  124. ^ Scholiast on Homer's Odyssey
  125. ^ Hecateus fragment 378
  126. ^ Grimal s. v. Achelous
  127. ^ Natalis Comes, Mythologiae 3.1; Smith s.v. Acheron
  128. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Bisaltia
  129. ^ Suidas (21 December 2000). "Tritopatores". Suda. Translated by David Whitehead. Suda On Line. Retrieved December 10, 2023.
  130. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 1.27.1
  131. ^ Apollodorus, 1.5.2; alternatively considered the son of King Celeus of Eleusis.
  132. ^ Pausanias, 1.2.6
  133. ^ Pausanias, 1.35.6
  134. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca 25.453 & 486
  135. ^ Pausanias, 1.35.8
  136. ^ Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 78a
  137. ^ Ovid, Fasti 3.795 ff.
  138. ^ Pindar, Pythian Odes 9.16
  139. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 4.174

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