Halvorsen at an air force base in Germany, October 2005
|Birth name||Gail Seymour Halvorsen|
|Nickname(s)||"Rosinenbomber" ("Candy Bomber"),
"Onkel Wackelflügel" ("Uncle Wiggly Wings"),
"Der Schokoladenflieger" ("Chocolate Flier")
10 October 1920 |
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army Air Forces|
|Battles/wars||World War II
|Awards||Congressional Gold Medal
Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
|Spouse(s)||Alta Jolley (1949–99; her death)
Lorraine Pace (2004–present)
Colonel Gail Seymour "Hal" Halvorsen (born October 10, 1920) is a retired career officer and command pilot in the United States Air Force. He is well known as the original Candy Bomber or the "Rosinenbomber" in Germany and a recipient of the Congressional Gold Medal. He piloted C-47s and C-54s during the Berlin airlift ("Operation Vittles") from 1948–1949.
Born in Salt Lake City, Utah, America, Halvorsen grew up on small farms in Utah and Idaho. He earned a private pilot license under the non-college Civilian Pilot Training Program in September 1941. At about the same time, Gail joined the Civil Air Patrol as a pilot. He joined the United States Army Air Corps in June 1942. Halvorsen was 22 when he arrived in Miami to train with 25 RAF pilots at the No. 3 British Flying Training School, a branch of the Spartan School of Aeronautics. After fighter pilot training with the Royal Air Force, he returned to the Army Air Corps and was assigned flight duties in foreign transport operations in the South Atlantic Theater. After World War II, he flew in the Berlin Airlift, where he became known as "Uncle Wiggly Wings," the "Chocolate flier," and the "Berlin Candy Bomber".
In 1949 and 1952, he earned bachelor's and master's degrees in Aeronautical Engineering. From 1952 to 1970, he worked for Air Force Systems Command in aircraft and, beginning in 1958, research and development and operational duties in the Air Force Space Program. He chaired source selection for the Titan III Space Launch vehicle.
From 1970 to 1974, Colonel Halvorsen was assigned as the Commander of Tempelhof Central Airport in Berlin and as the United States Air Force Representative to the city of Berlin. He earned a master's degree in counseling and guidance in 1973. Gail retired from the Air Force on 30 September 1974 with over 8000 flying hours. From 1976 until 1986 he was the Assistant Dean of Student Life at Brigham Young University. He participated in a C-130 night food resupply drop over Bosnia in March 1994. He flew in the 1998 Berlin Airlift Historical Foundation C-54, the “Spirit of Freedom,” across the North Atlantic for 69 days, including 27 air shows in four European countries.
In addition to other Air Force decorations, he has been awarded the Legion of Merit; Cheney Award 1948-49; Ira Eaker “Fellow” Award 1998; Americanism Award Air Force Sergeants Association 1998. Service Cross to the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany from the President of Germany 1974; the Freedom Award from the City of Provo; The Distinguished Humanitarian Award from the Institute of German American Relations, 1999. The Eric Warburg Pries.
During the Berlin Airlift, Gail Halvorsen flew one of the innumerable C-54 cargo aircraft ferrying supplies into Berlin, then deep in the Soviet sector of control in Germany. On his days off, he went sightseeing in Berlin and shot film on his personal handheld movie camera. On one such visit, he saw thirty children lined up behind a fence at Tempelhof airport, the main landing site for the airlift. He went to meet them and noticed these kids had nothing without the aid of the US Air Force. He looked into his pocket and took out some gum to give to the kids who hadn’t had any sweets for years. He realized that he did not have enough gum for all of them but gave it to the kids anyway; the kids broke it into little pieces and shared it, for the ones who didn't get any they sniffed the wrappers. Halvorsen thought for a moment and decided that he would drop candy out of his C-54. The kids asked how they would know what plane was his. He replied, "I’ll wiggle my wings," hence his nickname, "Onkel Wackelflügel" (Uncle Wiggly Wings).
When Halvorsen got back to base, he used his ration to get candy and asked his friends to contribute. The next step was to improvise parachutes so that he would not hurt the kids; they used extra clothes and handkerchiefs. In the morning when they made regular supply drops, they also dropped three boxes of candy attached to handkerchiefs. They made these drops once a week; the children began sending the parachutes back along with letters and artwork.
When word reached the airlift commander, Lieutenant General William H. Tunner, he ordered it expanded into Operation "Little Vittles," a play on the overall airlift's name of Operation Vittles. As news of Operation Little Vittles reached the United States, children and candymakers from all over the US began contributing candy. Public support led to donations, which enabled Halvorsen and his crew to drop 850 pounds of candy. By the end of the airlift, some 25 aircraft crews had dropped 23 tons of chocolate, chewing gum, and other candies over various places in Berlin. The National Confectioners Association donated large amounts to the effort, and American schoolchildren helped attach the candies to parachutes.
With the groundswell of support, Little Vittles pilots, of which Halvorsen was now one of many, were dropping candy every other day. Children all over Berlin had sweets, and more and more artwork was getting sent back with kind letters attached to them. The American candy bombers became known as the Rosinenbomber (Raisin Bombers), but Halvorsen himself became known by many nicknames to the children of Berlin, including his original moniker of "Uncle Wiggly Wings," as well as "The Chocolate Uncle" and "The Chocolate Flier."
After the Berlin Airlift Gail flew and dropped candy over his hometown in Salt Lake City, Utah. In 2002 Gail Halvorsen was invited to the Olympics to lead Germany during the opening ceremony. He also was invited to a girl's, Mercedes, house; Gail had met her during the time of the airlift. When he went to her house he noticed she was married and had two kids, which made him very happy. Every year he goes back and drops candy to commemorate the Berlin Airlift.
In 1998, Col. Halvorsen was part of the regular flight crew of the C-54 "Spirit of Freedom" and took part in a 71 day European tour including two Atlantic Ocean crossings in the then 53 year old airplane. During the tour, he and several other Airlift Veterans (Who were also on the crew) took part in ceremonies in Germany, France, and the UK commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Airlift. Halvorsen continues to remain a semi active member of the Berlin Airlift Historical Foundation (www.spiritoffreedom.org), occasionally co-piloting the C-54 and reenacting his "Little Vittles" candy drops.
May 1999 Albania Kosovo refuge Camp Hope with gifts for the children. November 1999 he was inducted into the Airlift/Tanker Hall of Fame and into the Utah Aviation Hall of Fame in May 2001. December 2000, based in Guam, he flew on the,“Christmas Drop” to natives of seven Micronesian Islands. June 2001 an aircraft loader (25,000 pound capacity) was named the,“Halvorsen Loader”. In 2012 he made five drops of parachutes and chocolate to elementary schools.
Three of Alta and Hal's grandchildren have attended a school named for him in Frankfurt, Germany. In December 2012, the Mormon Tabernacle Choir did a program “Christmas from Heaven” about his candy drops. A Halvorsen middle school in Berlin was named in 2013. In 2014 he was part of an Honor Flight to Washington DC. On the way home in Texas he flew a two place P-51 Mustang; a lifelong dream! He belongs to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and has been a Stake President, Bishop, and High Councilman.
Gail married Alta Jolley of Zion National Park on 16 April 1949. They have five children, 24 grandchildren and 43 great grandchildren. Approaching fifty years of marriage Alta died in January 1999. Gail is now married to his high school steady from 1939, Lorraine Pace. She has three children, eight grandchildren and eight great grandchildren. They presently live most of the time in Arizona but Gail still manages his farm in Utah.
Halvorsen would go on to fill several domestic and overseas assignments during the remainder of his Air Force career. He returned to Germany in 1969 or early 1970, this time as the commander of Tempelhof Air Base in West Berlin. In this role Halvorsen was required to host official parties at his house. Being a devout member of the LDS Church, Halvorsen became famous for his non-alcoholic concoctions served at these parties.
Halvorsen's actions as the original candy bomber had a substantial impact on the postwar perception of Americans in Germany and are still pointed to as a symbol of German-American relations. Halvorsen has appeared many times on German television over the years, often paired with some of the children, now grown adults, who received his candy parachutes. In 1974 he was decorated with the "Großes Bundesverdienstkreuz" (Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany), one of Germany's highest medals. During the opening march for the 2002 Winter Olympics on February 8, Halvorsen carried the German team's national placard into Rice-Eccles Olympic Stadium.
In 1989, Halvorsen engaged in a re-enactment of the actions in Berlin for the fortieth anniversary of the Airlift. During Operation Provide Promise in Bosnia and Herzegovina, he dropped candy from a USAF C-130 of the 435th Airlift Wing, flying from Rhein-Main Air Base, Germany. Halvorsen also participated in closing ceremonies for Tempelhof Air Base in 1993 and in 50th anniversary celebrations of the Airlift in Berlin in 1998. In 2004 Halvorsen hoped to launch a similar action for the children of Iraq. The United States military has modeled some of Halvorsen's actions in Iraq, dropping toys, teddy bears, and soccer balls to Iraqi children.
The United States Air Force has helped cement Colonel Halvorsen's airlift legacy by naming its next-generation, 25,000-pound capacity aircraft loading vehicle in his honor. The Air Force has also named the award for outstanding air transportation support in the logistics readiness career field the Col. Gail Halvorsen Award. Colonel Halvorsen's son, Robert, was an Air Force Lockheed C-130 Hercules pilot and later a captain with Delta Air Lines. Colonel Halvorsen's grandson was in the Navy as an LDS Chaplain at the Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton in San Diego, California.
The Gail S. Halvorsen Elementary School at Rhein-Main Air Base, Frankfurt, Germany was named in his honor; Rhein-Main has since closed.
On June 15, 2013 a secondary school in the Berlin suburb of Zehlendorf was named in his honor. Colonel Halvorsen was present for the naming of the school. This marked the second time a school in Berlin has been named after a living namesake.
Service as LDS missionary
In 1995, Halvorsen, along with his wife Alta, arrived in St. Petersburg, Russia to serve as missionaries for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Their duties included training teachers and visiting institute classes, as well as working with church youth groups. Halvorsen and his wife also served as missionaries for the church in London, England in the 1980s.
- Kennedy, Wally. Jopling Globe http://www.joplinglobe.com/news/local_news/world-war-ii-candy-bomber-tells-story-to-miami-students/article_cd9cc559-ba1f-5155-9023-8943eed8b28d.html. Missing or empty
- Del Rosario, Derek (15 July 2005). "Teddy Troopers 'Jump' Into Arms of Iraqi Children". American Forces Press Service. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "Three Grand Marshals for the 51st German-American Steuben Parade". The German-American Steuben Parade of New York. July 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "Schule für den "Candy Bomber" (German)". Der Tagesspiegel (Newspaper). June 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Gail Halvorsen's personal website: http://wigglywings.weebly.com/
- Christmas From Heaven:The True Story of the Berlin Candy Bomber; Shadow Mountain Publishing, 2013, 978-1-609077006
- Cherny, Andrei The Candy Bombers -- The Untold Story of the Berlin Airlift and America's Finest Hour, The Berkley Publishing Group, 2009, ISBN 978-0-425-22771-8
- The Berlin Candy Bomber. – Bountiful, UT: Horizon Publishers, 1990. – ISBN 0-88290-361-6 (3rd edition, 2002. ISBN 0-88290-616-X)
- "Famed 'Candy Bomber' reflects on Air Force heritage..." Staff Sgt. Amaani Lyle. Capital Flyer: Andrews Air Force Base, http://www.capflyer.com/stories/052208/news_20080522009.shtml, Retrieved July 22, 2008.
- Miller, Roger G. (2002) . To Save a City: The Berlin Airlift 1948-1949. Honolulu, Hawaii: University Press of the Pacific. ISBN 0-89875-805-X.
- "Candy Bomber" Gail Halvorsen launches his memoirs in Berlin