Gaius Octavius was a name used for men among the gens Octavia. Gaius was one of the four chief praenomina used by the Octavii, the other three being Gnaeus, Marcus and Lucius. The most celebrated member was the dictator Gaius Julius Caesar's great-nephew and adoptive son, who later became the first Roman Emperor, famously known as Augustus.
Gaius Octavius also refers to men from several families of the gens Octavia:
Relatives of Augustus, member of the so-called Octavii Rufi:
- Gaius Octavius (eques), an eques, younger son of Gnaeus Octavius Rufus, the quaestor circa 230 BC, the disputed ancestor of Augustus;
- Gaius Octavius (tribune 216 BC), military tribune in 216 BC, son of the previous and great-grandfather of Augustus;
- Gaius Octavius (magistrate of Velitrae), municipal magistrate of his hometown, Velitrae, grandfather of Augustus;
- Gaius Octavius (praetor 61 BC) (c. 100–59 BC), praetor in 61 BC, governor (praefectus pro praetor) of Roman Macedonia, conqueror of Thurii, father of Augustus and first husband of Atia Balba Caesonia, niece of Julius Caesar;
- Augustus (Gaius Octavius Thurinus, 63 BC–AD 14), the first Roman Emperor, great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.
Members of other families:
- Gaius Octavius Laenas, curator of the aqueducts in Rome (AD 34–38) during the reigns of Tiberius and Caligula;
- Gaius Octavius Lampadio, a grammarian who divided the poem of Naevius on the First Punic War into seven books;
- Gaius Octavius Vindex, suffect consul in 184.
- Gaius Octavius Appius Suetrius Sabinus, senator and twice consul (214 and 240)
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