The distinction between the halo and the main body of the galaxy is clearest in spiral galaxies, where the spherical shape of the halo contrasts with the flat disc. In an elliptical galaxy, there is no sharp transition between the other components of the galaxy and the halo.
Components of the galactic halo
The stellar halo is a nearly spherical population of field stars and globular clusters. It surrounds most disk galaxies as well as some elliptical galaxies of type cD. A low amount (about one percent) of a galaxy's stellar mass resides in the stellar halo, meaning its luminosity is much lower than other components of the galaxy.
The Milky Way's stellar halo contains globular clusters, RR Lyrae stars with low metal content, and subdwarfs. Stars in our stellar halo tend to be old (most are greater than 12 billion years old) and metal-poor, but there are also halo star clusters with observed metal content similar to disk stars. The halo stars of the Milky Way have an observed radial velocity dispersion of about 200 km/s and a low average velocity of rotation of about 50 km/s. Star formation in the stellar halo of the Milky Way ceased long ago.
A galactic corona is a distribution of gas extending far away from the center of the galaxy. It can be detected by the distinct emission spectrum it gives off, showing the presence of HI gas (H one, 21 cm microwave line) and other features detectable by X-ray spectroscopy.
Dark matter halo
The dark matter halo is a theorized distribution of dark matter which extends throughout the galaxy extending far beyond its visible components. The mass of the dark matter halo is far greater than the mass of the other components of the galaxy. Its existence is hypothesized in order to account for the gravitational potential that determines the dynamics of bodies within galaxies. The nature of dark matter halos is an important area in current research in cosmology, in particular its relation to galactic formation and evolution.
The Navarro–Frenk–White profile is a widely accepted density profile of the dark matter halo determined through numerical simulations. It represents the mass density of the dark matter halo as a function of , the distance from the galactic center:
where is a characteristic radius for the model, is the critical density (with being the Hubble constant), and is a dimensionless constant. The invisible halo component cannot extend with this density profile indefinitely, however; this would lead to a diverging integral when calculating mass. It does, however, provide a finite gravitational potential for all . Most measurements that can be made are relatively insensitive to the outer halo's mass distribution. This is a consequence of Newton's laws, which state that if the shape of the halo is spheroidal or elliptical there will be no net gravitational effect from halo mass a distance from the galactic center on an object that is closer to the galactic center than . The only dynamical variable related to the extent of the halo that can be constrained is the escape velocity: the fastest-moving stellar objects still gravitationally bound to the Galaxy can give a lower bound on the mass profile of the outer edges of the dark halo.
Formation of galactic halos
The formation of stellar halos occurs naturally in a cold dark matter model of the universe in which the evolution of systems such as halos occurs from the bottom-up, meaning the large scale structure of galaxies is formed starting with small objects. Halos, which are composed of both baryonic and dark matter, form by merging with each other. Evidence suggests that the formation of galactic halos may also be due to the effects of increased gravity and the presence of primordial black holes. The gas from halo mergers goes toward the formation of the central galactic components, while stars and dark matter remain in the galactic halo.
On the other hand, the halo of the Milky Way Galaxy is thought to derive from the Gaia Sausage.
- Disc galaxy – A galaxy characterized by a flattened circular volume of stars, that may include a central bulge
- Galactic bulge – Tightly packed group of stars within a larger formation
- Galactic corona – A hot, ionised, gaseous component in the Galactic halo
- Galactic coordinate system – A celestial coordinate system in spherical coordinates, with the Sun as its center
- Galaxy formation and evolution – Processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time
- Spiral arm – Regions of stars that extend from the center of spiral and barred spiral galaxies
- "OpenStax Astronomy". OpenStax.
- Helmi, Amina (June 2008). "The stellar halo of the Galaxy". The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review. 15 (3): 145–188. arXiv:0804.0019. Bibcode:2008A&ARv..15..145H. doi:10.1007/s00159-008-0009-6. ISSN 0935-4956.
- Maoz, Dan (2016). Astrophysics in a Nutshell. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-16479-3.
- August 2020, Meghan Bartels 31. "The Andromeda galaxy's halo is even more massive than scientists expected, Hubble telescope reveals". Space.com. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
- Setti, Giancarlo. Structure and Evolution of Galaxies. D. Reidel Publishing Company. ISBN 978-90-277-0325-5.
- Jones, Mark H. (2015). An Introduction to Galaxies and Cosmology Second Edition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-49261-5.
- Lesch, Harold (1997). The Physics of Galactic Halos.
- Taylor, James E. (2011). "Dark Matter Halos from the Inside Out". Advances in Astronomy. 2011: 604898. arXiv:1008.4103. Bibcode:2011AdAst2011E...6T. doi:10.1155/2011/604898. ISSN 1687-7969.
- Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M. (May 1996). "The Structure of Cold Dark Matter Halos". The Astrophysical Journal. 462: 563–575. arXiv:astro-ph/9508025. Bibcode:1996ApJ...462..563N. doi:10.1086/177173. ISSN 0004-637X.
- Binney and Tremaine (1987). Galactic Dynamics. Princeton University Press.
- Worsley, Andrew (October 2018). "Advances in Black Hole Physics and Dark Matter Modelling of the Galactic Halo".
- Zolotov, Adi; Willman, Beth; Brooks, Alyson M.; Governato, Fabio; Brook, Chris B.; Hogg, David W.; Quinn, Tom; Stinson, Greg (2009-09-10). "The Dual Origin of Stellar Halos". The Astrophysical Journal. 702 (2): 1058–1067. arXiv:0904.3333. Bibcode:2009ApJ...702.1058Z. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/702/2/1058. ISSN 0004-637X.