Galactose mutarotase

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Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesGALM, BLOCK25, GLAT, HEL-S-63p, IBD1, galactose mutarotase (aldose 1-epimerase), galactose mutarotase, GALAC4
External IDsOMIM: 137030 MGI: 2442420 HomoloGene: 71795 GeneCards: GALM
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 2: 38.67 – 38.74 MbChr 17: 80.43 – 80.49 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Galactose mutarotase (aldose 1-epimerase) (gene name GALM) is a human enzyme that converts alpha-aldose to the beta-anomer.[5] This enzyme catalyzes the first step of the Leloir Pathway, which is involved in galactose metabolism.[6] It belongs to family of aldose epimerases.

The two main amino acids in the enzyme active site are Glu 304, which acts as a Bronsted-Lowry base and abstracts a proton, and His 170, which acts as Bronsted-Lowry Acid to donate a proton to the galactose.[7]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000143891 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000035473 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Thoden JB, Timson DJ, Reece RJ, Holden HM (May 2004). "Molecular structure of human galactose mutarotase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (22): 23431–23437. doi:10.1074/jbc.M402347200. PMID 15026423.
  6. ^ Holden HM, Rayment I, Thoden JB (November 2003). "Structure and function of enzymes of the Leloir pathway for galactose metabolism". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (45): 43885–43888. doi:10.1074/jbc.R300025200. PMID 12923184.
  7. ^ Thoden JB, Kim J, Raushel FM, Holden HM (May 2003). "The catalytic mechanism of galactose mutarotase". Protein Science. 12 (5): 1051–1059. doi:10.1110/ps.0243203. PMC 2323875. PMID 12717027.

External links[edit]

  • PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Aldose 1-epimerase (Galactose mutarotase)