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Galeopsis tetrahit - kare kõrvik Keilas.jpg
Galeopsis tetrahit, common hemp-nettle
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Subfamily: Lamioideae
Genus: Galeopsis
  • Tetrahit Adans.
  • Ladanum Gilib.
  • Tetrahit Bubani
  • Dalanum Dostál
  • Ladanella Pouzar & Slavíková

Galeopsis, commonly called hemp-nettle or hempnettle,[2] is a genus of annual herbaceous plants native to Europe and Asia. Some species are naturalized in North America and New Zealand.[1][3][4][5]

The plants are poisonous.[6] Several species are widespread weeds[2] and some are used as medicinal herbs.[7][8]


Species include:[1]

  1. Galeopsis × acuminata Rchb. - Germany (G. pubescens × G. tetrahit)
  2. Galeopsis bifida Boenn. – bifid hemp-nettle, split-lip hemp-nettle, splitlip hempnettle, common hemp-nettle, and large-flowered hemp-nettle - widespread across much of Europe and Asia; naturalized in North America
  3. Galeopsis × carinthiaca Porsch ex Fiori - Italy, Czech Republic (G. bifida × G. pubescens)
  4. Galeopsis × haussknechtii Ludw. - Czech Republic (G. ladanum × G. segetum)
  5. Galeopsis ladanum L. - widespread across much of Europe and Asia; naturalized in scattered sites in North America
  6. Galeopsis × ludwigii Hausskn. - Germany, Czech Republic (G. bifida × G. tetrahit)
  7. Galeopsis nana Otsch. - Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan)
  8. Galeopsis × polychroma Beck - Austria, Italy, Czech Republic, Baltic Republics (G. pubescens × G. speciosa)
  9. Galeopsis pubescens Besser - southern + central Europe from Britain and France east to Russia
  10. Galeopsis pyrenaica Bartl. - Pyrenees Mountains of Spain + France
  11. Galeopsis reuteri Rchb.f. - Alps of France + Italy
  12. Galeopsis segetum Neck. – downy hemp-nettle - Britain, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Yugoslavia
  13. Galeopsis speciosa Mill. – large-flowered hemp-nettle, Edmonton hempnettle - northern + central Europe, Siberia; naturalized in Canada
  14. Galeopsis tetrahit L. – common hemp-nettle, brittlestem hempnettle - southern + central Europe from Portugal to Russia; naturalized in New Zealand and North America
  15. Galeopsis × wirtgenii F.Ludw. ex Briq. - France, Czech Republic


  1. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ a b "USDA PLANTS".
  3. ^ Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 156 鼬瓣花属 you ban hua shu Galeopsis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 579. 1753.
  4. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Genere Galeopsis includes photos and descriptions plus distribution maps for Italy, Europe, and North America
  5. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
  6. ^ "Plants for a Future: Galeopsis".
  7. ^ "Plants for a Future: Galeopsis segetum".
  8. ^ "Plants for a Future: Galeopsis tetrahit".