Galjoen

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Galjoen
Dichistius capensis.JPG
Not evaluated (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclass: Osteichthyes
Class: Actinopterygii
Subclass: Neopterygii
Infraclass: Teleostei
Superorder: Acanthopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Dichistiidae
Genus: Dichistius
Species: D. capensis
Binomial name
Dichistius capensis
(G. Cuvier, 1831)
Synonyms
  • Dipterodon capensis G. Cuvier, 1831
  • Coracinus capensis (G. Cuvier, 1831)
  • Coracinus aper Gronow, 1854
  • Dichistius falcatus J. L. B. Smith, 1935

The galjoen, black bream, or blackfish (Dichistius capensis) is a species of marine fish found only along the coast of southern Africa from Angola to South Africa. Galjoen is the national fish of South Africa.[1]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Galjoen at Rocky Bay

The galjoen is indigenous to the coasts of southern Africa from Angola to South Africa, and is generally found around reefs at shallow depths around 10 m (33 ft), often near the shore.

Description[edit]

This species can reach 80 cm (31 in) in total length and a weight of 6.5 kg (14 lb). The body is compressed, and the fins are well developed, with prominent spines,[1] 10 of them, with between 18 and 23 rays. The anal fin has three spines, and usually 13 or 14 rays, the pelvic fins have 1 spine and 5 rays, and the pectoral fins are typically shorter than the head.[2] The body, fins, and head, with the except of the front of the snout, are covered in scales.[2] The lips are thick, with strong curved incisors at the front of the mouth, with smaller teeth behind the front incisors.[2]

Ecology[edit]

Diet[edit]

The species usually feeds on red and coraline seaweed and red bait, small mussels and barnacles found off rocky shores,[1] and appear in particular to be partial to the white mussels residing in the sandy beaches and inlets of the rocky outcrops along the southern coast.

Home area[edit]

In 2005, Attwood and Cowley extensively studied the movement of the species. tagging some 25,000 galjoen at four sites in reserves in South Africa and concluded that their overall movement remained localised, with some 95% of fish studied seeming to indicate a home area.[3]

Importance to humans[edit]

Fishing[edit]

It is important to local commercial fisheries and is also popular as a game fish.[4]

As food[edit]

Due to their abundance in the shores off South Africa, galjoen is common in South African cuisine. A notable dish is the fish is sprinkled with pepper and lemon, or with lemon, mayonnaise and melted garlic butter and served with fresh bread and apricot jam.[5]

As the national fish of South Africa[edit]

Galjoen is the national fish of South Africa. The suggestion to make it the national fish came from Margaret Smith, wife of the ichthyologist J. L. B. Smith, to find a marine equivalent to the Springbok.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The scientific name of Coracinus capensis is a reference to its black colour when found in rocky areas, Coracinus meaning "raven" or "black coloured"; in sandy areas it gives off a silver-bronze colour.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Lill, Dawid Van (1 January 2004). Van Lill's South African Miscellany. Zebra. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-86872-921-0. 
  2. ^ a b c Heemstra, Phillip C. (January 2004). Coastal Fishes of Southern Africa. NISC (PTY) LTD. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-920033-01-9. 
  3. ^ Cadrin, Steven X.; Kerr, Lisa A.; Mariani, Stefano (4 October 2013). Stock Identification Methods: Applications in Fishery Science. Academic Press. p. 388. ISBN 978-0-12-397258-3. 
  4. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Dichistius capensis" in FishBase. April 2013 version.
  5. ^ Paarman, Ina (2003). West Coast Cookbook. Struik. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-86872-846-6.