Gallacaio (Rocca Littorio)
|Regional State|| Puntland (north)|
|• Mayors||Abdirahman Sheikh Hassan (north)|
Mohamud Abdullahi Kulmiye (south)
|Time zone||UTC+3 (EAT)|
Galkayo (Somali: Gaalkacyo, Arabic: جالكعيو, also known in Italian as Gallacaio or formerly Rocca Littorio) is the capital of the north-central Mudug region of Somalia. The city of Galkayo is divided into two administrative areas separated by a loose boundary.
Geographically Galkayo is divided into four main quarters: Garsoor, Horumar, Israac and Wadajir. Puntland controls Israac, Garsoor to the north while Galmudug state controls the Wadajir and Horumar village to the south. 
Following independence, Galkayo was made the center of the Galkayo District. The city has grown considerably in recent times and serves as a commercial hub. According to the UNDP it had a population of 750,667 in 2018.
Galkayo is situated in north-central Somalia, in the heart of the Mudug region. Nearby settlements include to the east Godad (7.1 nm), to the northeast Bali Busle (16.2 nm), to the north Halobooqad (4.4 nm), to the northwest Beyra (12.8 nm), to the west Xera Jaale-bayra (23.8 nm), to the southwest Saaxo (30 nm), to the south Laascadale (10.2 nm), and to the southeast Arfuda (13.0 nm). The largest cities in the country most proximate to Galkayo are Hobyo (217 km), Garowe (219 km) and Qardho (358 km). Shimbiris, the highest peak in Somalia, is located some 432 km to the north in the Cal Madow mountain range.
|Climate data for Galkayo|
|Record high °C (°F)||39.0
|Average high °C (°F)||32.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||25.2
|Average low °C (°F)||17.9
|Record low °C (°F)||11.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||0
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||0||0||0||2||5||0||0||0||0||3||1||0||11|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 14:00)||51||57||56||61||63||56||58||61||56||58||63||63||59|
|Percent possible sunshine||80||80||77||68||66||71||61||66||72||63||74||77||71|
|Source 1: Deutscher Wetterdienst|
|Source 2: Food and Agriculture Organization: Somalia Water and Land Management (percent sunshine)|
Galkayo is situated in the north-central part of Somalia, and is one of the most developed towns in the region. The city is divided into four main districts called Garsoor, Hormar, Israac is part of Puntland., and Wadajir districts respectively.
Although relatively stable compared to southern Somalia, sporadic targeted assassination attempts by Al-Shabaab militants against Puntland public officials led in 2010–2011 to a police crackdown and comprehensive administrative reform. The Puntland and Galmudug administrations subsequently signed an accord in Garowe in February 2011, officially agreeing to cooperate on security, economic and social matters so as to strengthen inter-regional relations.
A lively trading city, Galkayo is a center for local business. Hotels, guest houses, restaurants, supermarkets and newly erected office blocks earmarked for the government and NGOs line the streets, juxtaposed by the tall minarets of masjids. The city also offers numerous social services such as hospitals, petrol stops and police stations, with the former Somali Army barracks kept in good condition and renovated.
Moreover, Galkayo is a hub of calligraphic art, serving as a training ground of sorts for local visual artists. Elaborate murals and phrases in Arabic and English adorn the walls of the city's many office and shop buildings.
It has an estimated population of 245,000 inhabitants as of 2015. Somalia Clan tensions in the area have historically been high. Puntland-controlled areas of the city such as Israac, Hormar, wadajir and Garsoor neighborhoods of Galkayo is primarily inhabited by Somalis from the Umar Mahmoud sub clan of the Majeerteen Darod, Arab Salah, and Leelkase Darod clans. The Leelkase, and Majeerteen are mainly the dominant clans in many parts of Galkayo. Three of the four quarters in the city, Israac, Horumar and Garsoor, controlled by Puntland, accounts for majority of the population in Galkacyo.
The neighbourhood of Wadajir in southern area of the city, which is controlled by Galmudug, is mainly inhabited by the Sa'ad sub-division of the Habar Gidir, a Hawiye subclan. The Saleban Abdalle sub-clan of the Surre (clan) are also well represented.
Galkayo has a number of academic institutions. According to the Puntland Ministry of Education, there are 40 primary schools in the Galkayo District. Among these are the Axmed Guray school in Israac, named after Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmed Gurey); Al-Qudus in Horumar; and Barkhadle in Garsoor, built in honour of the 13th century scholar and saint Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn (Aw Barkhadle). Puntland secondary schools in the area include Haji Ali Bihi, Cumar Samatar Secondary School (CSSS), Yasin Nor Hassan and Galkayo High. In addition, several new schools were opened in 2012.
Institutions of higher learning with a presence in the city include the Puntland State University (PSU), Puntland University of Science and Technology (PUST), Galkayo University (GU), and Mudug University (MU). East Africa University (EAU) also has a Galkayo branch, one of its seven campuses in Puntland. Additionally, the public Galkayo Vocational Training Centre (GVTC) and the privately owned Mudug Vocational Training Center (MVTC) provide technical training.
Galkayo is home to Abdullahi Issa Stadium, a sporting facility which is named in memory of Abdullahi Issa, the first Prime Minister of Somalia. The stadium hosts to many local football clubs including FC YAMAYS, RPS FC, Dowladda Hoose FC, Homboboro FC, Telecom FC and Galcom FC. In addition, the city has various courts set aside for basketball. It soccer fields and volleyball.
Air transportation in Galacyo is served by the Abdullahi Yusuf Airport, operated by Puntland and Oshaco International Airport operated by Galmudug. Unlike Abdullahi Yusuf Airport, Oshaco International Airport does not have IATA and ICAO airport codes as it is not recognized by any international entity. In September 2013, the Somali federal government signed an official cooperation agreement with its Chinese counterpart in Mogadishu as part of a five-year national recovery plan. The pact will see the Chinese authorities reconstruct several major infrastructural landmarks in the Somali capital and elsewhere, as well as the road linking Galkayo with Burao.
Various media organizations are based in Galkayo. These include Radio Daljir, Radio Galmudug and Radio Codka-Mudug. Radio Gaalkacyo, formerly known as Radio Free Somalia, also broadcasts from the city.
Several establishments in Galkayo offer accommodation. Among these hotels and guest houses are the Kamaal Hotel, the Classic Hotel and Restaurant, and the Saylan Hotel. The Taar City Hotel is especially noted for its domesticated ostriches.
Galkayo consists of the following neighborhoods: Israac, Horumar, Garsoor and Wadajir.
- Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed - President of Somalia (2004-2008) and Founding Father of Puntland state.
- Asha Gelle Dirie – former Minister of Women Development and Family Affairs of Puntland.
- Waris Dirie – model, actress, author and activist.
- Mohammed Awale Liban - Designer of the Flag of Somalia in 1954, born in eastern Galkacyo, Puntland.
- Ahmed Duale Gelle - President of Galmudug, businessman and former federal MP.
- Zakaria Mohamed Haji-Abdi – leader of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia.
- Abdulkadir Abdi Hashi – MP in Federal Parliament, and former State Minister of the Presidency for Planning and International Relations of Puntland.
- Abdirizak Haji Hussein – former Prime Minister of Somalia, and former Secretary General of the Somali Youth League.
- Abdi Bashiir Indhobuur - poet and playwright who composed of many patriotic songs.
- Ali Yusuf Kenadid - Last Ruler of the Sultanate of Hobyo, one of the founders of Galkacyo in late 19th century.
- Abdi Qeybdiid – former President of Galmudug, and former Interior Minister of Somalia.
- Ali Haji Warsame - First Director of Management at Port of Bosaso and presidential candidate at the Puntland presidential election, 2014.
- Mohamed Warsame Ali – first President of Galmudug, former Ambassador of Somalia to the US, former Minister of Commerce, Public Works, and Sports and Youth Affairs.
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