Gallatin County, Illinois

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Gallatin County, Illinois
Gallatin County Courthouse, New Shawneetown.jpg
Map of Illinois highlighting Gallatin County
Location in the U.S. state of Illinois
Map of the United States highlighting Illinois
Illinois's location in the U.S.
Founded 1812
Named for Albert Gallatin
Seat Shawneetown
Largest city Shawneetown
Area
 • Total 328 sq mi (850 km2)
 • Land 323 sq mi (837 km2)
 • Water 5.1 sq mi (13 km2), 1.6%
Population
 • (2010) 5,589
 • Density 17/sq mi (7/km2)
Congressional district 15th
Time zone Central: UTC−6/−5

Gallatin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 5,589,[1] making it the fifth-least populous county in Illinois. Its county seat is Shawneetown.[2] It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt".

Located at the mouth of the Wabash River, Gallatin County, along with neighboring Posey County, Indiana, and Union County, Kentucky form the tri-point of the Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky Tri-State Area.

History[edit]

Salt production served as the state's first major industry in the early 19th century. Saltworks developed first by Native Americans and the French were at the Great Salt Spring on the south side of the Saline River, about five miles downstream from Equality. Beginning in 1803, salt works wee also developed at Half Moon Lick, southwest of Equality on the north side of the Saline River. Half Moon Lick is now on private land, but the Great Salt Springs are on public lands in the Shawnee National Forest, about one mile west of the Saline River bridge across Illinois Route 1 on Salt Well Road.[3]

Gallatin county was organized in 1812 from land formerly in Randolph County. It was named for Albert Gallatin,[4] who was then Secretary of the Treasury. The bank at Shawneetown was the first in Illinois. It was originally in the John Marshall House, which has been rebuilt and serves as the museum of the Gallatin County Historical Society. This should not confused with the State Bank of Illinois building, which is now a state historic site a block away in Old Shawneetown

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 328 square miles (850 km2), of which 323 square miles (840 km2) is land and 5.1 square miles (13 km2) (1.6%) is water.[6]

The Wabash and Ohio rivers join in the northeastern part of the county. The Saline River is a major drainage in the county, and it feeds into the Ohio River.

Climate and weather[edit]

Shawneetown, Illinois
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
3.5
 
 
41
21
 
 
3.7
 
 
47
24
 
 
4.7
 
 
57
33
 
 
4.8
 
 
68
42
 
 
5
 
 
76
52
 
 
4.2
 
 
84
60
 
 
4.2
 
 
87
65
 
 
3.5
 
 
87
63
 
 
3.2
 
 
80
55
 
 
3.2
 
 
70
43
 
 
4.4
 
 
57
34
 
 
4.3
 
 
46
25
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[7]

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Shawneetown have ranged from a low of 21 °F (−6 °C) in January to a high of 87 °F (31 °C) in July, although a record low of −22 °F (−30 °C) was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F (40 °C) was recorded in August 2007. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.22 inches (82 mm) in October to 5.02 inches (128 mm) in May.[7]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Government[edit]

Gallatin County government is led by a five-member county board. In addition, the county is divided into ten townships.

Politics[edit]

Presidential Elections Results[8]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 71.7% 1,942 24.3% 657 4.0% 108
2012 58.0% 1,492 40.0% 1,029 2.0% 52
2008 42.2% 1,212 55.3% 1,587 2.5% 73
2004 50.2% 1,619 48.8% 1,573 1.0% 33
2000 44.7% 1,591 52.8% 1,878 2.5% 89
1996 24.4% 856 60.2% 2,113 15.5% 544
1992 25.1% 990 60.1% 2,371 14.8% 583
1988 38.9% 1,580 60.4% 2,455 0.7% 28
1984 47.2% 1,939 52.6% 2,164 0.2% 9
1980 49.1% 1,700 48.4% 1,678 2.5% 88
1976 36.4% 1,499 63.3% 2,611 0.3% 13
1972 53.7% 2,148 46.1% 1,844 0.2% 9
1968 43.0% 1,802 47.3% 1,980 9.7% 408
1964 32.9% 1,394 67.1% 2,845
1960 47.7% 2,179 52.2% 2,386 0.1% 5
1956 49.4% 2,179 50.5% 2,230 0.1% 6
1952 51.6% 2,300 48.3% 2,153 0.2% 8
1948 42.6% 1,789 56.8% 2,385 0.6% 26
1944 48.3% 2,073 50.6% 2,175 1.1% 47
1940 43.7% 2,588 55.5% 3,293 0.8% 48
1936 34.7% 2,004 64.1% 3,701 1.2% 69
1932 26.6% 1,279 72.1% 3,469 1.4% 65
1928 45.8% 2,002 53.6% 2,343 0.6% 28
1924 39.2% 1,792 52.1% 2,385 8.7% 399
1920 49.9% 2,184 45.7% 2,000 4.3% 189
1916 39.0% 1,985 57.4% 2,920 3.6% 181
1912 33.8% 1,051 54.6% 1,697 11.7% 363
1908 41.8% 1,411 54.6% 1,845 3.6% 122
1904 44.7% 1,401 49.1% 1,540 6.2% 193
1900 40.9% 1,432 57.3% 2,004 1.8% 62
1896 41.0% 1,468 57.8% 2,067 1.2% 44
1892 38.4% 1,211 53.0% 1,675 8.6% 272

As the most “Southern” of all Illinois counties, Gallatin County was hostile to the “YankeeCivil War. It consequently became solidly Democratic for the next century and a third, voting Republican only in the GOP landslides of 1920, 1952, 1972 and 1980. Even in those four elections no Republican candidate received more than Richard Nixon’s 53.7 percent in his 3,000-plus-county 1972 triumph.

Since 2000, Gallatin County has followed the same political trajectory as Tennessee, Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia and Appalachian regions of adjacent states, whereby the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues have produced dramatic swings to the Republican Party amongst its almost entirely Southern white population.[9] Over the five elections from 2000 to 2016, Gallatin County has seen a swing of 84 percentage points to the Republican Party – an average of 17 percentage points per election – so that Hillary Clinton’s 24.3 percent vote share in 2016 is barely half the worst Democrat percentage from before 2010.

Demographics[edit]

2000 census age pyramid for Gallatin County
Historical population
Census Pop.
1820 3,155
1830 7,405 134.7%
1840 10,760 45.3%
1850 5,448 −49.4%
1860 8,055 47.9%
1870 11,134 38.2%
1880 12,861 15.5%
1890 14,935 16.1%
1900 15,836 6.0%
1910 14,628 −7.6%
1920 12,856 −12.1%
1930 10,091 −21.5%
1940 11,414 13.1%
1950 9,818 −14.0%
1960 7,638 −22.2%
1970 7,418 −2.9%
1980 7,590 2.3%
1990 6,909 −9.0%
2000 6,445 −6.7%
2010 5,589 −13.3%
Est. 2016 5,212 [10] −6.7%
U.S. Decennial Census[11]
1790-1960[12] 1900-1990[13]
1990-2000[14] 2010-2013[1]

2010[edit]

Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:

2000[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,589 people, 2,403 households, and 1,556 families residing in the county.[15] The population density was 17.3 inhabitants per square mile (6.7/km2). There were 2,746 housing units at an average density of 8.5 per square mile (3.3/km2).[6] The racial makeup of the county was 97.9% white, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population.[15] In terms of ancestry, 23.6% were German, 22.9% were Irish, 10.7% were English, and 7.0% were American.[16]

Of the 2,403 households, 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families, and 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 44.4 years.[15]

The median income for a household in the county was $38,003 and the median income for a family was $48,892. Males had a median income of $38,801 versus $22,425 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,537. About 12.4% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over.[17]

Communities[edit]

City[edit]

Villages[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Townships[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ Jon Musgrave. 2004, Rev. ed. 2005. Slaves, Salt, Sex & Mr. Crenshaw: The Real Story of the Old Slave House and America's Reverse Underground Railroad. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 57-65.
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 133. 
  5. ^ White, Jesse. Origin and Evolution of Illinois Counties. State of Illinois, March 2010. [1]
  6. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-11. 
  7. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Shawneetown, Illinois". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  8. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS
  9. ^ Cohn, Nate; ‘Demographic Shift: Southern Whites’ Loyalty to G.O.P. Nearing That of Blacks to Democrats’, New York Times, April 24, 2014
  10. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  11. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-11. 
  16. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-11. 
  17. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-11. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 37°46′N 88°14′W / 37.76°N 88.23°W / 37.76; -88.23