Gallo-Romance languages

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France, Northern Italy, San Marino, Monaco, Channel Islands, parts of Belgium and Switzerland
Linguistic classification: Indo-European
Glottolog: nort3208[1]
Historical area of development for strict Gallo-Romance (Oïl languages and Arpitan).

The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes French and the languages of northern Italy.[2][3][4] Based on mutual intelligibility, David Dalby counts seven languages: Gallo-Wallon, French, Franco-Provençal (Arpitan), Romansh, Ladin, Friulian, and Lombard.[5]


The Gallo-Romance group includes:

The Gallo-Romance group can include:

Occitano-Romance can be classified as Gallo-Romance, Iberian Romance, or as a branch of the Western Romance languages.

Traditional geographical extension[edit]

Historically, various Gallo-Romance languages were spoken in the North of France, parts of Flanders, Alsace and part of Lorraine; the Wallonia region of Belgium, the Channel Islands, Switzerland, and northern Italy.

Today, a single Gallo-Romance language (French) dominates much of this geographic region (including the formerly non-Romance areas of France), and has also spread overseas.

General characteristics[edit]

See the Romance languages article for a description of the characteristics of Gallo-Romance.


  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Northwestern Shifted Romance". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Charles Camproux, Les langues romanes, PUF 1974. p. 77–78.
  3. ^ Pierre Bec, La langue occitane, éditions PUF, Paris, 1963. p. 49–50.
  4. ^ G.B. Pellegrini, "Il cisalpino ed il retoromanzo, 1993". See also "The Dialects of Italy, edited by Maiden & Parry, 1997
  5. ^ David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world’s languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.[1]