Gallo pinto

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Gallo pinto
CRI 07 2018 0120.jpg
Gallo pinto, served at breakfast with fried eggs, plantain, bacon, avocado, a corn tortilla and sour cream
CourseBreakfast and Dinner
Place of originNicaragua
Region or stateCentral America
Serving temperatureHot
Main ingredientsRice, Beans
VariationsRegional variations

Gallo pinto or gallopinto[1] is a traditional dish of Costa Rica and Nicaragua, consisting of rice and beans as a base. Gallo pinto has a long history and is important to various Latin American cultures. The beans in gallo pinto are quickly cooked until the juice is almost consumed, then combined with readied rice, and other ingredients such as cooked bell peppers, chopped onions, and garlic. Salza Lizano, a sauce created in Costa Rica, is commonly included for a more flavorful finish.

The history of gallo pinto is found in both Costa Rica and Nicaragua, where the dish originated.[2][3][4] One theory suggests that gallo pinto was brought into Latin America by African slaves.[5]

Etymology[edit]

Gallo pinto means "spotted rooster" in Spanish. The name is said to originate in the multi-colored or speckled appearance that results from cooking the rice. It is called pinto by Costa Ricans.


History[edit]

Gallo pinto is one of many various Latin American plates which involve the preparation of the most integral ingredients for many cultures: rice and beans. Gallo pinto is considered to be a product of metizos; a combination of beans, cultivated by Indigenous people of pre-Colombian time, and rice, a grain introduced by the Spanish. The cooking and preparation is heavily influenced by African cooking.[5][6]

Rice, originally from Asia, was introduced by Arabs in Spain and became a main but versatile ingredients in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. With the Spanish conquest of the Americas, the Spanish introduced rice quickly to Mexico and South America. It is suggested that within the eighteenth century, the cultivation of rice became relevant to Central America. Asian rice was cultivated by Africans in the neolithic period, and with their arrival to the Americas as slaves by Europeans, they were already accustomed to eating rice. This occurred as well with beans, which were cultivated centuries prior. On their travels to America, slaves were given bowls and a wooden spoon from which they ate twice a day. They ate primarily beans and European or African rice, along with maize, yams, cassava and sponge cake. [7][8]

As Africans were forced to settle in the continent, various forms of rice and beans began to take form. Because the Americas had many types of beans cultivated by Indigenous people, combined with rice, gave rise to a range of dishes.[8]

Variations[edit]

In the Americas, there is a large and extensive amount of dishes with a base of beans and rice, which vary in their cooking and additional ingredients. Variations exists regionally, as cultures shape the dishes to their own preferences. In countries near or in the Caribbean, these dishes are simply known as rice and beans, in which the dish is cooked in coconut milk. Variations of gallo pinto are the following:

  • Cuba: There are two main variations:
    • Moros y cristianos: also known as moros, it is made with black beans. If made with red beans, it would be considered congris.
    • Congris: made with red beans, its preparation is different from that of gallo pinto, since the beans are cooked first with onion, green chili, garlic, tomato, bay leaf, touch of cumin and oregano, salt, and dry wine, then before they soften completely, add the raw rice, letting them cook together, until they consume the broth and the rice is dry and loose. The beans are also prepared in their broth with the rice separate.
  • Dominican Republic: moro; made with pigeon beans, similar to Panama and Puerto Rico dishes
  • El Salvador: casamiento; despite not having a Caribbean coast, this dish is very typical in El Salvador.;
  • Guatemala: casado; regionally known as gallo pinto and rice and beans
    • On the Caribbean coast and parts of eastern or eastern Guatemala (Izabal): it is known as rice and beans and it includes coconut milk.
  • Honduras: casamiento
    • Caribbean coast: rice and beans
  • Mexico: pispiote, rice and beans
  • Nicaragua: gallo pinto; made mainly with red beans. In addition, vegetable oil is used for cooking (includes onions). It should be added that in the Nicaraguan Caribbean Coast, as in other countries, it is called "rice and beans" (rice and beans) and is made with coconut milk. The Gallo Pinto can be eaten in Nicaragua at any time and is the main companion of the different dishes sold in a fritanga (food stall).
  • Panama: gallopinto
    • Caribbean coast (Colón, Bocas del Toro): known as rice and beans, and prepared with coconut milk, like in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.
  • Puerto Rico: arroz con habichuelas; made with pigeon beans, like in Panama and the Dominican Republic
  • Venezuela: pabellón criollo; Made with rice, beans or refried black beans and well seasoned shredded beef, all surrounded by slices of ripe fried plantain. When the slices are omitted, the dish is simply called "arroz con caraotas" (colloquially known as "poor man's lunch" since it is more common in low-income families).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Royal Spanish Academy y Association of Academies of the Spanish Language (2014). «gallopinto». Diccionario de la lengua española (23.ª edición). Madrid: Spain. ISBN 978-84-670-4189-7. Consulted October 19 2018.
  2. ^ "Nicaragua Actual -- El Gallo Pinto" (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  3. ^ "CBN -- 'De quien es el gallo pinto?'" (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 February 2012. (the first three minutes of the video are about gallo pinto)
  4. ^ "Dennis Meléndez H. -- El gallo pinto..." (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Ambassade Costa Rica -- Gastronomía costarricense" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  6. ^ Ross, 2001, p. 64
  7. ^ Ross, 2001, p. 62
  8. ^ a b Ross, 2001, p. 63