|Region||Gallura, northeastern Sardinia|
|Regulated by||No official regulation|
Languages and dialects of Sardinia
Gallurese (gadduresu) is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance idiom spoken in the region of Gallura, in the northeastern part of Sardinia. It is often considered a dialect of Corsican, or even a transitional variety between Corsican and Sardinian.
Gallurese's grammatical structure, pronunciation, and vocabulary are close to those of Corsican, in particular with the southern dialects of Sartene and Porto-Vecchio. A substantial part of Gallurese vocabulary is also shared with the Logudorese variety of Sardinian.
Typical constitutional elements of Gallurese
- the plural form of nouns in -i (ghjanni or polti 'doors') like in Corsican and Italian, and not in -s like in Sardinian (jannas, portas), French, Spanish, Catalan, etc.
- Latin 'll' has become -dd- (like casteddu, beddu 'castle', 'beautiful'), the same as in Sardinian, southern Corsican and Sicilian (but castellu, bellu in northern Corsican);
- -r- modified to -l- (poltu 'port', while portu in Corsican and Sardinian);
- -chj- and -ghj- sounds (ghjesgia 'church', occhji 'eyes'), like in Corsican, while Sardinian is cresia, ogros.
- articles lu, la, li, like in former Corsican dialects (u, a, i in modern Corsican, su, sa, sos, sas in Sardinian);
Relation to Corsican
Gallurese is classified by some linguists as a dialect of Corsican, and by others as a dialect of Sardinian. In any case, a great deal of similarity exists between Southern Corsican dialects and Gallurese, while there is relatively more distance from the neighbouring Sardinian varieties.
Sample of text
|Gallurese||Southern Corsican||Logudorese Sardinian||Standard Italian||English translation|
Tu sei nata par incantu
Sei bedda chi dugna cori
E socu vecchju canutu
Cantu campu decu fà
La Patrona di Gaddura
Tu sè nata par incantu
Sè bedda chi ugna cori
E socu vecchju canutu
Quantu campu devu fà
A' Patrona di Gaddura
Tue ses naschida pro incantu
Ses bella gai chi donzi coro
E seo betzu e canu
Pro cantu bivo appo a depper fàghere
Sa patrona de Gallura
Tu sei nata per incanto
Sei tanto bella che ogni cuore
Io sono vecchio e canuto
Quanto campi devo fare
La patrona di Gallura
You were born from bliss
You are so pretty that each heart
I am old and bald
No matter how long should I walk
The Patron of Gallura
The most ancient literary sources in Gallurese date back to the early 17th century, mainly as poetry and religious odes. Some late Middle Age fragments suggest that the formation of the language could be dated to the early 15th century. The origin and the development of Gallurese are debated. Max Leopold Wagner and Maurice Le Lannou argued that successive migration waves from Southern Corsica, promoted under the Aragonese rule to repopulate an area devastated by famine an pandemies, were crucial in the formation of a slightly hybridized version of Corsican.
- Gallurese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Gallurese Sardinian". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Blasco Ferrer 1984: 180–186, 200
- Contini 1987: 1°, 500–503
- Dettori 2002
- Loporcaro 2009: 159–167
- Autonomous Region of Sardinia (1997-10-15). "Legge Regionale 15 ottobre 1997, n. 26" (in Italian). pp. Art. 2, paragraph 4. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Accademia della lingua gallurese".
- Walther von WARTBURG "La fragmentation linguistique de la Romania", Paris, Librairie C. Klincksieck, 1967.