Languages and dialects of Sardinia
Gallurese (gadduresu) is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance lect spoken in the region of Gallura, in the northeastern part of Sardinia. It is often considered a dialect of southern Corsican, or even a transitional language between Corsican and Sardinian.
Gallurese's morphology and vocabulary are close to those of southern Corsican, in particular with the dialects of Sartene and Porto-Vecchio, whereas its phonology and syntax are similar to those of Sardinian. One third of Gallurese vocabulary is also influenced by Logudorese Sardinian, Catalan, and Spanish.
The most ancient literary sources in Gallurese date back to the early 17th century, mainly as poetry and religious odes. Some late Middle Age fragments suggest that the formation of the language could be dated to the early 15th century. The origin and the development of Gallurese are debated. Max Leopold Wagner and Maurice Le Lannou argued that successive migration waves from Southern Corsica, promoted under the Aragonese rule to repopulate an area devastated by famine and pandemics, were crucial in the formation of a transitional language.
Typical constitutional elements of Gallurese
- the plural form of nouns in -i (ghjanni or polti 'doors') are like in Corsican and Italian, and not as in -s like in Sardinian (jannas, portas), French, Spanish, Catalan, etc.
- Latin 'll' has become -dd- (like casteddu, coraddu 'castle', 'coral'), the same as in Sardinian, southern Corsican and Sicilian (but castellu, corallu in northern Corsican);
- -r- modified to -l- (poltu 'port', while portu in Corsican and Sardinian);
- -chj- and -ghj- sounds (ghjesgia 'church', occhji 'eyes'), like in Corsican, while Sardinian is cresia, ogros.
- articles lu, la, li, like in ancient Corsican dialects (u, a, i in modern Corsican, su, sa, sos, sas in Sardinian);
Relation to Corsican
Gallurese is classified by some linguists as a dialect of Corsican, and by others as a dialect of Sardinian. In any case, a great deal of similarity exists between Southern Corsican dialects and Gallurese, while there is relatively more distance from the neighbouring Sardinian varieties.
The Sardinian linguist Mauro Maxia so states in reference to such debate:
From a historical and geographic point of view, Gallurese might be classed either under Corsican or Sardinian, in light of its presence only in Sardinia for six-seven centuries. From a linguistic point of view, Gallurese might be defined as:
- Predominantly Corsican on a phono-morphological level;
- Predominantly Sardinian on a syntactic level;
- Predominantly Corsican on a lexical level, with a lot of Sardinian, Catalan, and Spanish words (circa 1/3 of the vocabulary).
Gallurese is less Corsican than many scholars make it out to be. What makes Gallurese a different language from Corsican, rather than one of its dialects, are many grammatical features, especially related to syntax, and the significant number of Sardinian, Catalan and Spanish loanwords. One can therefore claim that, from a grammatical and lexical point of view, Gallurese is a transitional language between Corsican and Sardinian.— Mauro Maxia, Seminar on the Gallurese language, Palau 2014
Sample of text
|Standard Italian||Southern Corsican||Gallurese||Sassarese||Logudorese Sardinian||English translation|
Tu sei nata per incanto
Sei tanto bella che ogni cuore
Io sono vecchio e canuto
Quanto campi devo fare
La patrona di Gallura
Tu sè nata par incantu
Sè bedda chì ugni cori
Ié socu vechju canutu
Quantu campu devu fà
A Patrona di Gaddura
Tu sei nata par incantu
Sei bedda chi dugna cori
E socu vecchju canutu
Cantu campu decu fà
La Patrona di Gaddura
Tu sei nadda pà incantu
Sei bedda chi dugna cori
E soggu vecciu canuddu
Cantu campu aggiu da fà
La Patrona di Gaddura
Tue ses naschida pro incantu
Ses bella gai chi dontzi coro
E soe betzu e pilicanu
Pro cantu bivo apo a fàghere
Sa patrona de Gallura
You were born of enchantment
You are so beautiful that every heart
I am old and grey
No matter how many fields I must till
The Patron of Gallura
- Gallurese at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gallurese Sardinian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Atti Convegno Lingua Gallurese, Palau 2014
- Blasco Ferrer 1984: 180–186, 200
- Contini 1987: 1°, 500–503
- Dettori 2002
- Loporcaro 2009: 159–167
- Autonomous Region of Sardinia (1997-10-15). "Legge Regionale 15 ottobre 1997, n. 26" (in Italian). pp. Art. 2, paragraph 4. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Accademia della lingua gallurese".
- Maxia, Mauro. Studi sardo-corsi: Dialettologia e storia della lingua tra le due isole. Accademia della Lingua Gallurese; Istituto di Filologia (2010).
- Elementi di grammatica gallurese, Antoninu Rubattu
- Von Wartburg, Walther. La fragmentation linguistique de la Romania. Paris, Librairie C. Klincksieck, 1967.